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bodies in this world as well as with a solemn promise of eternal to the trustee. If the ward were a woman, the warder could damnation in the next.

marry her to whom he pleased. For the purpose of making the Henry II. mended matters a bit when he came to the throne king's eldest son a knight, and for providing a dower for his in 1154, and by persevering in a wise policy strove to reduce to eldest daughter, custom required that all the king's tenants something like order the chaos into which society had fallen; should subscribe; and when the king went on a journey through but during the crusade which was led by Richard I. in 1190, any part of the country, his purveyors were in the habit of and especially during the king's captivity in Austria, selfishness taking for the royal use, cattle, provisions, horses, carts, and and wickedness in high places at home found scope for exercise, whatever else might be wanted. Though as a matter of pruand law became silent amid the din of arms, From the Lion- dence the feudal prince summoned the grand council of all his Hearted himself, peer and commoner were content to endure tenants if he wanted their advice, he was under no legal much; they saw in the fearless, generous, though Normanly obligation to summon them; and they might not meet unless cruel King, qualities which commanded their affections if not he did so. While it was not supposed that a feudal prince their judgments, and they bore with something like satisfaction could want money, seeing he had large demesne lands specially the continuous and heavy demands which he made upon their reserved to him, there was not any law forbidding him either to blood and treasure. But the Lion being dead was succeeded by ask for it or to take it from the tenants. one who had played the traitor against him during his lifetime, Now it is easy to see that all the above-named institutions who had all the ferocity and all the cruelty of his brother with were liable to great abuse; and as a matter of fact they were out one of his noble qualities, and who was already known to abused to an unbearable extent. Reliefs, wardship, purveyance, the people by the utter depravity of his life. Here is his por- the expensive military attendance, or the money commutation trait, drawn by one of our ablest historians : “ He stands before for it—all were made the means of screwing money or money's us polluted with meanness, cruelty, perjury, and murder; worth out of the people, and the Church, which held a great uniting with an ambition, which rushed through every crime to proportion of the land in the kingdom, was subject to spoliation the attainment of its object, a pusillanimity which often, at the as well as the lay tenants. All were tarred with the same sole appearance of opposition, sank into despondency. Arro brush. The sacred trust of guarding the infant orphan was gant in prosperity, abject in adversity, he neither conciliated sold for a fixed sum, and the purchaser of the trust got all he affection in the one, nor excited esteem in the other.” Nor was could for his money out of the ward's estate ; men bought the this all. The man was the servant of a licentiousness which right to marry heiresses who were wards of the king, and the recognised no bounds. There was scarcely one family, even right was sold to the highest bidder, almost without reference among the nobles, that did not smart under a keen sense of that to personal qualifications. injury which no man pardons to another. The sin for which But this was not all. John gave that worst sign of an evil Lucretia suffered and which drove the kings from Rome, the government--the sale of justice. Henry II. had sold decrees, sin from the taint of which Virginius saved his daughter by but the nuisance culminated under John. On the roll of the killing her ;-that sin sat heavily on John's soul, and stirred to Exchequer are numerous entries of gifts, sometimes of money, their lowest depths the hearts of all England against him. sometimes of goods, in consideration of the king's influence to

From such an one the nation would endure nothing tamely, get a verdict. The judges also took bribes, and that in cases not even those acts which former kings had done, and which by where the Crown was concerned. prescription had almost obtained the semblance of law. The Lastly, there was the great grievance of the forest laws, barons were utterly enraged, the clergy were fixedly hostile, and those remote ancestors of our existing game laws. These laws, the people were suffering to that degree at which they sometimes made by the cruel Conqueror, who, says a Norman monk, turn and teach their wrongers “in some wild hour how much “loved the tall stags as if he had been their father,” made it a the wretched dare.” The king was quite unable to ride on the felony; punishable with loss of limb for an unauthorised person whirlwind he had brought about him, and everything was ready, to be found in a forest, and by the same law it was made a everybody was prepared, for a revolution. But one thing was capital offence to kill a stag. wanting to make the revolution successful. There was abun- If all these things were done in the green tree, what could dance of muscle, enough and to spare of disposition to kick have beon done in the dry? If the king so acted towards the against the tyrant, but there was not any one to gather the barons, prelates, abbots, and other chief tenants, how did these headstrong passions into a focus whence they might act with in their turn behave towards those under them? Badly, it is to effect upon the object of their wrath. The barons and those be feared, though they made the best recompense they could, under them—the wrongs the barons suffered at the king's under the dictation of Geist, by including them with themselves hands taught them sympathy with those who whilom suffered in the charter of liberties. With the wretched labourers, the wrong at their own-represented brute force as the untamed villeins—the poor slaves who “knew not in the evening what elephant represents it; they lacked the skilful guide who might they were to do in the morning, but they were bound to do gather up their strength and lead it to the goal they wished to whatever they were commanded,” who were liable to beating attain. They wanted Geist.*

and imprisonment at the will of their lord, who were incapable Before we ascertain whence Geist came, and the manner in of acquiring property, or of giving freedom to their childrenwhich it worked, let us see rather more particularly what it was we have not now anything to do. They, alas! benefited but the barons and the people suffered that was so intolerable. slightly by Magna Charta ; their time of emancipation had not

When the Conqueror obtained possession of the island, yet come. A.D. 1066, he gave the land to be divided among his followers Let us turn now to look at what Geist did to remedy, as as a reward for their services. The only condition he imposed regarded freemen, the wrongs from which they suffered. upon them-a very necessary one to a prince who was only in Stephen de Langton was an Englishman who had been promilitary possession of the country-was, that whenever sum- moted to the see of Canterbury by the Pope, in defiance and in moned they should attend him with so many men-at-arms, spite of the king. Before he gave John absolution, and took off archers, etc., according to the extent of their fees or holdings, the ban under which England had lain for the six years prior for six weeks at their own expense. This was the only strictly to 1213, he made the penitent swear to abolish all unjust feudal obligation; but custom added a number of other obliga practices, to do right, and to govern according to law; but a tions, which, though smaller, were more galling. If a baron short time afterwards, the barons having refused to follow the died, his heir had to pay a sum of money by way of “relief,” as king in an expedition to France, John turned his hired troops it was called, or a fee to induce the king to accept him in his loose on the barons' lands, and burned and pillaged right and father's stead; and if the heir were under age, the king had the left. Langton met him at Northampton, and again at Nottingwardship of him, an office which enabled the king to put into ham, and by threatening to excommunicate every one of his his own treasure the difference between the youth's income and followers, compelled him to desist. But Geist, in the shape of the cost of his keep and education, for though the situation was the Primate, knew that other means must be taken to prevent really one of trust, practically it was made the means of profit a repetition of violence. At a meeting of the barons in St.

Paul's Cathedral, London, Langton said he had discovered a * The meaning of the word Geist is hardly to be rendered by any

charter of liberties which Henry I. had granted when he was single equivalent in our language. It embodies the meaning of Brain, desirous of winning the support of the English against his Sense, Discretion, Intelligence, and Will,

brother Robert. He read the charter to them, and suggested

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to the men of war that they might so combine as to compel tho de Langton kept them up to their work, not permitting them king to enlarge and re-grant it. This was in August, 1213. to lag, but not suffering them to overbear. It was on the 15th In November of the following year the barons met again at of June, Friday, that the conference came to an end. In the Bnry St. Edmunds, Langton having in the meantime pre- royal tent sat John (Lackland as they called him), with some pared a draft of the demand that should be made upon the dozen attendants, whose hearts were not stout enough to oppose king. His were the brains, his the Geist, that marshalled the or to defend him; and round the table on which the Great warrior3, and pointed out to them the direction in which their Charter lay stood the mightiest of the peers, men whose names strength should be employed. The draft was read by the are worthily inscribed on Fame's eternal bead-roll. Langton archbishop from the steps of the high altar, and was received argued for them. He spoke their minds, and patiently did with rapturous applause; and Langton, striking while the iron he bear with all that was urged against him, for he knew the 793 hot, reminded the barons of all their wrongs, and swore them power which was ready to back up his case. Never did summer to keep steadfast to the cause even unto death, until they had sun shine on a more splendid sight than the meadow by Runnyobtained their wish ; "and at length it was agreed that after mede presented on this day in June, 1215. The king, after vainly the nativity of our Lord, they should come to the king in a trying to evade, to caress, and to intimidate, was forced to give body, to desire a confirmation of the liberties before-mentioned; in; the unbending firmness of Langton knew of no surrender and that in the meantime they were to provide themselves but the fullest. Not only did he insist upon and obtain the with horses and arms in the like manner, that if the king should king's signature to the grant, but he compelled the royal perchance break through that which he had specially sworn assent and there the shoe pinched dreadfully--to a clause (which they well believed), and recoil by reason of his duplicity, empowering certain barons to assume sovereign power in the they would instantly, by capturing his castles, compel him to event of the king failing to keep his oath. give them satisfaction."

Thus was won for Englishmen the Great Charter of Liberties, Fully armed and in great numbers, the barons waited on the which has been handed down with honest pride from generation king on the 6th of January, 1215, and presented their demands. to generation, and which stands out as the rock on which our John asked for time, and they gave him till Easter to think air-like freedom was founded, amid the sea of violence and about it. He employed the interval in attempts to break up selfishness which beat and broke on it in vain. the combination against him: he offered special privileges to the churchmen, got the Pope to write in his behalf, and tried

SYNOPSIS OF THE LIFE OF KING JOHN. to detach the leaders from their comrades. But the nobles reinained firm, and getting no reply to their demand by Easter,

John was the sixth and youngest son of Henry II. ; the met in arms at Stamford, and sent thence to John for his finai seventh King of England after the Conquest, and the third decision. " By God's teeth, I will not grant them liberties that of the Plantagenet dynasty. will make me a slave!” he screamed to Langton, who read over Born at Oxford. Dec. 24, 1168 | England under Papal Interdict1208-13 the clauses of the charter to him; but the Primate read on, Began to reign . May 27, 1199 Granted Magna Charta June 15, 1215 and when he had finished, John promised an answer speedily.

Lost Normandy

1204 | Died at Newark .. Oct. 18, 1216 None came, so the barons marched, and after getting possession

SOVEREIGNS CONTEMPORARY WITH JOHN. of several large towns, entered London on the 24th of May, 1215. Rendered despairful, and being almost alone, John sent to say

Denmark, Kings of. Germany, Emperors of. 1 Scotland, Kings of.

Philip.

1182 he would give what was asked. When and where should he Canute VI.

William.

1165 1208

Otho IV. meet the lords ?

Waldemar II, . 1207

1214 "Let the day be the 9th of June-the place

Alexander II.

Norway, Kings of. Runnymede," was the answer sent back. A postponement to

Sverre

1184 the 15th was agreed to, and on that day John, attended by a

Eastern Empire.

Spain, Kings of.

Haco IV. small retinue, met "the whole nobility of England,” and nego- Alexius III.. 1195 Haco V.. 1217 Alphonso IX. 1158 tiations were opened forthwith.

Isaac II..

1203
Portugal, Kings of.

Henry I.. 1214 No tricks, no lies, no subterfuges could now avail.

1204

Sancho I. 1185

1206 was absolutely in the hands of his indignant and determined Henry I..

Alfonso II. . 1212 Sweden, Kings of. loris, and he must agree to what they demanded, or take the

Romo, Popes of. Swerker II.. 1199 consequences. Why need the liberty of others make him a

France, King of
Innocent III. 1198 Eric II.

1210 slave? Is it that tyrants feel stifled when their fellow-men Philip Augustus 1180 Honorius III. . 1216 | John I.

1216 breathe ? Better every way that they should feel stifled than that the alternative should present itself. But what were the stifling restraints on the royal respiration? Let us see.

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-I. The Great Charter provided, first, “That the Church of Eng. land (not Rome, be it observed) shall be free, and have her

POSITION OF THE BODY, THE HAND, AND THE PEN. whole rights, and her liberties inviolable.” It then went on to Good handwriting is essential to almost all persons who have fis exactly the nature and extent of the feudal obligations, not to make their way in the world. Great stress is laid upon it only of the barons towards the king, but of the smaller holders in the examinations for all Government appointments; it is towards the barons; the liberties of cities and towns were required in every merchant's counting-house, in every office, in confirmed; the redress of existing grievances, such as the almost every shop. The boy who can write well obtains a situaemployment of foreign troops against Englishmen, arbitrary tion-however humble the situation may be-far more readily imprisonment without trial, the exaction of ruinous fines and than the boy whose “pot-hooks and hangers” are almost as the spoliation of wards and heiresses, was then assured ; and difficult to decipher as the cuneiform characters of ancient that power so sweet to despots, of arbitrary, irresponsible Nineveh. It is our purpose to devote a portion of our space punishment, was expressly renounced. But the grand clauses to “ Lessons in Penmanship.” Our efforts, at the outset, will which made the charter so truly great, and which are laws to be directed towards the instruction of those who have never this hour, are those which provided that no tax should be levied learned to write, and the improvement of those who write badly; but by order of “the general council of our kingdom ;" that and we shall follow these lessons by a series papers exhibiting the royal officers who acted illegally should be personally the different styles of handwriting required in Government responsible ; that the Court of Common Pleas should be in one offices, the merchant's counting-house, and the office of the fixed place, instead of following the king's person. The grandest solicitor, etc. etc., with instructions in German chirography clauses of all, however, are these

and the ordinary kinds of ornamental writing, especially the "No freeman shall be taken, or imprisoned, or disseised, or black letter, or German text, so necessary to the solicitor's outlawed, or banished, or any ways destroyed ; nor will we pass clerk in engrossing deeds and legal documents. upon him, nor will we condemn him, unless by the lawful With these preliminary remarks, we hope our students will judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land. We will sell to attend very carefully to our directions in endeavouring to no man, we will not deny to any man, either justice or right." acquire an elegant system of penmanship, as by this means,

For foor days the negotiations went on; the country between combined with constant practice, they will surely become Staines and Windsor was white with the tents of the iron-clad good writers. men, who had come to demand a charter of liberties. Stephen In the first place, you should sit right in front of the desk or

1202

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table at which you intend to write; then, placing your left arm kept upright, so that the top of the pen may point to the right on the table and your left hand on the edge of the book or ear when the hand is at the commencement of a line which you paper to hold it firm, if necessary, by pressure with the fingers, are about to write, and that as you move it along it must be take the pen in the right hand, and grasp it firmly, but not too kept parallel to this position throughout. It will assist you much so, between the thumb and the two fingers next to the very much in obtaining and keeping this position of the hand to thumb, that is, the forefinger and the midfinger, as shown in observe that the knuckle of the little finger and the knuckle or the accompanying representation of the hand with a pen in it. second joint of the thumb should both be kept always as near In this position, remember carefully that before you can draw as possible at the same distance from the paper, say about an a stroke, the point of the pen must be placed at the distance | inch and a half, while in the act of writing. It will also be of of about five-eighths or

the greatest advantage three-quarters of an inch

if, at the commencement from the tip of the mid

of a line in writing, you finger, with its face or

should have the elbow of open part downwards, and

the right hand pretty close not leaning to ore side or

to your right side, and as other; the pen must also

you move the hand along be placed alongside of

the line, in writing, to the nail of the midfinger,

preserve the arm parallel not on the nail itself, but

to this position as well as on the fleshy part of the

the pen to its first posifinger close by it. The

tion; in fact, if you do upper part of the pen

the one correctly you will must likewise be raised

necessarily do the other, above the knuckle of the

unless you choose to twist fore-finger, as seen in the

the wrist, which would be figure of the hand, so that

equally painful, absurd, a thin paper-folder might

and unnecessary. pass a little way between

As to the position of this part of the pen and

the head and shoulders, the knuckle. It is of essen

stoop as little as pos. tial importance to observe POSITION OF THE HAND WHEN HOLDING THE PEN.

sible; a gentle inclination this part of the directions

of the head is all that as well as the preceding,

is necessary in general, in because for want of attention to these apparently trifling minutiæ, order that you may observe earnestly and accurately the motion or small matters, many bad writers have arisen, and some of of the hand and the formation of the letters. In near-sighted them even teachers, who ought to know better what they are persons a greater inclination of the head is required than in engaged in. For it stands to reason, and any one may prove it ordinary cases; but in all cases whatsoever this rule is absoto himself by a few trials, that if the pen be allowed to fall lutely essential, to keep the chest entirely free of pressure on the below the knuckle, there is an instant loss of power, and of all table or desk at which you write; if once you acquire a habit real command over the pen.

of leaning on the table, or lolling upon it with your chest or Another direction of equal importance with any of those we stomach, you need never expect to be a good writer. We have now given, is the position of the thumb; this you bend out believe that many pupils have been seriously injured in their wards from the pen so as to cause the tip or fleshy part of the health by the practice or habit of leaning upon the chest point of the thumb to rest upon the pen directly opposite the first while learning to write, and that such injury has followed joint of the forefinger, as shown in the figure of the hand. This them through life. What can be more absurd than to see a completes the directions for the position of the three fingers boy or girl sprawling on a table or desk with their arms which hold the pen. Now let us attend to the other two akimbo, and their noses almost upon the paper imitating the fingers. One of these, the little finger, must be held so as to motion of the pen ? What more foolish or disagreeable than to touch the paper on which you intend to write, just on the tip of see every stroke of the pen imitated by the mouth or the it, close by the side of the nail, while the hand itself is made to tongue, as if the writer was approaching a state of idiocy? rest upon its heel, that is, close by the wrist, not pressing Let every student of penmanship sit erect while writing, and let heavily, but as lightly as possible. In fact, the pressure on the him only stoop his head with a gentle inclination, as we said tip of the finger should be light also, so that in writing the before, sufficient to enable him to see clearly what he is doing, heel of the hand shonld assist the tip of the little finger, and and to produce such a specimen of writing as will do credit to the tip of the little finger assist the reel of the hand, by his care, attention, and ingenuity. With all these directionsmutually bearing the weight of the hand. : nd acting alternately and we have not spared them—you will require both time and

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as momentary fulorums or resting-points, while the hand moves perseverance, and constant practice, either to learn the art of forward, making one stroke or letter after another. The other writing from the commencement, or to correct and improve the finger, next the little finger, usually called the ring finger, system you have already acquired. But perseverance, practice, because ladies wear their rings upon it, is the most difficult to and determination will do all that you require; and you will dispose of, but it must be done. Endeavour, then, to give it an soon reap a rich reward for all your care, attention, and earnest elegant curvilinear form, something in the shape of part of a application. ring itself, so that it may lie passively between the midfinger That those of our readers who are anxious to commence and the little finger without interfering with their movements ; teaching themselves the art of writing may lose no time in it should be considerably within the little finger, and its first joint making a beginning, we have given a copy slip, in which is should rest very nearly upon the first joint of the little finger, in shown the first stroke that demands the attention of the writer. a crossing position. This completes the directions for the position | It is a down stroke, commonly called a pothook, square at the of the little finger and the ring finger. Lastly, as to the position top, and brought down with an equal or uniform pressure of of the whole hand, you must carefully observe that while resting the pen, until it begins to a hair line, which is turned at the upon the heel of the hand and on the little finger, it must be bottom and carried upwards to the right.

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LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-I.

Thus 17| 9 413 / would denote seven thousands, nine

hundreds, four tens, and three ones; or, as it would be The term Arithmetic, which is derived from the Greek verb expressed, seven thousand, nine hundred, and forty-three. zpidues (pronounced a-rith-me-o), to count, is properly applied to Similarly, 1 8310 5 417 / would denote eight times a the science of Numbers, and the art of performing calculations hundred thousand, three times ten thousand, no thousands, five by them, and investigating their relations. To & certain extent, hundreds, four tens, and seven ones; or, as it would be more this science must have been coeval with the history of man. briefly expressed, eight hundred and thirty thousand, five hunAs an art, arithmetic is indispensable in daily business; and dred and forty-seven. the man who is best acquainted with its practical details has We need not, however, draw the columns: it will be the same always the preference in every mercantile establishment. Our thing if we imagine them, and, instead of columns, talk of object in these lessons shall be twofold—to develop its principles figures being in the first, second, third, fourth places, etc. as a science, and to show the application of its rules as an art. The symbol 0 put in any place, as already indicated in the For this purpose, it will be necessary to begin with the first previous example, denotes that the number corresponding to the principles of Numeration and Notation, and to give such rules particular column or place in which it stands is not to be taken as will enable any one to read and write a given number at all: the 0 only fills up the place—thus, however, answering correctly.

the important purpose of increasing the figure after which it NOTATION AND NUMERATION.

stands tenfold. 1. Any single thing as for instance, a pen, a sheep, a house

Thus, 10 means that once ten and no units are taken-i.e., it --is called a unit: we say there is one such thing. If denotes the number ten ; 100 means that once a hundred but another single thing of the same kind be put with it, there are

no tens and no units are taken-i.e., it denotes the number a said to be two such things; if another, three; if another, four; hundred ; 5001 means that five thousands, no hundreds, no tens, if another, five; and so on.

and one unit, are taken, or, as it would be more briefly exEach of these collections of things of which we have spoken pressed, five thousand and one. is a number of things; and the terms one, two, three, four, five,

4. Before proceeding further, we will give the names of the etc., by which we expross how many single things or units are

successive numbers :under consideration, are the names of numbers. A number Ten

Nineteen... therefore is a collection of units. This is also sometimes called Eleven

Twenty an integer, or whole number,

Twelve

12

Thirty It will be seen that the idea of number is quite independent

Thirteen

Forty
Fourteen...

Fifty of the particular kind of units, a collection of which is counted.

Fifteen

Sixty Thus, if there are four pigs, the number of pigs is the same as

Sixteen

Seventy

70 if there were four pens. We can thus abstract a number from

Seventeen

Eighty any particular unit or thing, and talk of the number four, the Eighteen...

Ninety number five, etc. Numbers thus abstracted from their reference to any particular unit or thing are called abstract numbers. Hundred (ten times ten)...

100

Thousand (ten hundreds) When a collection of things or objects is indicated, it is called

1000 a concrete number.

Million (a thousand thousands).

1000000,000000 We shall treat first of abstract numbers.

Billion* (a million millions)
Trillion (a million billions)

1000000,000000,000000. 2. The art of expressing numbers by symbols, or figures, is called Notation.

The numbers between twenty and thirty are expressed thus: In the system of notation which we are about to explain, all twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, etc., up to twenty-nine, numbers can be expressed by means of ten symbols (figures, or to which succeeds thirty; and similarly between any other two digits,* as they are called), representing respectively the first of the names above given, from twenty up to a hundred: thus, nine numbers, and nothing, i.e., the absence of number. These 95 is called ninety-five.

After one hundred, numbers are denoted in words, by men. 1 representing the number one 6 representing the number six tioning the separate numbers of units, tens, hundreds, thousands,

7

seven etc., of which they are made up. For example, 134 is one three 8

eight hundred and thirty-four; 5,342 is five thousand three hundred four

nine and forty-two; 92,547 is ninety-two thousand five hundred and 5

five

O called a nought, a cipher, or zero. forty-seven ; 84,319,652 is eighty-four millions, three hundred N.B.—Ten times ten is called one hundred; ten times a

and nineteen thousand, six hundred and fifty-two. kundred, a thousand.

5. It is useful, in reading off into words a number expressed 3. Numbers are represented by giving to the figures employed in figures, to divide the figures into periods of three, commencing what is called a local value-.e., a value depending upon the on the right, as the following example will indicate :positions in which they are placed.

Billions. Thousands of Millions. Millions. Thousands. Units. Let a number of columns be drawn as below, that being called

234

826

479 the first which is on the right, and reckoning the order of the columns from right to left.

Thus the figures 561,234,826,479,365 would denote five hundred
and sixty-one billions, two hundred and thirty-four thousand
eight hundred and twenty-six millions, four hundred and seventy-
nine thousand, three hundred and sixty-five.

We have then the following
Rule for reading numbers which are expressed in figures :-

Divide them into periods of three figures each, beginning at the right hand; then, commencing at the left hand, read the figures of each period in the same manner as those of the right

hand period are read, and at the end of each period pronounce 1

its name.

The art of indicating by words numbers expressed by figures If a figure_5, for instance-be placed in the first column, it

is called Numeration. denotes five units, or the number five; if it be placed in the second column, it denotes five tens; if in the third, five hun

EXERCISE 1. dreds; if in the fourth, five thousands; if in the fifth, five times ten thousand; and so on, each column corresponding to a Write down in figures the numbers named in the following number ten times as great as the one immediately on its right.

exercises :

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* In the foreign system of numeration a thousand millions is called & billion, a thousand billions a trillion, and so on,

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1. Thirty-four.

8. Two millions, sixty-three Latin--namely, suggestion, continue, progress, numerous, erem2. Four hundred and seven.

thousand and eight.

plification, assertion, proportion, language, Latin, origin. Of 3. Two thousand one hundred 9. Eleven thousand eleven hun. the thirty-nire words of which the sentence consists, ten are and nine.

dren and eleven. 4. Twenty thousand and fifty- 10. Fourteen millions and fifty with the science of philology, or the science of languages, he

from the

Latin. Should the reader ever possess an acquaintance seven.

six. 5. Fifty-five thousand and three. 11. Four hundred and forty mil- will know that in the sentence there are other words which are 6. One hundred and five thousand lions and seventy-two.

found in the Latin as well as in other ancient languages. Indeand ten.

12. Six billions, six inillions, six pendently of this, he now learns that about one-fourth of our 7. Seven hundred and ten thou

thousand and six.

English words have come to us from the people who spoke sand three hundred

and 13. Ninety - six trillions, seven Latin–that is, the Romans and other nations of Italy. In one.

hundred billions and one. reality, the proportion of Latin words in the English language EXERCISE 2.

is very much greater. It should be observed, too, that these Read off into words the numbers which occur in the following Latin words in the sentence are the long and the hard words,

and what perhaps may be called “ dictionary words." These exercises

are the very words which give trouble in reading an English 1. 3506 8. 2021305 15. 400031256

classic, or first-rate author. But they give a person who knows 2. 6034 9. 4506580 16. 967058713

Latin no trouble. With him they are as easy to understand as 3. 90621 10. 1610030

17. 20830720000 4. 73040

any common Saxon term, such as father, house, tree. The reason 11. 70900038

18. 8503467039 5. 450302 12. 12604321

19. 450670412468

why they have long ceased to give him trouble is, that he is 6. 603260 13, 70003000

20. 58967324104325

familiar with their roots, or the elements of which they each 7. 130070 14, 161010602

21. 42008120537062035 consist. Having this familiarity, he has no occasion to consult

the dictionary. There are thousands of English words of Latin

origin, the meaning of which he knows, though he has never LESSONS IN LATIN.-I.

looked them out in a dictionary. These lessons will help to put

the reader into a similar position; and although he may have INTRODUCTION.

no aid but such as these pages afford him, we do not despair of In giving to the readers of the POPULAR EDUCATOR lessons success in our attempt. which may enable them to learn the Latin language, with no other resources than such as may be supplied by their own care

PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN. and diligence, we take it for granted that they are desirous of We may practically regard the Latin alphabet as the same as acquiring the necessary skill, and willing to bestow the necessary the English ; and in the pronunciation, too, wo may in the main labour. If the study were not recommended as a good mental follow the best English usage, remembering always that every discipline ; if it were not recommended as giving a key to some vowel is pronounced in Latin, and that some words which in of the finest treasures of literature ; if it were not recommended English would be words of one syllable, are words of two syllaas a means of leading us into communion with such minds as bles in Latin, owing to the distinct pronunciation of every those of Cicero, Virgil, Horace, Livy, and Tacitus, it would have vowel. Thus the word mare in English, the feminine of horse, a sufficient claim on our attention, as greatly conducing to a is pronounced ma-re in Latin, just as we pronounce the English full and accurate acquaintance with our mother-tongue--the name Mary, and means the sea. The Latin language, in short, English. The English language is, for the most part, made up has no silent e as we have in English. of two elements—the Saxon element and the Latin element. Every modern nation pronounces the Latin as it pronounces Without a knowledge of both these elements, we cannot be its own tongue. Thus there are divers methods of pronunciation. said to know English. If we are familiar with both these This diversity would be inconvenient if the Latin were, like the elements, we possess means of knowing and writing English, French, a general medium of verbal intercourse. At one time superior to the means which aro possessed by many who have it was so, and then there prevailed one recognised manner of received what is called a classical education, and have spent pronunciation. Now, however, for the most part, Latin is read, years in learned universities. In order to be in possession of not spoken. Consequently the pronunciation is not a matter of both these elements, we should, for the Saxon element, study consequence. Even in our own country there are diversities, German; for the Latin element, the lessons which ensue will but such diversities are secondary matters. To one or two suffice.

remarks, however, we should carefully attend. In Latin the In the instructions which we are to give, we shall suppose vowels are what is called long or short. In other words, on ourselves addressing a reader who, besides some general ac- some the accent or stress of the voice is thrown, on others it quaintance with his mother tongue, has acquired from the is not thrown. The vowel a, for instance, is mostly long; the English lessons in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, or from some other vowel i is mostly short. A long vowel is said to be equal to source, a knowledge of the ordinary terms of English grammar, two short vowels. We English people, however, have no other such as singular, plural, noun, adjective, verb, adverb, eto. The way of marking a long vowel, except by throwing on it the meaning of such words we shall not explain. But everything accent or stress of the voice. It is also a fact that in Latin the peculiar as between the English and the Latin shall be explained, same vowel is sometimes short and sometimes long-in other as well as any grammatical term which, though used sometimes words, the same vowel sometimes has, and sometimes has not, in English grammar, the reader possibly may not understand. the accent on it: thus the i in dominus, a lord, is without the In these explanations we think it safer to err on the side of accent, while the i in doctrina, learning, has the accent: the superfluity rather than on the side of deficiency. We have said former, therefore, is pronounced thus, dóm-i-nus; the latter thus, that we shall suppose the reader to possess a general acquaint-doc-tri-na. Now observe that these words are trisyllables, or ance with the English language. But it is well to suspect words of three syllables. Of these three syllables the lastoneself as being probably acquainted with it but in an im- namely, us-is called the ultimate ; the second, in, is called the perfect manner. And this advice is given in the hope that it penult; the first, or dom, is called the antepenult. And the may lead to the constant use of a good English dictionary. In general rule for pronouncing Latin words is, that the accent is every case in which there is the least doubt whether or not thrown on the penult, or if not on the penult, then on the antethe exact meaning of any word used is known, the word should penult. In doctrina the accent is on the penult, or last syllable be looked out in a dictionary, and put down in a note-book to but one. In dóminus, the accent is on the antepenult, or last be kept for the purpose, with the meaning added. When there syllable but two. In order to indicate where to lay the stress are, say, a score of words thus entered in the note-book, they of the voice, we shall mark, as in dóminus and doctrina, on must be looked at again and again until their signification is which syllable the accent lies. It will then be understood impressed on the memory. If the reader listens to this sugges. that when we put a mark thus' over a vowel, we mean thereby tion, and continues to make progress, he will soon find nume- that the voice should rest, as it were, on that vowel. For rous exemplifications of the assertion above mado-namely, example, in the word incur, the accent falls on the last syllable, that a large proportion of the words of the English language for the stress of the voice is thrown on the syllable cur. This are of Latin origin. Take, for instance, the last sentence. In is indicated thus, incúr. So in the Latin amicus, a friend, that sentence alone the following words are derived from the ! the accent is on the i, and the word is to be pronounced

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