Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

Linotte, f., linnet.
Pigeon, m., pigeon.

Avons-nous plus de dix mètres de Have we more than ten metres (yards)
Merle, m.,
blackbird.
Poule, f., hen.

cette toile de Hollande ?

of this holland (linen of Holland). Oie, f., goose.

Poulet, m.,
chicken.

Vous en avez moins de six aunes. You have less than six ells of it, Oiseau de proie, m., bird of prey. Roitelet, m., uren.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Paon, m., peacock.

Rossignol, m., nightingale.
Passereau, m., sparrow.
Rouge-gorge, m., redbreast.

Il n'est pas encore deux heures. It is not yet tuo o'clock.
Perdrix, f., partridge.
Serin, m., canary-bird.
Est-il une heure et demie ?

Is it half-pust one?
Perroquet, m., parrot.
Tourterelle, f., lurtle-dove.

Il est midi et quart ou midi et demi. It is a quarter or half-past twelve,
Pie, f., magpie.
Vautour, m., vulture,

Il est huit heures moins un quart. It wants a quarter of eight.
Quel âge votre fils a-t-il ?

How old is your son ?
14. QUADRUPEDES.-QUADRUPEDS.

Il n'a que dix-huit ans.

He is only eighteen years old. Agneau, m., lamb.

Lièvre, m.,
hare.

Votre beau-frère n'a-t-il pas plus Is not your brother-in-law more than
Blaireau, m., badger.
Lion, m., lion.

de dix-neuf ans ?

nineteen years old? Castor, m., beaver. Loup, m., volf.

Ma belle seur n'a pas moins de My sister-in-law is not less than Cerf, m., stag. Mule, f., mule.

dix-huit ans et demi.

eighteen years and a half. Chamois, m., chamois, uild goat. Ours, m., bear.

Est-il plus de dix heures à votre Is it more than ten o'clock by you Chèvre, f., goat. Poulain, m., colt.

montre ?

watch? Chevreuil, m., roebuck. Pourceau, m., hog, swine.

Il n'est que neuf heures à ma It is only nine by my clock, Ecureuil, m., equirrel. Renard, m., fox.

pendule. Furet, m., ferret. Singe, m., monkey.

Votre fils est-il plus âgé que le Is your son older than mine? Hérisson, m., hedgchog. Taupe, f., mole.

mien ? Lapin, m., rabbit. Tigre, m., tiger.

Il est plus jeune que le votre. He is younger than yours.
15. POISSONS.-Fishes.

VOCABULARY.
Anguille, f., eel.
Merlan, m., whiting,

Âgé, -e, old.

Belle-sæur, 1., sister-in- | Jeune, young. Baleine, f., whale. Morue, f., codfish.

Aune, f., ell.

law.

Jour, m., day. Brochet, m., pike. Perche, f., perch. Beau-fils, son-in-law. Cela, that.

Maintenant, nou. Carpe, f., carp. Requin, m., shark.

Beau-frère, brother-in. Cinquante, fifty. Mars, m., March. Chevrette, f., shrimp. Saumon, m., salmon.

lau,

Cousin-germain, m., Métre, mn., yard.* Ecrevisse, f., crawfish. Sole, f., solo. Beau-père, father-in. first-cousin.

Mois, m., month. Esturgeon, m., sturgeon. Tanche, f., tench.

law.

Enfant, m.,

child. Pendule, f., clock. Hareng, m., herring. Tortue, f., turtle.

Belle-mère, mother-in. Février, m., February. Ruban, m., ribbon. Hareng saur, m., red herring. Truite, f., trout.

law,

Indienne, f., printed | Tard, late.
Homard, m.,
louster.

Turbot, m.,
turbot.

calico.
16. INSECTES, ETC.—INSECTS, ETC.

EXERCISE 33. Abeille, f., bee.

Lézard, m.,

lizard. Araignée, f., spider. Limaçon, m., snail.

1. Votre beau-frère est-il plus âgé que le mien ? 2. Le vôtre Chenille, f., caterpillar. Mouche, f., fly.

est plus jeune que le mien. 3. Quel âge a votre belle-mère ? 4. Cigale, f., grasshopper, Papillon, m., butterfly.

Elle a près de cinquante ans. 5. Quelle heure est-il maintenant? Couleuvre, f., adder, Puce, f., flea.

6. Il est six heures passées. 7. Etes-vons certain de cela? 8. Cousin, m., gnat. Punaise, f., bug.

Oui, Monsieur, j'en suis certain. 9. Est-il plus de deux heures Crapaud, m., toad. Sangsue, f., leech,

à votre montre ? 10. Il n'est quo midi à ma montre ? 11. Escarbot, m., beetle. Sauterelle, f., locust.

Avez-vous plus de cinq ans, mon enfant ? 12. Je n'ai pas Fourmi, f., ant.

Serpent, m., serpent.
Grenouille, f., frog.
Teigne, f., moth.

encore quatre ans. 13. Avez-vous plus de six mètres d'indienne? Grillon, m., cricket. Ver, m., vorm.

14. J'en ai moins de trois mètres. 15. Combien d'aunes do Guêpe, f., wasp. Vipère, f., viper.

ruban votre beau-père a-t-il ? 16. Il n'a guère de ruban, il n'en SECTION XIX.-THE VERBS AVOIR AND ETRE IN REFER.

a qu'une demi-aune. 17. Est-il midi moins un quart ? 18. Il ENCE TO THE TIME OF DAY, QUANTITY, ETC.

cst plus tard, Monsieur ; il est midi et quart. 19. Quel jour du 1. For the time of the day, the verb être is used unipersonally

mois avons-nous ? 20. Nous avons le six Octobre. 21. N'estin French, in the same manner as the verb to be is used in

ce pas le huit Février ? 22. Non, Madame, c'est le huit Mars.

24. Il n'en a English for the same object. The word heure, sing., heures, 23. Combien de jardins à votre cousin-germain ? pl., represents the English expressions o'clock, or time, and must qu'un, mais il est très-beau. 25. Il en a plus de dix. always be expressed.

EXERCISE 34.
Quelle heure est-il ?
What o'clock (time) is it?

1. How old is your brother-in-law ? 2. He is fifty years old. Il est une heure,

It is one o'clock. Il est dix heures,

3. Is your sister-in-law older than mine ? 4. No, Sir, my sisterIt is ten, it is ton o'clock.

in-law is younger than yours. 2. Midi is used for twelve o'clock in the day, and minuit for old ? 6. No, Madam, he is only sixteen. 7. What day of the

5. Is your son twenty-five years midnight, or twelve at night. Douze heures is never used except month is it (have we) to-day? 8. It is (we have) the eleventh. in the sense of twelve hours.

9. Have you the twentieth volume of Chateaubriand's works ? Est-il midi ? Est-il minuit ?

Is it noon? Is it midnight ? 10. No, Madam, we have the eleventh. 11. What o'clock is it, 3. Et quart, et demi [$ 84 (2)], answers to the English ex- Sir? 12. It is only twelve o'clock. 13. Is it not later ? 14. pressions a quarter, half-past, after, etc.

It wants a quarter of one. 15. It is a quarter after five. 16. Il est neuf heures et quart, It is a quarter afler nine.

How many yards of this holland (toile de Hollande, f.) have you? Il est midi et demi, It is half after twelve.

17. I have ten ells and a half. 18. I have six metres of it, and Il est un heure et demie, It is half after one.

sixteen yards of Italian silk. 19. Is your mother-in-law younger 4. Moins un quart, moins vingt minutes, answer to the English than your father-in-law. 20. She is younger than he. 21. Are expressions a quarter before, twenty minutes before, eto.

you twenty years old ? 22. No, Sir, I am only nineteen and a Il est dix heures moins un quart, It wants a quarter of ten.

half. 23. Are you sure (sûr) that it is ten o'clock ? 24. Yes, Il est neuf heures moins dix minutes, It is ten minutes before nine.

Madam, I am sure of it. 25. Is it twenty minutes of ten ? 5. The word demi, preceding the word heure, does not vary.

26. No, Sir, it is a quarter before twelve (midi). 27. How Placed after it, it is variable ($ 84 (2)].

many houses have you ? 28. I have only one, but my sister-in. law has two. 29. Have you mine (f.) or yours ?

30. I hare Une demi-heure,

Half an hour.
Une heure et demie,
An hour and a half.

neither yours nor mine, I have your son-in-law's. 31. Has your

mother-in-law five yards of that printed calico ? 32. She has 6. The verb avoir is used actively (8 43 (2) (3)] in French in only two yards of it. 33. What o'clock is it by (a) your watch? speaking of age, and the word an, year, is always expressed.

34. It is half-past four by my watch. 35. It is more than seven Quel âge avez-vous ?

How old are you ? i.e., What age o'clock by mine (à la mienne).

have you? J'ai plus de vingt ans. I am more than twenty.

• The French mètre is exactly 39.971 inches English measure; it is 7. Plus de, moins de, are used for more than, less than, before therefore longer than the English yard by about 3} inches, or moro a number :

accurately 3); inches.

[ocr errors]

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-X. by drawing or dragging," or the word hull, which means the

“frame or body of a ship,” the huge black mass that floats With the three copy-slips on this page the learner will finish upon the waters that sustain it, and from which rise the tapering the series of copies that is based on letters or combinations of masts and network of cordage that give grace and beauty to a letters formed of the bottom-turn, top-turn, top-and-bottom- vessel's form. It is unnecessary to mention more cases in which turn, and straight stroke. In our next lesson we shall give the confusion would arise from a want of proper attention to the relaself-teacher a new letter, which is in itself an elementary form tive proportion of the strokes of which letters are formed. The that enters into the composition of the majority of the letters reader can find out many for himself by altering the height or that he has yet to learn to write.

length of strokes above or below the lines that contain the body of If any of those who are endeavouring to acquire a knowledge the letters in any copy-slip that is either a combination of letters, of the art of Penmanship from our lessons will now take the or a word that conveys a distinct and special meaning of its own. trouble to glance over the thirty-four copy-slips that we have A clear and legible handwriting is what every man should placed before them, they will see by how gentle and easy a strive to attain, whatever may be his rank or station in life. gradation we have led them on from the first simple stroke, Many suppose that it is vulgar and commonplace to write a known as the bottom-turn, to words involving combinations of legible hand—that it shows good breeding to write such a all the four elementary strokes that have hitherto been brought scrawl that it is impossible for any one but an expert to decipher

[blocks in formation]

before their notice. The words in Copy-slips Nos. 33 and 34 it. How the notion has arisen it is difficult to say; but, to will bear efficient witness to the truth and propriety of the hazard a guess, it is fair to suppose that it originated in an idea statement we made in our last lesson, that unless due attention that to be engaged in trade and commerce was low, and that as be paid to the relative proportion of the strokes of letters that people in business generally wrote legibly and plainly, it was extend above or below the lines that contain the body of any the stamp of a commercial huxtering spirit to go and do likeletter, the appearance of any handwriting will be far from wise. Happily, in our times legible handwriting is not thought pleasing, as it will be wanting in that harmony that is so abso- unworthy of a man of education and good social position, while, lately necessary to satisfy the eye. Suppose, for instance, that indeed, it is one of the principal qualifications that is insisted in Copy-slip No. 33 the letter 1 in the word hilt had been carried on in those who aspire to the Civil Service and employment in no higher than the t, how unsatisfactory would have been its Government offices. To write a good hand is one of the first aspect: or, again, if the letter t in the same word had been steps towards the attainment of that liberal education which carried as high as the 1, what trouble would the reader have stamps a man as a gentleman without any of the adventitious to determine whether the writer meant what he had written to claims that arise out of a man's descent and social standing, be the word that means the “ handle of a sword,” or that by and it is now as absurd for any man to sneer at another because which "rising ground” is denoted. Then, also, in Copy-slip he can write legibly as it was for Jack Cade to dub the clerk of No. 34, if the straight stroke of the p in poll were not carried Chatham a villain because he was taken "setting of boy's down to its proper extent, but allowed to terminate a little copies,” and to hang him as a traitor, with his pen and ink-horn below the lower of the lines that contain the letter u, what about his neck, because he could write his own name, and had doubt would arise in a reader's mind as to whether the writer not a mark to himself, like, in Cade's us iretion," an honest, meant to write the word which means “to draw," or " to move I plain-dealing man,”

[ocr errors]

:

DECLENSION OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

Sie, you.

Jhr, you;

Sie, you.

es, it.

IMPERFECT TENSE.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-IX.

being made by the addition of the letter n.

The second person

singular is formed by adding to the root the letters teft; the SECTION XVII.-PERSONAL PRONOUNS; VERBS OF THE

plural of the same person taking tet. NEW CONJUGATION, ETC.

The root is found by removing the letters en from the form In English the relation of property or possession is denoted by of the present infinitive : thus, from loben (to praise), take en, means of personal pronouns in the possessive case, while in and you got 10b, which is the root. German the same relation is shown by means of a distinct class

The Present Participle is made by adding to the root the of words (Sect. X.), called possessive pronouns; and theso are

syllable end; as, lub-end, praising. used not merely in the corresponding caso (i.e., the genitive),

The Perfect Participle is produced by prefixing to the root the but in all the cases. The German personal pronoun, therefore, is rarely used in the genitive like our personal pronoun in the augment 9e (§ 69. 2, 4), and suffixing the letter i (sometimes et):

thus, ge-lob-t, praised. possessive.

The Perfect tense is formed by combining the perfect participle

with the present indicative of the auxiliary haven or sein, to Singular.

HAVE or to be: as, ich habe gelobt, I have praised.
Masculine.
Feminine.

Neuter.

The Pluperfect is formed by combining the perfect participle

with the imperfect of haben or sein: as, ich hatte gelebt, I had N. Ich, I; Du, thou ;

praised. G. Deiner, of me ; Deiner, of thee;

Ihrer, of you.

The First Future is formed by adding to the present of the D. Mir, to, or for me; Dir, to, or for thee; Ihnen, to, or for you. infinitive, the present indicative of the auxiliary werden, to 4. Mich, me; Dict), thee;

Sie, you.

BECOME: as, ich werde loben, I shall praise.
Plural.

The Second Future is formed by adding to the perfect of the N. Wir, we;

Sie, you (§ 57. 6). infinitive, the present indicative of the auxiliary werden: as, ich O. Unser, of us ; Guct, of yon ; Ihrer, of you.

werde gelobt haben, I shall have praised.
D. Uns, to, or for us; Guch, to, or for you ; Ibnen, to, or for you. CONJUGATION OF THE REGULAR VERB loben IN THE
A. Uns, us ;
Euch, you;

INDICATIVE.
Singular.

Infinitive.

Participles. N. &r, he ; fie, she; cs, it. PRES. Coben, to praise.

PRES. Lobend, praising. 8. Seiner, of him; ibrer, of her ;

seiner, of it.

PERF. Gelobt haben, to have praised. PERF. Gelobt, praised. D. Ihm, to,or for him; ihr, to, or for her ; iam, to, or for it.

PRESENT TENSE. A. Jhn, him ; fie, her;

Singular.

Plural.
Plural.

Ich lobe, I praise.

Wir loben, we praise.
N. Sie, they; fie, they ;

fie, they.
Du lobst, thou praisest.

Ihr lobet, you praise.
G. Ihrer, of them; ihrer, of them; ihrer, of them.

Er lobt, he praises.

Sie leben, they praise. D. Ihnen, to, for ihnen, to, for them; ihnen, to, for them. them;

Ich loh-te, I praised.

Wir lob-ten, we praised. X. Sie, them; fie, them ;

fie, them.

Du lob-test, thou praisedst. Ihr lob-tet, you praised. 1. The personal pronouns (in the 1st and 2nd persons) are Gr lob-te, he praised.

Sie lob-ten, they praised. often used reflexively; and are to be rendered by our compounds, myself, thyself, ourselves, yourselves, as :- I lobe mich,

Wir haben gelobt, we have praised. I praise myself. Du lobst Dich, thou praisest thyself. Wir leben Id labe gelobt, I have praised. uns; we praise ourselves. Ihr lobt Guch, etc.

Du hast gelobt, thou hast praised. Ihr habet gelobt, you have praised.

Sic haben gelobt, they have praised. 2. The reflexive form of the personal pronouns in the third Gr yat gelobt, he has praised. person singular and plural is sich (Latin, se), and answers to our objective himself, herself, itself, themselves; its gender Id Hatte gelobt, I had praised. Wir hatten gelobt, we had praised. and number being determined by the subject of the verb, as :- Tu hattest gelebt, thou hadst Ihr ḥattet gelobt, you had praised. Fr erlaubt sich, he allows (to) himself. Sie erlaubt sich, she praised. allows (to) herself. Der Knabe lobt sich, the boy praises him- Er hatte gelobt, he had praised. Sie vatten gelobt, they had praised. self. Sie alle loben sich, they all praise themselves, etc. (See $ 60. 4.)

3. A personal pronoun of one gender is frequently translated Ich werde loben, I shall praise. Wir werden loben, we shall praise. by one of another, as :- Der Tisch ist gut, aber er ist nicht groß, the Du wirst loben, thou wilt praise. Ihr wertet loben, you will praise. table is good, but it is not large. Das Märchen ist schön, aber es

Er wird loven, he will praise. Sie werden loben, they will praise. ist nicht fleißig, the girl is beautiful, but she is not industrious.

SECOND FUTURE TENSE. Diese Feder schreibt nicht gut, sie ist zu weich, this pen does not write Ich werde gelobt haben, I shall Wir werden gelobt haben, we shall well, it is too soft (limber).

have praised.

have praised. OBS. This respects merely the translation. If, for instance, Du wirst gelebt șaben, thou wilt Ihr wertet gelobt haben, you will we were to translate the last German sentence according to the

have praised.

have praised. German idiom, the English for it would be, “ This pen does not

Er wird gelobt haben, he will have Sie werden gelobt Haben, they will write well, she is too soft." Now such a rendering would be

praised.

have praised. contrary to the English idiom, and therefore on translating German into English, we try to come as near the English idiom as possible ; although it ought to be remembered that the dif- lobe tu, praise thou.

Lobet (or lobt) ihr, praise you. ference of gender, as referring to the same noun, does never take Lobe er, let him praise.

Loben sie, let them praise. place in German.

The preceding paragraph must be well understood and the

The DECLENSION OF Niemand (with examples of each case).

verb thoroughly mastered, before proceeding any further.

pupil will derive much benefit from working out other verbs N. Niemand, nobody ( 59.3). Niemand ist hier, nobody is here.

after the above model. The vocabularies will furnish sufficient O. Niemands, of nobody. Nienants Hut ist hier, nobody's

examples. hat is here.

5. In compound tenses, the participle or infinitive is put at D. Nicmanten, to nobody. Es ist Niemanten núßlich, it is the end of the sentence, whether affirmative or interrogative,

profitable to nobody.

as :- Ich ḥatte den Vrief gelobt, I had praised the letter ; Vatte ich A. | Niemant, or

Ich sehe Niemand; I see nobody. ten Vrief gelobt? had I praised the letter ? Wen werten Sie leben ? Niemanden,

whom will you praise ? Werden Sie ihn gelobt haben? will you have 4. Verbs of the Now Conjugation (See $ 79. 1, 2) form the praised him ? Imperfect by adding to the root the suffix te, for the first and for 6. In English we have three forms for the present tense ; he the third person singular; the corresponding parts in the plural | praises, he does praise, he is praising. The German has for all

PERFECT TENSE.

PLU PERFECT TENSE.

FIRST FUTURE TENSE.

IMPERATIVE.

{nobody,

straw.

[ocr errors]

these but one form : er lobt. The present, besides its ordinary

EXERCISE 24. ase, is often used in relation to post time, when the period re

1. The teacher presented a beautiful book to the [tem) scholar ferred to is still unfinished, as :-Ich wohne schon ein ganzes Jahr in [Schüler). 2. She had deceived her [ihre] friend. 3. The children Perlin, I reside (havo resided) already a whole year in Berlin. have probably (See 9 of this section) grioved the [ren] old father 30 habe taš Piert nur eine Woche, I have (had) the horse only a 4. An il-bred child grieves (the) father and (the) mother. 5. 1 week. The present is moreover often used for the future, as :- have heard thy voice (Stimme) in the room. 6. He has probably Morgen gebe ich nach Wien, to-morrow I am going to Vienna. Ich te-ted the messenger before he sent him to (su) the (tem) friend gebe ihnen einen Gulten für das Buch, I (will) give you a florin for [Freunde]. 7. The peasant has covered his house with [mit] the book.

8. This misfortune has probably taught him to be cau. 7. The imperfect is used to denote continuance of being, tious. 9. I have seen [gesehen] many [viele] fishes in the river. action, or passion, as :-Die Schlacht bei Leipzig dauerte trei Tage, the 10. A cool draught strengthens in [in dem] summer the body, as battle near Leipsic continued three days. Hence it comes, also, [wie] the dew the [tag] withered grass of the field. 11. (The) to be used in expressing what is customary or habitual, as :-Die pain loves the moon as [als] a [einen] comforter, (the) solitude alten Deutiqen jagten gern, und führten oft Krieg mit den Römern, the loves it as a [einen] companion, and (the) piety as the [ren] resi. ancient Germans were fond of hunting, and often carried on war dence of a pure soul. with the Romans. Kindred to this, is its use in cases where one action or event is to be represented as simultaneous* with

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-V. another, as :-Gr starb, als er auf dem Lande war, he died, while he was in the country ; er spielte, als ich arbeitete, he played while I

SECTION VIII.-ON THE NERVATION OR VENATION OF worked. (See $ 138.)

LEAVES; AND THE FORMS OF LEAVES. 8. The perfect describes an action as finished without re- ANIMAL anatomists understand by veins and nerves two widely ference to another action, and, unlike the same tense in English, different portions of the human frame ; not so botanists, in may be used with an adverb that denotes past as well as present whose language veins and nerves mean the same thing, being time, as :-Er hat ihn gelobt, he has praised him. Er hat ihn gestern applied to those cord-like ribs which ramify upon, or rather gelebt, he (has) praised him yesterday. Gr hat ihn heute gelobt, he under, the surface of leaves. The manner in which these nerves bas praised him to-day. (See $ 139.)

or veins are distributed requires careful study, as it serves to 9. The second future is often used in reference to past time distinguish divisions of vegetables from each other. Plants to indicate a probability, as :-Er wird es gehört haben, he has pro- examined with reference to the manner in which their leaves aro bably heard it; literally, he will have heard it.

veined, admit of being separated into two great divisions : tho VOCABULARY.

parallel-veined, and the meshed or reticulated. als, as, than. Junfer, m. young no- | Seele, f. soul.

For example, in Fig. 19 is given the representation of the trit, f. labour.

bleman.
Sehen, to see.

leaves of an iris plant, while Fig. 20 is a drawing of a leaf of Aut'enthalt, m. resi. Körper, m. body. Sommer, m. summer.

a melon.

How great is the difference between the general dence.

In the former the Kranten, to grieve. Stadt, f. city.

aspect of these leaves we need not say. Bauen, to build. Kübl, adj. cool. Stärfen, to strengthen veins or nerves are almost parallel to each other, or converge at Beglei'ter, m. atten. Lehren, to teach. Strob, n. straw.

either extremity of the leaf by a very imperceptible gradatione dant. Mont, m. moon. Stube, f. room.

and never in any part of the leaf combine or interlace together. Betradh'ten, to regard. Nach'mittag, m. after- Sünde, f. sin.

In the second example, the melon leaf, this parallelism is totally Bate, m, messenger.

Tapfer, adj. brave, wanting, and in place of it we find the intermingling of nerver Deden, to cover. Nacht, f. night.

valiant.
to be so frequent that a complete net-work results, hence this

The word
Deri, n, village. Nähe, f. vicinity. Täuschen, to deceive, leaf and all like it are said to be reticulated.
Ebe, before.
Person', f. person.

disappoint.

reticulated is derived from the Latin rete, a net. Gu'samteit, f. solitude. Pflüden, to pluck. Thau, m. dew.

Does not the reader remember that we have already estab. Felt, n. field. Prüfen, to test, prove. Tröster, m. comforter. lished the existence of two grand natural divisions amongst grich, m. fish. Rein, adj. pure. Trunf, m. draught.

flowering plants, as determined by the sectional aspect of their Grommigfcit, f. piety. Roje, f. rose.

IIn'gerathen, ill-bred.

stems? Does he not remember that, from a consideration of Cang, adj. and adv. Ruhm, m. fame. Unglück, n. misfortune. this difference of appearance, we have already agreed to divide entire, whole. Schenfen, to present. Vor, before, from.

flowering plants into the exogenous and endogenous ? Does he Chleimhidi', adj. skilful. Smäßen, to prize, to Vor'lichtig, adj. cau.

not also remember our promise to tell him other means of disesteem.

tious.

tinguishing an endogenous from an exogenous plant by another 6iten, to hear. Schiden, to send.

One means is Wachen, to watch.

sign than the sectional aspect of the stem ? Jazen, to hunt. Schmerz, m. pain. Warnen, to warn.

this. The leaves of endogenous plants are straight-veined, Zugent, f. youth.

Stimmer, m. glitter. Welf, adj. withered. while the leaves of exogenous are reticulated. Hence, reRÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

ferring to the iris, we know at once that it is an endo

genous, or within-growing plant, and we know by the same Gine schöne Musil' ftimmt tad Herz (A) sweet musio (attunes) makes kind of examination that the melon is an exogenous or withoutfrch und beiter

the heart glad and cheerful. Die Freunde suchter mid in tem The friends sought me in the growing plant. What can be more simple than this mode of

discrimination ? garden.

Botanists distinguish the various forms that the leaves of Der Xcufmann þat ten frelstein The merchant (has) prized the plants assume by different names, and that our readers may be sehr hou geschäßt.

precious stone very highly. enabled to recognise these shapes at sight, and understand the Die freundin wird diesen Nach'mit. The friend will come to the terms that are applied to them, we have given examples of the taj nad ter Start femmen. city this afternoon.

greater part of them in our illustrations of leaves in the followfr wird die Nachricht schon gehört He will already have heard the ing pages, and will now proceed to describe their peculiarities, ' aben.

and give the derivations of the botanical names by which they EXERCISE 23.

are known. 1. Ich liebe das Kind tes Nachbars. 2. Der Vater hat mir ticien

Pedate Leaf (Fig. 21).—A leaf of three or five or more 3. Ich werde den Freund warnen. 4. Ich babe vie ganze

divisions. Called a pedate or pedalate leaf, from the Latin pes, Natt bei tem fanten Bruter gewacht. 5. Die Jäger jagten gestern

a foot, because the outer divisions are parted into several Pota in tem Walte, und werden diesen Nachmittag in der Nähe des segments. 6. Mein Freund liebte den Ruhm und den Schimmer. 7.

Peltate Leaves (Fig. 22).—Leaves like those of the garden Et Rat eine Rose gerñüdt, und sie seiner Freundin geschenkt. 8. Ein nasturtium, a name improperly applied to some species of Tro. geixidier Maurer dieser Start hat dieses schöne Haus gebaut. 9. Napoleon pæolum or Indian cress. This kind of leaf is called poltate ll inte ten tapferen Sottaten, und nicht den Junter und Erelmann.

10. from its fancied resemblance to the pelta, or circular buckler of Die Arbeiten in meiner Jugend haben meinen Körper gestartt. 11. Das the ancients, which was held by a thong fastened to the under Beniffen warnt tie Menschen vor (s 116. List) der Sünte.

side. The chief peculiarity of the peltate leaf is that it is

attached to its petiole at some part of the under side, and not * Simultaneous-existing at the same time,

at the margin, as leaves usually are.

noon.

Oral, n. grass.

Warten.

news.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

19. IRIS LEAVES. 20. MELON LEAV, 21. PEDATE OR PEDALATE LEAT. 22. PELTATE LEAVES. 23. PINXATE LEAF. 24. ALTERNATE LEAVES.

25. PALMIYID LEAF. 26. FASCICULATE LEAVES. 27. SAGITTATE LEAF. 28. SPATULATE LEAF, 29. VERTICILLATE OR WHORLED LEAVES. 30. PINNATE LEAF, WITH TENDRILS. 31. CORDATE LEAF. 32. CONFLUENT OR PERFOLIATE LEAVES, 33. LANCEOLATE LEAF.

34, ORBICULAR LEAF.

Pinnate Leaf (Fig. 23). — A leaf cut like a feather, from the down into several lobes, like the leaves of the sycamore, are Latin penna, a wing or feather. The leaf figured consists of called palmate or palmifid, from their resemblance to the palm pairs of leaflets, without foot-stalks, ranged along a common and fingers of the hand when extended. The word is depotiole with a single leaflet at its extremity. The points at rived from the Latin palma, the hand, and findo, to cleara which the pairs of leaflets join the petiolo are not exactly or split. opposite each other.

Fasciculate Leaves (Fig. 26).- Leaves issuing from & com. Alternate Leaves (Fig. 24). – Leaves are said to be alternate mon point, and arranged in the form of bundles, from the Latin when

they grow from different points of the stom one above fasciculus, a little bundle. This peculiar arrangement of the apother-first on one side and then on the other.

foliage is found in some of the conifere, or trees of the pine Palmifid Leaf (Fig. 25).—Leaves divided about half way tribe.

« AnteriorContinuar »