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people of the county, which not only caused them to make at the head of the movement, they might have succeeded in common cause at once with the men of the Eastern Counties, restraining the fury of the multitude, and in directing its but drew to the front men of a certain kind of ability-such as energy into a channel where it would have borne good fruit. Wat Tyler and the priest John Ball—who marshalled the mal. But there was no Stephen de Langton-no prophet. The people contents into something like order, and put them under merely knew they were oppressed both by the lords and by the leadership.
law which the lords had made ; they knew not how to provide a This second cause of offence is well known by tradition to remedy. Goaded to desperation, they turned and kicked, as a almost every one. A poll-tax, that is to say, a tax of so much worm will twist when trampled on, and they became drunk in a head-in this case it was fourpence—had been ordered to be their fury, and turned away even such sympathy as otherwise levied on all persons above the age of fifteen. The tax was there might have been in the breasts of their rulers. With very unpopular in itself, but the manner in which it was raised blind guides, demagogues, and men whose heads were turned by rendered it almost unbearable. To begin with, it was not the possession of power, " the Commons of England” went from committed to the royal officers to collect the money, but men of place to place, committing all sorts of excesses, cutting off the influence about the Court gave the king a certain sum in lieu of heads of all lawyers they could lay hands on, burning books and the tax, and then were permitted to make as much profit as they records, houses and colleges, opening the prisons, getting very could out of the tax-gathering itself. Under these circum- drunk on the wine for which they ransacked the cellars of castles stances it is no wonder the tax was hated; the farmers of it and mansions, and, for the purpose of enjoying the contrast, naturally strove to make the yield as large as possible, and making earls, barons, and knights attend upon them in the they instructed their agents to seo that no one who was liable capacity of servants and stable-men. To women, however, it to the tax-every man and woman above fifteen years of age is not reported that they did any harm, though they sadly was liable_escaped payment.
frightened the Princess Dowager of Wales, widow of the Black One of these agents came to Dartford, in Kent, and began to Prince, and mother of King Richard, by detaining her on her pursue his business. The household of John of Dartford, a journey from Canterbury to London, and declining to let her hellier or tiler, consisted of himself, his wife, his daughter, and proceed until she had kissed some of them, which she did, the two other persons. John himself was from home, at his work old chroniclers report, with a very ill grace, though glad to get roofing a house, when the tax-gatherer came and demanded the away at such a price. dues. John's wife paid for herself, her husband, and tho But what was the cause of this rising of the Commons? The end two servants or apprentices, but claimed exemption for her of it we know. The rebels marched from all the home counties daughter, as being ander the taxable age. The man disputed to London, sacked the Temple, the Duke of Lancaster's Palace the woman's statoment about her daughter, who, he averred, of the Savoy, and burnt many other houses ; they broke into the must be quite fifteen, and to this he held, demanding the tax Tower, cut off the head of the Archbishop of Canterbury, with for her, in spite of her mother's statement, which was sup- that of the Prior of St. John's, and some other noblemen; and ported by the witness of all her neighbours. High words proposed to do the like to all the knights and lords in the followed, the tiler's wife refusing to submit to an injustice, country, though they still professed affection for the king, and and the collector, presuming on his position and his authority, rallied to the cry of “King Richard and the true Commons.” speaking in most unseemly way abont the maiden. A friend Then came the end of all. Many of the insurgents had left ran off to where John was working, and told him what was London with charters of liberties which they obtained from the going on at home, and probably magnified the true state of king, but Wat Tyler, at the head of several thousands, chiefly the case, after the manner of rumour-bearers. Anyhow, John Kentish men, remained, and venturing to be insolent to the king Do sooner heard his neighbour's words than he jumped down from himself at an interview which took place in Smithfield, was the work he was engaged upon, and snatohing up his heavy slain in view of his host by Sir William Walworth, the Lord helving hammer, ran away home. Arrived at his own door, he Mayor of London. The men, disconcerted by the fall of their found a crowd assembled, the tax-man still insisting on the poll. leader, were partly cajoled, partly driven from the metropolis, tax for the maiden, and in the very act of taking an indecent and when they were dispersed, commissions were issued for the liberty, for the purpose, as he said, of ascertaining whether she trial and punishment of the leaders, the charters already granted was of full age or not.
were taken away, and the people were reduced to a state of The same practice, it seems, had been pursued in other places, bondage worse than before. The commissions to punish were where the people had not had the strength or the spirit to resist carried out with so much excessive zeal, that even in those days, it; but Dartford was not the place in which to try such a when might was not over squeamish about the way in which it thing, and John the Tiler was the last man in Dartford to put kicked right against the pricks, an Act of Indemnity was
The scoundrel collector had barely time to draw thought necessary to hide the acts of the officers of the Crown. his sword, which was all too useless as a guard, when the But what was the cause of the rebellion ? We have seen a enraged father attacked him. No fence, however well sustained, part of it in the odious claim made by Sir Simon Burley at oould ward off the tiler's blow. Quickly the hammer rose in Gravesend, and in the outrageous conduct of the tax-gatherer the air, swung by sinowy arms; more quickly still it descended, at Dartford. These, however, were only the outward, visible cleaved a way through the idle guard, which it shivered and signs of a very oppressive state of things which had their broke, and falling with tremendous force on the skull of the foundation in the laws and institutions of the country. collector, dashed out his brains on to the adjacent wall. With- In King John's time (1199—1215), when the population of out a struggle or a groan the man fell dead, and the people stood England was under two millions, there were upwards of one around wondering at what was done. Yet no man laid hands on million villeins, that is to say, half the population were in a state the tiler, no man regarded him as a murderer; and when of bondage. A villein was one, man or woman, who was sold as he broke the silence, and told them in a few short words how a separate chattel, or with the stock on the land-one who, in that his cause was theirs, that this act for which the collector the terse language of the chronicler, “knew not in the evening had died was of a piece with the rest of the treatment the what he was to do in the morning, but he was bound to do people received from those above them, they rent the air with whatever he was commanded.” His children were slaves like shouts of approval, and proposed to march at once to Canter- himself-hence Sir Simon Burley's claim to the Gravesend mm bury and join their brethren who were already under arms. - he might be beaten, chained, ill-fed, over-worked ; his master John the Tiler was a workthag man, and the people he ad- might do anything to him short of killing him.
The whole of dressed were of the same class. To that class also belonged the agricultural labourers were of this condition. In towns “the brethren,” who were in rebellion all over the Eastern there were free workmen and free labourers, but their number Countios; agricultural labourers, fishermen, and some artisans was not large, and their influence was a creature of slow employed in towns, composed the army-if it could be so called growth. Their wages were, moreover, fixed, not by the means
—which Wat Tyler of Maidstone, Jack Straw, Hob the Miller, of competition in an open market, but by regulations made by John Ball, and others, led to Rochester, Canterbury, and Black- those who employed them. Thus, in the reign of Edward I. heath, and bearded the king oven in the Tower of London. (A.D. 1272), the wages of car enters, tilers, masons
, and Working men alone were concerned in the affair; none of the plasterers, in London, where the terms were probably more knights, clergy, lawyers, or landowners taking any part in it, liberal than in the provinces, were fixed
at fourpence a day. As except for its suppression. Had some such men put themselves time went on, the number of free men increased, both in town
up with it.
and country, chiefly through the medium of the Church, which SYNOPSIS OF THE LIFE AND REIGN OF RICHARD II. gradually emancipated a large number of those whom it claimed
Richard II. was the son of the famous Black Prince, and the as its villeins.
grandson of Edward III. He was the twelfth King of England In the reign of Edward III., however, another cause operated after the Norman Conquest, and the eighth and last of the to enlarge their ranks. A dreadful disease, known as the Black Plantagenet dynasty. Denth, which appears to have originated in China, in which
Born at Bordeaux Jan. 6, 1367 The King takes the governcountry thirteen millions of men, women, and children are said
Death of the Black Prince 1376 ment into his own hands 1389 to have died, swept across Europe from the East, and coming to
Began to reign June 22, 1377 Statute of “Præmunire England, destroyed half the population. Villeins were left with
Wat Tyler resists the poll-tax 1378 acted
1392 out masters, masters without villeins, and death in many cases Insurgents under Wat Tyler Quarrel and subsequent ban. made equal the high and low. After the Black Death went march to London June 12, 1381 ishment of Norfolk and away, the number of workmen was found to be much reduced ; | Wat Tyler slain in Smithfield Bolingbroke, afterwards the price of their labour, therefore, ought to have been much
by the Lord Mayor of Lon
1398 higher, in accordance with the law of supply and demand, since
don, Sir William Walworth, Bolingbroke lands at RavenJune 15, 1381
spur, in Yorksbire the demand had increased while the supply had diminished. In the country, which the ravages of the plague had been Battle of Otterburn (Chevy
Death of Wickliffe . Dec. 31, 1384 The King is deposed Sept. 29 1999
Murdered in Pontefractor desolating, there was a cry for more wages, and the number of
· Aug. 10, 1388 Pomfret Castle Feb. 14, 1400 men who were freed by their owners' death from bondago made the number of wages-takers formidable. The men would not
SOVEREIGNS CONTEMPORARY WITH RICHARD II. Fork without "outrageous and excessive hire,” as the employers Denmark, Sovereigns of. Germany, Emperors of. (Clement VII. said; 80 a Parliament, consisting wholly of employers, passed Olaus V. 1376 Charles IV. 1347 (anti-pope). 1378 a law, called The Statute of Labourers, by which the wages of Margaret 1387 Wenceslas.
1378 Boniface IX. 1389 “Union of Calmar"
Benedict agriculturists were fixed at the price they had been before the
Norway, Kings of.
by which Sweden, plague. An ox-herd had six shillings and eightpence a year;
(anti-pope) .. 1394 Norway, and Dona Olaf IV.
1380 a farm bailiff, thirteen shillings and fourpence; and a shepherd,
Scotland, Kings of trark) are united Eric III.
Robert II. ten shillings a year, and clothing; and no man was to quit
1371 under Margaret Norway united to
1390 his work without leave, under pain of being put in the stocks. and Eric of Nor- Denmark
1397 An ordinance, made about the year 1370, ordered that saddlers,
1397 Poland, Kings of. Spain, Kings of. skinners, and tanners should be “chastised for charging ex
Eastorn Empire. Ladislas V.
1384 John I.
Portugal, Kings of. Henry III. 1390 Thus we find that among the principal causes of the rising of John Palælogus . 1354
Manuel Palælogus 1391 Ferdinand I. 1367 the labouring classes in 1382, were the practice of villeinage,
Sweden, Kings of. John I.
1383 Albert of Meck. which was not yet extinct, the unfair and oppressive regulations
Prance, Kings of. Rome, Popas of. lenburg. 1368 about wages, the dearness of living, and the demands, barba- Charles V. 1364 Gregory XI, 1370 Sueden united to rously made, and frequently brutally enforced, for taxes out of Charles VI. 1380 | Urban VI.
1389 the people, notwithstanding. As has been said, the people got little at the moment by
It will be noticed that the word "anti-pope" is added to their rebellion, the disastrous conduct and termination of which the names of two of the Popes of Rome above. The anti-pope left them with the fetters of bondage more firmly riveted on
was a pope chosen by the will of some king, or the intrigues of their necks. A fresh and more stringent Statute of Labourers
a party hostile to the reigning pope, who had been elected by was passed, and the poor people in country places suffered on the College of Cardinals. Urban Vi., for instance, had been for many years.
chosen by the cardinals to please the people of Rome, who In towns the workmen were better off-better able to defend wished for an Italian pope, who would reside in the Eternal themselves--and the interests of the employers could not there City, and not at Avignon or elsewhere, as some of the popes be advanced without a corresponding advantage to the men.
who preceded him had done. On his election the French and Some Acts of Henry VII. (1485—1509) and Henry VIII. Spanish cardinals retired to Provence, and chose Robert of Geneva (1509–1547), which aimed at fixing the price of skilled labour, to occupy the papal chair. This ecclesiastic assumed the title proved to be abortive, and things remained on the old basis of Clement VII., and as soon as his election was made known till 1563, when a law was passed, which remained unrepealed Christendom was riven asunder, and presented the appearance till 1813, though it must have become inoperative in many
of a house divided against itself, France, Spain, Scotland, and places before that date. This was, perhaps, one of the most Savoy declaring for Clement VII., while Italy, Germany, England, exceptionable laws ever put on the statute roll. Justices of and other parts of Europe acknowledged Urban VI. as the the peace in the country, and the mayor, sheriffs, or other visible head of the Church. As a matter of course, these rivals authorities in towns, were to meet every year after Easter, and for the enjoyment and management of the temporalities of the taking into consideration the price of living, and of house rent,
“ Vicar of Christ,” as the bishops of Rome delight to style the demand and supply for labour, were to fix the wages of all themselves, utterly ignored the “new commandment” of the workmen and labourers for the ensuing year. Any one giving meek and gentle Master whom they professed to follow. They more than these wages was to be fined five pounds, and put in solemnly cursed each other by bell, book, and candle, and each prison for ten days; any one taking more was to be imprisoned declared his opponent, and those who supported him, excomfor three weeks. No workman or labourer was to leave his
municated. Those who gave the matter thoughtful considerawork without a passport sealed with the town seal, and approved tion soch began to see that the dogma of the infallibility of the by two householders. If he did so he was liable to scourging, popes must be a mistake, and the quarrels of the angry claimants exposure in the stocks, and imprisonment. The hours of labour for the chair of St. Peter, in the persons of the popes and antiwere fixed, for weekly or daily labourers, at from five a.m. till popes, kindled the spark that smouldered till the sixteenth between seven and eight p.m., between the middle of March century, and then suddenly broke forth into the glorious blaze and the middle of September, two hours and a half being allowed of the Reformation. for meals and refreshment.
Such was the state of things till 1813, except that there were besides some very objectionable laws, punishing with great
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-X. severity all workmen who combined to raise the price of their
FRACTIONS. labour, and to make an open market. These laws were, how. 1. WHEN a number or thing is divided into two equal parts, ever repealed in 1825, since which date the workman has been each of these parts is called one half; if the number or thing be as free as the merchant to buy and sell his labour in the best divided into three equal parts, each is called one third ; if it is market, and even to a great extent to make the market. He is divided into four equal parts, each of the parts is called one now, politically speaking the equal of any of his fellow country- fourth, or one quarter; and so universally when a number or men, and as far removed in every respect from his prototype as thing is divided into any number of equal parts, the parts take he existed in the days of King Richard II. as the freeman is their name from the number of parts into which the thing or
number is divided.
from the slave.
1. 15 2. t 3. 18
17. 1898 18. 31906
One of these parts, or a collection containing any number of rator takes exactly so many times more of them. Similarly it them, is called a fraction of the original number or thing. follows, that if we divide both the numerator and the denomi.
Thus, if a straight line be divided into seven parts, each part nator by the same quantity, the value of the fraction remains is one-seventh of the line, and any number of the parts—as, unaltered. for instance, five of them, i.e., five-sevenths of the whole-is a 7. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. fraction of the whole line.
The numerator and denominator of a fraction are sometimes The number of parts into which the unit or whole is divided called the terms of the fraction. If both the numerator and is called the denominator, because it indicates or denominates denominator of a fraction can be divided by the same number the number of parts into which the whole is divided.
(an operation which we have just seen does not alter its value), The particular number of these parts taken to form any frac. it is said not to be in its lowest terms. A fraction, then, may tion of the whole is called the numerator, because it expresses be defined to be in its lowest terms when the numerator and the number of parts taken.
denominator have no common factors. Hence to reduce a fracThus in the case given above, 7 is the denominator, because tion to its lowest terms, we must first find the greatest common the line is divided into seven parts, and 5 is the numerator of measure of the numerator and denominator, and then divide the fraction.
them both by it. Fractions are expressed by writing the numerator above the denominator, and drawing a line between them. Thus the
EXAMPLE.—Reduce to its lowest terms. above fraction would be written , one half would be written,
The greatest common measure of 27 and 36 is 9, and there. eight-ninths, s, and so on.
fore dividing numerator and denominator by 9 we get the frac. The word fraction, which means a part or portion broken from
tion expressed in its lowest terms. It is not
3 x 9 any integer or whole, is derived from fractus, broken, a part of 35
necessary always to find the G. C. M. of the
4 x 9 the Latin verb frangere, to break. The word integer is simply
numerator and denominator, but it is often a Latin adjective meaning fresh, entire, or unbroken, which has more convenient in practice to divide the numerator and denobeen adopted into the English language.
minator by numbers which are seen to be factors common to 2. A proper fraction is one whose numerator is less than its both until we arrive at the lowest terms. Thus, denominator, as i, j, z.
10 x 231
3 x 77
7 x 11 = 3
: 13 An improper fraction is one whose numerator is not less than
10 X 273
3 x 91
7 x 13 its denominator, as I, 1, etc.
the fraction in its lowest terms. A mixed number consists of a whole number and a fraction
EXERCISE 22. expressed together; for example, 3 and. This is generally written thus, 3; similarly, 43, 74, etc.
1. Reduce the following fractions to their lowest terms :Fractions in which the denominators are 10, or any power
9. 13. of 10 (Lesson VI., Art. 5), are called Decimal Fractions, or
10. 141. Decimals. All other fractions are called Vulgar Fractions.
19. 21. A compound fraction is a fraction of a fraction, as of }, j of
12. st. of %; for any fractional part of a unit may be regarded as a
6. 413. new unit. This fractional part may itself be divided into any
22. 15. 11.
23. 20606 number of equal parts, and a certain number of them may be
16. 276 taken.
24. H. A complex, or mixed fraction, is one which has a fraction in 2. In & joint-stock company which was divided into 10,800 its numerator or denominator, or in both; as, for instance shares, what part of the whole concern belongs to the individual
who holds 4,050 shares ?
3. A ship is worth £21,600; what fraction of the ship belongs Every whole number may be looked upon as a fraction, of which to him who contributed to this sum no less than £12,960 ? the denominator is unity; thus 5 is f.
8. To reduce an improper fraction to a whole or mixed number. 3. Fractions, it will readily be seen, are expressions of un
Divide the numerator by the denominator. If there is no executed division, the numerator being the dividend, and the remainder, the quotient will be the equivalent whole number. denominator the divisor. Take, for example, &. We are sup. If there is a remainder, the improper fraction is equivalent to a posed to have one unit or thing to be divided, and dividing it mixed number, of which the quotient is the whole number (or, into 9 equal parts, to take 4 of them. But it will be the same
as it is called, the integral part), and the remainder the numething if we take 4 such units, and dividing this collection into rator of the fractional part, which will evidently have the same 9 equal parts, take one of these parts. This gives the same
denominator as the original improper fraction. Thus, * = 3, a fraction of the original unit as before ; but, looked at in this whole number; and * = 34. Since 7 sevenths make one whole light, it expresses the quotient which results from dividing the unit, 23 sevenths will make as many wholo units as 7 is connumerator by the denominator.
tained in 23, i.e., 3 whole units, and 2 sevənths over. Hence 4. To multiply a fraction by a whole number.
23 = 33. Multiply the numerator by the whole number. For instance, 9. To convert a mixed number into an improper fraction. to multiply by 4. Here the unit is divided into 9 parts, two
Multiply the integral part by the denominator of the frac. of which are taken; four times as many of these parts will give tional part, to which product add the numerator of the fractional eight parts, or $; therefore 4 x = .
part. This sum will be the numerator, and the denominator of 5. To divide a fraction by a whole number.
the fractional part will be the required denominator. Thus, 7 * 4 + 6
7 x 4 Either divide the numerator or multiply the denominator by 49 =
= *; for 48 = 4+=-** + i = ** + %, and 28 the whole number. Thus, g = 2 = }; for, the unit being divided into 7 parts, 6 are taken, halving which gives 3 parts, sevenths and 6 sevenths make 34 sevenths, or *.
EXERCISE 23. or . Again, 1 = 2 = . In the unit is divided into 7 x 2
1. Reduce the following improper fractions to whole or mixed 7 parts, 5 of which are taken. In the unit is divided into
numbers : 14 parts, 5 of which are taken. But each of these latter 14th
3. *. parts is equal to each one of the former 7th parts divided by
| 4. YU.
6. 8. 8. 132. 10. 07. 2, and therefore five of the latter will be equal five of former divided by 2, or = = 2.
2. Reduce the following mixed numbers to improper fractions 6. From the above reasoning we see that it produces exactly in their lowest terms :the same result whether we divide the numerator or multiply
9. 627. 1 1 2. 487.
4. 13041. 6. 856:& the denominator by any number. Hence, if we multiply both
10. 8917. numerator and denominator by the same quantity, the value of 3. Reduce 445 to tenths, fourteenths, seventeenths and thirds. the fraction is unaltered. Multiplying the denominator divides 4. Reduce 672 to eighths, twelfths, eighteenths and fourths. the unit into so many more parts, and multiplying the nume. 5. Reduce 3830 to hundredths, fifteenths and thirty-fiftlis.
It has been remarked, that while the ears of carnivorous
animals are directed forwards, those of herbivorous animals THE EAR (continued).
are turned backwards ; so that, in the pursuit of the latter The external ear of brutes is often so marked a feature in the by the former, the ears of both are so placed as to catch outline of their bodies, it adds so much grace and finish to the the sound from the object whose movements it is of the highest head, its movements give such animation to the gestures, and it importance they should be acquainted with. Perhaps this idea is itself an organ so ornamental, that it is almost superfluous to has been dwelt on too much, yet every one must have noticed remind the reader that its form and foldings are very various how the cat, the fox, and the ferret, carry their ears pricked. throughout the class Mammalia. Every one who is alive to forward, while the ears of the deer and hare are, at least, as the beauties of animated nature—and there are few who are readily turned backward as forward. In the case of the hare, dead to their attractions—must have looked with delight on tho however, the shape and direction of the ear seems to be given ear of the squirrel, with its tassel of soft brown hair. That in relation to the habit it has of crouching in its form. While universal favourite, the rabbit, the dainty little fennec fox, in its form, the long ears stretch along the flanks, with their and even the fallow deer, despite the excelling majesty of its orifices turned outward, and must be very efficient in appre. horns, would all cut but sorry figures withont the external ear. hending the sounds which proceed from the feet of man or dog
Among the strangest forms of ears, we may mention that of as they beat the stubble. the African elephant, which makes him look like a warrior The concha, or external ear, is very generally found through. armed with a double shield. So flat and ample are these ears out the whole of the class Mammalia, but in a few it is "con. that Sir Samuel Baker cut a tolerably good mattress out of one spicuous from its absence." Thus, two of our native in, of them. The membraneous and delicate ear of our larger sectivorous mammals, the mole and the shrew, are without it
English bat is proportionately as monstrous, but instead of In the whale and his tribe, it is not only absent, but the very being lat, its foldings are so decided, that it looks like an ear foramen which leads to the internal ear in this enormous animal within an ear. The long trumpet-shaped ear of ruminants and will scarcely admit a pin. Indeed, this entrance to the ear horses, capable of being turned in any direction, is admirably seems to be retained only to establish or strengthen the affinity suited by its shape, and by the fringe of hair which encircles it, between the whale and the land mammalia, for the impressions and partially extends across its orifice, to accomplish the double of sound are probably conveyed to the internal ear through the purpose of receiving aerial waves, and excluding any small par. substance of the animal's body, as in the case of fish. The ticles of dust, rain, or hail, which would otherwise get down to the tympanic cavity, however, is kept supplied with air by an sensitive tympanum. This office of protection is, indeed, by no eustachian tube that communicates with the passage which means unimportant, as any foreign body on the drum membrane runs to the blow-hole near that orifice; so that when the monster canges exquisite annoyance, and the steadiest horse will become discharges the air from the reservoir of its lungs with so forcible restive when thus troubled. In the setter and spaniel dogs, the a jet that it carries the sea-water before it like a fountain, the function of protection seems paramount to that of collection of air of the tympanic cavity is, at the same time, partially renewed; sounds, so that the thick matted ear hangs down, when at rest, and when he plunges once more unseen into the depths, this right over the orifice of the ear. In the above cases the ear is cavity is in communication with the air he carries with him. not only an organ of defnite utility, but of conspicuous beauty, This arrangement, whereby sound, which has been conveyed and, indeed, it is a fine exemplification of how use and beauty from the exterior through the solid structures of the body, is go hand in hand throughout all God's works. Why stupidity made afterwards to traverse, or to be regenerated in, an internal shoald, in popular estimation, be especially associated with the air cavity, is not uncommon among the denizens of the water, cars of the ass, is even more inexplicable than why it should be and sometimes it is effected by such singular contrivances, as we considered as the special attribute of that much-abused animal. shall find when we describe the ear of some fish, that we are The fairy Titania, when "enamoured of an ass,” showed a almost justified in supposing that there is some quality in the discriminating
appreciation of good points when she kissed the vibrations of an elastic fluid, like the air, which makes it a "fair large ears" of her "gentle joy."
better medium for transmitting sound to the nerve fitted to
receive such impressions, than those inelastic or solid media in abstract his thoughts from intrusive noises, and directing his which its vibrations are more energetic. This is the more attention, even when most attentive, to the thoughts that singular, because in no case is air or gas the last substance sounds embody rather than to the sounds themselves, is at a through which sound passes to the sentient nerve, only it seems disadvantage when brought into contact with the unthinking desirable that it should be one link in the chain for conveying brute, and he will sometimes pass through scenes teeming with sound. It is difficult to conceive how the message should be life, and think them inanimate solitudes, because he, the object made more distinct by the fact, that air carries it for one postal of dread, has no corresponding acuteness of observation to stage in the central part of its course, yet such seems to be the detect the animals which hide themselves at his approach. Yet,
as we have seen, his organ is as delicate and complicated as any In the case of the whale, the bony sheath of the tympanum is of theirs, and the disadvantage arises rather from neglect than not embedded in the substance of the ear-bone, as in other deficiency, and when the kind of impression comes which strikes animals, but hangs below it, and is shaped like a scroll, or like the mind, the sense is found to be wonderfully wakeful. Many the shell of a volute, or bulla, with a very thick column or inner will remember the thrilling anecdote of the Scotch woman, central part, and a very thin outer lip. By this thin outer who, when besieged at Delhi, expecting with all the Europeans margin of the scroll it is attached to the remainder of the ear- nothing but cruel massacre, for no earthly help seemed avail. bone, but the attachment is so slight that in the dry skull it is able, started up, and said, “I hear them; they are playing The easily broken off. In some geological strata this part of the Campbells are coming.''
.'" And those who then thought her mad ear-bone is found commonly, while the other bones of the whale rejoiced with her on the same day, for a regiment of Scottish are rare ; and some attribute this anomaly to the easy severance ;
soldiers had marched to their relief, of the bone, by fracture, from the rest of the skull, just mentioned. It is supposed that from the huge rotting carcase, distended with gas, and beaten about by the waves, the dense
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-X. tympanio bones may have dropped and been quickly covered by SECTION XVIII.—DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VERBS OF THE preserving sediment, while the remainder of the animal, drifted
OLD AND NEW CONJUGATIONS. to shore, and being left to the influence of the atmosphere, left no other vestige behind to attest the presence of these VERBS of the Old Conjugation (commonly called irregular verbs) whales in the ancient seas.
differ from those of the New, not only in respect to terminaWe have dwelt thus long on the outer courts of the ear, in tional variations, but also in regard to changes of the radical the animals that give suck to their young, because the variety vowels, as :-Ich komme, I come ; ich kam, I came; ich schreibe, I displayed in these non-essential parts of the ear is not shown in write ; id schrieb, I wrote; ich sehe, I see; ich sah, I saw. (See the parts of the internal or essential ear. All the parts of the § 77; also list of irregular verbs, $ 78. 1.) internal ear, the semi-circular canals, the vestibule, with its oval The form of the past participle, in verbs of the Old Conjugahole, and the cochlea, are always present in all mammals. There tion, frequently differs from that of the infinitive only by the are, however, some slight differences in the proportion of the augment ge, as :-Infinitive, fommen. Past participle, ge kommen. parts ; thus the so-called circular staircases which mount the
Present. cochlea have three and a-half turns, or whirls, in the guineapig and porcupine, and only one and a-half in the whale, and in Fallen, to fall;
ich falle, I fall. this last it can scarcely be called a staircase at all, as it does Geben, to give;
ich gebe, I give. not mount upward, but only curls inwards on the same plane, Gehen, to go;
ich gehe, I go. like the hollow of the shell of the nautilus, instead of that of the Kommen, to come;
ich komme, I come. trochus, or top-shell. There is some variation also in the little Sprechen, to speak ;
ich spreche, I speak. chain of bones which spans the drum from the drum membrane Springen, to spring ;
ich springe, I spring. to the oval hole ; thus the hammer and anvil bones are fused Schreiben, to write ;
ich schreibe, I write. together in the pouched animals. These slight differences, Singen, to sing ;
ich singe, I sing. however, do not invalidate the statement that the ears of all Sehen, to see ;
ich sehe, I see. mammals are made on the same pattern; and if the reader have
Past Participle. the patience to accomplish the by no means easy task of dissecting out from its bony case the ear of any such animal, while Ich ficl, I fell;
gefallen, fallen. referring to the description of the human ear, given in the first Ich gab, I gave;
gegeben, given. article on the ear, he will be able to identify the several parts, Ich ging, I went;
gegangen, gone. or if he fail to do so, he may search again, for they are all Ich fam, I came;
gekommen, come. there, though minute and difficult to trace.
Ich sprach, I spoke ;
gesprochen, spoken. The efficiency of the sense of hearing in brutes is a matter of Idy sprang, I sprang;
gesprungen, sprung. notoriety. Whoever has had the opportunity of watching a Ich schrieb, I wrote ;
geschrieben, writtea. herd of wild animals, while unobserved by them, will have been Ich rang, I sang ;
gesungen, sung. struck with the vigilance with which each unaccustomed sound Ich fah, I saw;
gesehen, seen. is remarked. The electric start, by which every individual of the community is thrown at once into an attitude of attention and trregular in the second and third persons singular, as :
1. The present tense of some verbs of the Old Conjugation is preparation for a hasty flight, is a beautiful sight. When we remember how many animals are nocturnal in their habits, how
Fallen, to fall.
Geben, to give. many find their home in dense tangled forests, and also how
Ich falle, I fall.
Id gebe, I give. necessary it is that dispersed members of a gregarious tribo, the
Du fållst, thon fallest.
Du gibit, thou givest. sexes of wandering species, the helpless young, and protecting
Er fällt, he falls.
Er gibt, he gives. dams, should be able to find each other, it is not surprising that this sense is made so wonderfully acute. So much is this
Seben, to see.
Sprechen, to speak sense relied upon for the above-named purposes, that the crafty
Ich sehe, I soe.
Ich spreche, I speak. backwoodsman finds no better expedient for alluring shy game Du siehst, thou seest.
, thou speakesi. to within reach of his rifle than by imitating the call of the Er sieht, he sees.
Er spricht, he speaks. species; yet so discriminating are the wild animals, that the slightest error in the intonation, or even the frequency, of the 2. In the imperfect tense of verbs of the Old Conjugation, as cry, will send them scampering away from the ambush.
well as of the New, the second and third persons are regularly It would seem as though man, who employs this organ so formed from the first person singular in the following manner, generally in the higher uses of the mind and soul, necessarily as : sacrifices to these uses some of the acuteness to mere sound of
Gehen. which the ear is capable. The savage starts like the brute when Ich ging, I went;
wir gingen, we went. a sound, such as the European would scarcely be aware of, Du gingit, thou wentest; ihr ginget, you went. reaches him from the distant hill; but civilised man, who passes Er, fie, or es ging, he, she, or it his life amidst the hum of crowded cities, striving rather to
sie gingen, they went