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EXERCISE 25. 34 gab, I gave;
wir gaben, we gave.
1. Was hat Ihr Herr Bruber? 2. Er hat neue Rleiter und neue Büs Du gabst, thou gavest;
ihr gabet, you gave.
cher. 3. Warum haben Sie heute meine weißen Handsdube gehabt? 4. Gr gab, he gave ;
fie gaben, they gave.
Ich hatte sie gestern ; aber heute habe ich sie nicht gehabt. 5. Wir werben
morgen einen angenehmen Tag haben. 6. Mein Vater wird meinen Brief CONJUGATION OF THE IRREGULAR VERB raben" IN THE
vor seiner Abreise gehabt haben. 7. Dieser arme Mann ging vorgestern zu INDICATIVE.
meinem Onkel. 8. Er gab ihm zwei Taschentücher und einen neuen Hut. Infinitive.
9. Siehst du meinen Bruder oft und sprichst du zuweilen mit ihm ? 10. PRES. Haben, to have.
PRES. Habend, having. Ich sah ihn gestern ; aber ich habe nicht mit ihm gesprochen. 11. Sangen PERF. Gehabt zu haben, to have had. PERF. Gehabt, had.
Sie heute Morgen, oder sang Ihre Fräulein Tochter ? 12. Ich habe in PRESENT TENSE.
meiner Jugend gesungen; aber jeßt singe ich nicht mehr. 13. Haben Sie Singular.
meine neue deutsche Grammatif ? 14. Nein, eben nicht, aber ich habe fie
geftern gehabt. 15. Niemand ist glüdlich als der Zufriedene (Sect. XVI.), 30 babe, I have ;
wir haben, we have.
und Niemand ist weise als nur der Fromme. 16. Hat Ihre Frau Gemah. Du hast, thou hast;
ihr habet, you have.
lin einen Brief an Ihren Herrn Vetter geschrieben? 17. Nein, noch nicht, Er hat, he has ;
fie haben, they have.
aber sie wird morgen an ihn schreiben. 18. Cåsar schrieb nach Rom: ,,Id IMPERFECT TENSE.
fam, sah, und siegte." 19. Ich gab diesem armen Manne meine alten Schuhe. 3. þatte, I had; wir hatten, we had.
EXERCISE 26. Du hattest, thou hadst;
ihr hattet, you had. Er hatte, he had;
sie hatten, they had.
1. Have you seen my [meinen] brother? 2. No, I have not seen him, but my wife saw him the day before yesterday. 3. He
wrote a long [langen] letter and spoke not a [ein] word (Wort]. 34 babe gehabt, I have had ; wir haben gehabt, we have had. 4. She has given to me [mir] a new dress and a beautiful hand. Du hast gebabt, thou hast had; ihr habt gehabt, you have had. kerchief. 5. Do you think [glauben Sie] that we shall have fino Er hat gehabt, he has had; fie haben gehabt, they have had. weather (Wetter] to-morrow? 6. No, but I think (glaube] that
it will rain [regnen]. PLUPERFECT TENSE. 3d hatte gehabt, I had had; wir hatten gehabt, we had had. SECTION XIX.-DEMONSTRATIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE Tu hattest gehabt, thon hadst had; ihr hattet gehabt, you had had.
PRONOUNS. for batte gehabt, he had had; fte hatten gehabt, they had had.
Welcher? welche? welches ? (which ?) as interrogative, is declined
precisely like dieser, diese, dieses. The genitive is seldom used. FIRST FUTURE TENSE. Ich werde Haben, I shall have; wir werden haben, we shall have. DECLENSION OF THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN, Dieser, Du wirft haben, thou wilt have; ihr werdet haben, you will have.
diese, dicres (this). Er wird haben, he will have; fte werden haben, they will have.
Diese, these. 34 werde gehabt haben, I shall wir werden gehabt haben, we shall. Dieses, dieser, dieses, of this.
Dieser, of these. have had;
Diesen, to these. Du wirst gehabt haben, thou wilt ihr werdet gehabt haben, you will A. Diesen, riese, dieses, this.
Diese, these. have had;
have had. Er wird gehabt haben, he will have sie werden gehabt haben, they will Der, die, das frequently stand independently ; i.e., not
belonging to a noun. When so used, it is called a substantive
pronoun, and answers to our demonstrative pronoun that. Its IMPERATIVE,
inflection, as seen in the Declension following, differs from that Singular.
of the article, and it is likewise commonly pronounced with a Sabe du, have thou; haben wir, let us have.
stronger emphasis. Gabe et, sie, or eg, let him, her, or habt or habet ihr, or have ye, or
DECLENSION OF THE SUBSTANTIVE PRONOUN der, die, das. Haben sie, let them have.
Masc. Fem. Neut.
N. Der, die,
Deren, of those.
Denen, to, for those. Eben, just, even, now. Niemand, nobody, no Borógestern, day before A. Den, die,
Examples of the use of the Substantive Pronouns.
Sein Mantel ist schwarz, und der His cloak is black, and that of RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
seines Bruberg* ift blau.
his brother is blue. Ich habe ihn heute gese'ben. I have seen him to-day.
Die Uhr meines Vaters ist groß, und The watch of my father is y 34 habe ihn gestern gese hen.
die seines Freundes ist klein.
large, and that of his friend I saw (have seen) him yesterday. Bas Sie hoffen, ist sehr un'gewiki.
Dag Leder des Shuhmachers ift The leather of the shoemaker Ping Ihr Herr Bruder gestern nach Did your brother go to Leipsic
schwarz, und das des Sattlers is black, and that of the sadLeipzig ?
dler is yellow. yesterday ? Retin
, er ging nach Dresden ; aber No, he went to Dresden; but I Seine Gänse find grau, und die His geese are grey, and those of ich werde wahrscheinlich, morgen shall probably go to Leipsic
seines Nachbars sind weiß.
his neighbour are white. nach Leipzig gehen. to-morrow.
Ich habe meinen Hut und ben I have my hat and that of my Tu fengst schön; aber seine Sowe. You sing beautifully, but your Sie hat ihre Feder und die ihrer She has her pen and that of her
friend. fter sang in ihrer Jugend göttlich. sister sang in her youth
From whom did you take this
* Such elliptical form as “ His cloak is black and his brother's 3d habe es meinem Feinde genom. I took it from my enemy, and is blue” (Sein Mantel ist stwarz, und seines Bruders ist blau) is very men, und gab es meinem Freunde. gave it to my friend.
seldom employed in German.
Gramma'tif, f. gram.
Der Knabe hat sein Buch und da 8 The boy has his book and that The first errors that a pupil will make will be in the arrange. seines Vaters.
of his father.
ment of his subject; he will find them out the second time Die Knaben ħaben ihre Bälle und The boys have their balls and he looks it over before he begins to draw it. We advise die ihrer Freunde.
those of their friends.
him then only to "faint" them, not to obliterate them; they
are useful by pointing out to him where he is not to draw his VOCABULARY.
line; and they may be considered as beacons on a dangerous Adolph, m. Adolphus. Buch'halter, m. book. Tinte, f. ink.
coast, warning him of the perils he is to avoid. Here is their Amerifa'nisch, adj. keeper.
advantage; when mistakes are totally effaced, it is as likely & American.
Fabel, f. fable. Welcher, which. not that the same errors may be repeated, or, what is equally Bild, picture, Gellert, m. Gellert. Zim'mermann, m. Zim. bad, a fresh fault may be committed by drawing the line in an image. Heinrich, m. Henry.
opposite extreme. It is a common thing to hear those who are Bild'hauer, m. sculp- Rathhaus, n. city-hall, Zoll'einnehmer, m. toll. struggling with their difficulties say, “It's all wrong, but where tor. counting-house. gatherer.
I cannot tell.” The work may be all wrong, it is true; but Brief, m. letter. Roʻsenfarben, adj. pink- / Zwilling, m. twin. that learners may be the better able to tell where the errors coloured.
are, and how to correct them, it is necessary that teachers RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
should take care to set up guide-posts in the shape of the
rules and principles of the art, so that the safest and most Haben Sie den Gesang' der Nach. Have you ever heard the song direct path may be pointed out, and to put up warnings marked tigall gehört'?
of the nightingale ?
“ dangerous,” by which the inexperienced may be cantioned Ja, sehr oft, aber nie den der ferche. Yes, very often, but never that when they attempt to pursue what may appear to be shorter
of the lark.
ways, but which lead only to discouragement and failure. We Das Licht der Sonne ist nüglich. The light of the sun is useful. have often heard pupils say, “I have tried to draw this so many Wessen Buch ist dieses ? Whose book is this ?
times, and I cannot do it.” Of course not; leave off the Welchem von Ihnen gehört dieses To which of you does this book drawing, and try the arrangement first. After what has been Buch?
now said we resume our instructions with greater confidence, Welches Buch meinen Sie? Which book do you mean? feeling sure that our pupils, knowing where they are likely to Das neue, große Buch. The new large book.
fall into error, will adhere closely to the course of procedure we Welches ist denn der rechte Name ? Which is then the right name? | have marked out for them. EXERCISE 27.
We turn now to objects of a uniform character-viz., bottles,
wine-glasses, vases, etc. We will first consider only their profile 1. Welchen Tisch haben Sie? 2. Ich habe den meine Freundes, des form—that is, the outward line when presented horizontally Tischlers. 3. Welches Papier haben Sie ? 4. Ich habe das meines before the eye; afterwards we will exhibit them with their Freundes, des Lehrers. 5. Welcher von diesen Knaben hat meine blaue retiring parts. Fig. 45 is a bottle. Draw a b, a perpendicular Tinte ? 6. Keiner von ihnen hat Ihre Tinte, aber einer von diesen Knaben line passing through the whole centre from the top to the hat Ihr schönes rosenfarbenes Papier. 7. Welcher von ihnen hat es ? 8. bottom. In drawing objects of this class we advise the pupil Adolph hat es, und Heinrich, Ihr kleiner Vetter, hat Ihren Hölzernen Blei- always first to draw this perpendicular line, because from this stift. 9. Welches von meinen Büchern ist in Ihrem Zimmer ? 10. Ihre line each way he may mark in the distances of the several parts Gellert's Fabeln find dort. 11. Welcher von diesen zwei fleinen Knaben ist as they approach or depart from it. The characteristic points Ihr Neffe ? 12. Sie sind beide meine Vettern. 13. Sind sie Brüder ? of the outline are c, d, e, f, g, h, marked on both sides of the 14. Ja, sie sind Zwillinge. 15. Welche Ihrer amerikanischen Freunde find central straight line with a corresponding equidistance from it; in dem Rathhause ? 16. Herr 6. und Herr l. 17. Wefsen Buch haben therefore, if these points are carefully arranged with regard to Sie ? 18. Ich habe das Ihres Vetters. 19. Wann hat Herr Zimmer, their distances from each other, and from the centre, there will mann meinen Brief gehabt? 20. Er hat ihn vorgestern gehabt, und sein be very little difficulty in drawing through them the continued Freund, der Maler, hat ihn gestern gehabt, und ich habe ihn heute. 21. outline which will represent the object. Hat der Lehrer den Sohn des Bäders oder den des Schneiders gelobt? 22. The wine-glass, Fig. 46, is another subject requiring the same Er hat weber den des Widers, noch den des Schneiders, sondern den tes może of treatment; and the method we have given for drawing Maureri gelobt. 23. Haben Sie die Federn des Kaufmanns, oder die tes the bottle will apply here also. Buchhalters ? 24. Ich habe weder die res Kaufmanns, noch die des Buch The vase, Fig. 47, is another example; the letters are not halters, sondern ich habe die des Zolleinnehmers. 25. Wer lobt den alten repeated here, simply because we wish the pupil to apply the Capitän? 26. Der Hauptmann lobt ihn. 27. Er lobt das ganze Volk. above method of drawing it without our assistance; he will 28. Der Wagen des Franzosen ist groß, und der des Engländers schön. easily recognise the characteristic points and angles for himself. EXERCISE 28.
We propose now to draw these objects with their retiring parts,
and, as they are for the most part circular at their extremities, 1. Which ombrella [Regenschirm] have you? 2. I have that of we must first explain the geometrical method of drawing a eircle my brother, the sculptor. 3. When did you buy [fauften Sie] in perspective. Many suppose that a circle in perspective is a this pink-coloured dress ? 4. I bought it yesterday from my true ellipse; such is not the case. If the pupil will examine cousin, the draper (Tuchhändler]. 5. Will [mollen) you give this Fig. 48, he will see that the portion above the central line ik book to this man or that ? 6. I will not give it to either is much smaller than the portion below i k, owing, as we have [Reinem]
before stated, to the diminishing appearance of objects in per
spective. LESSONS IN DRAWING.-VI.
To draw Fig. 48, he must make use of parallel rulers and
compasses. Begin, then, by ruling the plane of the picture, hero BEFORE proceeding with the more practical part of our instruc- represented by a line, because, the plane or surface of the picture tions upon drawing, we wish to offer a few words of advice being always considered in an upright position, the plan of that respecting the advantages of the errors the pupil may frequently plane or surface would be a line. This will be fully explained make, and to persuade him, that although errors must naturally when we enter into geometrical perspective. Draw the line of occur, there is no reason for discouragement, so long as he sight, h L, anywhere above, and parallel to, the plane of the understands them and can feel his way out of his difficulties in picture ; place the point of sight, P s, and draw the line P800 correcting them. All beginners are liable to make many and perpendicularly, or at right angles with the H L and picture great mistakes; but it is not their number that ought to dis- plane; from o, as a centre, draw the semicircle a fbfc; about courage ; it is the not seeing them, which in the first place it describe the rectangle a dec; draw o d and o e; and through disheartens the master, and then when pointed out disheartens the points where these last lines cut the semicircle draw h , and the pupil, if he has not the courage and capability to correct h g. From a h 0 h and c respectively, draw lines to the P 8. and avoid them for the future. In the practice of drawing, Place on each side of Ps on the 1 L two points, D p 1 and DP errors, when seen and understood, are quite as valuable as those These are called distance points, and represent the distance of portions of the drawing that are right; we know then as well the eye from the picture plane-in this case, also, from the what we ought not to do, as what we ought to do, and it is this object, as the circle touches the picture plane. From c and a knowledge of right and wrong that keeps us in the true path. draw the diagonal lines a . and cl towards the distance points, D P 1, D P 2. Join l m ; I m c a will be a square in per- more underneath the eye than the top, he has a more enlarged spective, within which we draw the circle by hand as follows:— The view of the base; through k draw pr, the diameter of the base, point n, where the diagonals l c and a m intersect each other, is equal to the diameter a b of the top, and mark the distance k n, the centre of I m ca (see p. 138); through this centre n draw the which, from its being lower to the eye than the distance o e of line i k parallel to a c. Now observe where the lines from h h cut the upper circle, the line k n will be somewhat longer. (Now the diagonals in s, s, s, 8; through these points, and also through here, again, we should like to prove this by another geometrical riok, draw by hand the perspective circle as in the figure. We drawing, but we decline it at present for reasons already stated; recommend the papil to draw this figure several times, as it re- but the pupil may very easily, for his own satisfaction, draw quires much practice to draw the perspective circle properly. again Fig. 48, placing the u L double the height from the plane ;
When this difficulty has been overcome, he may try to draw of the picture as therein shown, keeping D P 1 and D P 2 the the circle without the geometrical perspective lines, as follows same distance from P s as before; the result will show him
(see Fig. 49):- First draw a b, according to the required width that, when the circle is placed lower, the eye looks more upon or diameter of circle, say the top of a wine-glass; through o, it.) Proceed with k m and the divisions as before, and draw by the centre of a b, draw the perpendicular c d, mark the point é hand the circle through the points p nr m. There is scarcely from o (if the pupil has a glass before him, let him stretch a anything more difficult for a beginner than the circle, under any piece of thread over the top of the glass to represent a b; he conditions ; therefore we earnestly recommend him to practise will then perceive that the distance o e must be regulated ac- it well from the foregoing instructions. Our reason for giving cording to the view the object presents to the eye); make on the above simple geometrical problem for constructing the perequal to o e, and divide o h into three equal parts, add one of spective view of a circle is to satisfy the mind of the pupil upon these parts from h to f; then through a éb f draw, by hand, the the proportions and changes of its retiring dimensions, according perspective view of the circle as in the copy. This, we allow, is as it is soon nearer to or further below the level of the eye. an approximation, but sufficiently near for practical purposes. Let him raise the glass until the top is on a level with the eye ; To complete the wine-glass, Fig. 50, continue the line c ftom the top will then present a straight line
; let him lower it graany length; mark fi for the depth of the glass, and i k for the dually, and he will see that the retiring diameter of the circle length of the stem. If the pupil will place a wine-glass before seems to expand,
, when it is exactly under his eye (looking him on the table, he will notice that the circular base, being down upon it), it then presents the true circle.
1. Rana coaxat. 2. Rana sæpe est præda ciconiæ. 3. Ciconia nocet NOUNS, SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.--THE FIRST
ranæ, 4. Ciconia devorat ranam. 5. Orana, coaxas. 6. Aqua tur DECLENSION.
batur a ranå. 7. Plantæ florent. 8. Terra vestitur copiâ plantarum. We now pass on to the several declensions. By declension, 9. Procello nocent plantis. 10. Terra gignit plantas. 11. O plante,
quam pulchre ornatis terram ! 12. Terra vestītur plantis. you know, is meant the manner of forming the cases of a
On this exercise I must give a few words of explanation. noun.
In the sentence Ciconia nocet rano, you have the object in the FIRST DECLENSION.
Generally the object is in the accusative case, but Sign Æ in the Genitive Singular.
noceo is one of the verbs which govern their object in the dative CASE-ENDINGS WITH THE ENGLISH SIGNS.
instead of in the accusative case, as will be more fully set forth Singular.
hereafter. Cases. Cases,
After the passive verb turbatur, you have the instrument rana Nom, (subject) Nom.
with the preposition a; whereas after the passive verb vestitur, Gen.
you have copia without the preposition. The reason is that, Dat.
to or for. Acc. (object)
in Latin, when the instrument is a person or living creature, Acc.
the preposition a is usual ; but it is not used when, as in the Abl. by, with, or from. Abl.
by, with, or from. second case, the instrument is a thing, that is, something withHere you may remark that in the singular two case-endings out life. are the same-namely, those of the nominative and the
Vestītur is not given in the vocabulary to this declension, vocative, both being å ; and that in the plural taken with the because it has been given before. Here, as in other instances, singular, four case-endings are the same-namely, in the plural words, the English of which has been previously stated, are those of the nominative and the vocative ; in the singular, repeated without the English, in order to secure attention and the genitive and the dative. This undoubtedly is a defect to assist the memory by repetition. in the language. By practice only can you learn in reading
As the English sign of the dative is to or for, so you must to ascertain which, in any particular instance, the writer in use the one or the other as the sense requires. And as the tended ; the difficulty, however, is not so great as you might English sign of the ablative is by, with, or from, so must you imagine.
use either by, or with, or from, according as the English idiom EXAMPLE.
1. The plants flourish. 2. The storm injures the plant. 3. Plants
are injured by the storm. Nom. Mensa, a table.
4. Frogs are swallowed by the stork. Nom. Mensæ, tables.
5. The earth produces plants. 6. Plants are produced by the earth. Gen. Mense, of a table. Gen. Mensa rum, of tables.
7. O plants, how beautifully are you produced by the earth! 8. I Dat. Mensæ, to a table. Dat. Mensis, to tables.
praise abundance of water. 9. The storm moves the waters. 10. Tha Acc. Mensam, a table. Acc. Mensas, tables.
waters are moved by the storm.
Mensæ, O tables !
After having learnt each vocabulary, you will do well to try Mensa is thus seen to consist of two parts. These two parts
to ascertain what words in it have representatives in English. are the stem mens and the case-endings. To the stem mens
These English representatives (denoted by the initials E. R.) add the several case-endings, and you form the several cases.
are words in English derived more or less directly from the Thus, if to mens you join am, you obtain the accusative singular; corresponding Latin words. Thus, from aqua we have E. R. if to mens you add arum, you obtain the genitive plural ; and aquatic; from copia, we have E. R. copious; from herba Fə 80 on with the rest.
have E. R. herb; from præda we have E. R. prey; from terro Before you proceed further, you should make yourself per- covering the E. R. in all cases, and in the discovery you will
we have E. R. terrene, etc. You will soon acquire skill in disfectly master of the case-endings and the example. Exercise yourself in giving from memory any case-endings you may guin an aid to memory, as well as an insight into the exact please to require ; also in giving the corresponding English original meaning of many English words. Indeed, you should sign.
never allow a Latin word to pass you without endeavouring Observe that in the example, after the word mensa, o, stand
to ascertain whether it has any E. R., and if any, whether one 1 and fem. Here 1 with a noun denotes the first declension, as
or more, what they are, and what their signification. afterwards 2 with a noun will denote the second declension, 3
Adjectives in the feminine gender are declined like mensa. with a noun the third declension, and so on ; f. or fem. denotes This you see exemplified in the following example :the feminine gender, and intimates that mensa is a noun of the
DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. feminine gender. It may appear strange to you that a thing
FIRST DECLENSION, FEMININE GENDER. which in English is of the neuter “gender,” as being without Cases. Singular.
Plural. sex, should in the Latin be of the feminine gender. So, how- N. Bona puella, a good girl. N. Bonæ puellæ, good girls. ever, it is. In Latin, one way of determining gender is by the G. Bonæ puellæ, of a good girl. G. Bonarum puellarum, of good girls. termination. Thus, all nouns ending in a (with an exception D. Bonæ puellæ, to a good girl, Bonis puellis, to good girls. which will be pointed out by-and-by), are of the feminine gender. Ac. Bonam puellam, a good girl. Ac. Bonas puellas, good girls. And as all nouns ending in a are of the first declension, so all Ab. Bonă puellá, by a good girl.
V. Bona puella, O good girl! V. Bonæ puellæ, () good girls ! nouns of the first declension, generally speaking, are of the femi
Ab. Bonis puellis, by good girls. nine gender.
EXERCISE.-After the same manner write out and learn by Decline the following nouns like mensa :
heartAlauda, a lark. Columba, a dove. Puella, a girl.
Alba rosa, a white rose.
Pulchra columba, a beautiful pigeon, Aquila, an eagle. Insula, an island.
Silva, a wood.
Magna præda, great booty. Quadrata mensa, a square table. OBS.—These nonns should be written out like the example
Tibi, to thee.
OBS.—The Latin word ne is employed in asking a question,
and is placed after a word and joined to the word it follows ; Ciconia, a stork. Noceo, 2, I injure. Rana, a frog.
the Latin word an is employed in asking a question, and is Coaxo, 1, I croak. Planta, a plant.
Sæpe (adv.), often,
placed before a word or sentence; nonne asks a question with Copia, abundance.
[fully. Terra, the earth. not included, as, nonne vituperas ? dost thou not blame? Devoro, 1, I devour. Pulchre (adv.), beauti. Turbo, 1, I disturb.
EXERCISE 17.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Note that the preposition a becomes ab, for the sake of sound, 1. Est mihi pulchra alauda. 2. Estne tibi pulchra alauda ? 3. Mea before a vowel or a silent h.
alauda est pulchra. 4. Estne mea alauda pulchra ?
5. Nonne est
taa alauda pulchra ? 6. Tua columba valde est pulchra. 7. Est mihi Lafeuillade ; but the voyage, which took place in 1667, produced bona ancilla. 8. Mea ancilla est pulchra. 9. Julia est augusta.
no new discovery. Jalia augusta est pulchra. 11. Estne Julia augusta pulchra ? 12.
The discoveries of the Russians in the north of Asia must be Alauda meæ ancillæ est pulchra. 13. Tua mensa non est quadrata. noticed.
At the beginning of the seventeenth century they 14. Magna est insula,
knew nothing of the coasts of Siberia beyond the Yenisei. War EXERCISE 18.--ENGLISH-LATIN.
and conquests laid open to the emperors the way to this 1. I have a pigeon. 2. Thou hast a good girl. 3. Hast thou a good immense region. In the space of less than a century, the whole gül? 4. I have not a good girl. 5. Thy lark is beautiful. 6. Is not of Northern Asia, from the frontiers of China to the Frozen the island great ? 7. The island is not great. 8. Hast thou a lood Ocean, was brought under the dominion of Russia. Geography maid-servant ? 9. I have not a good maid-servant. 10. The lark of
was benefited by this annexation, which gave to the Russians the girl (the girl's lark) is beautiful.
new facilities for performing useful explorations in these inIn dea, a goddess, and filia, a daughter, the dative and the hospitable countries. In 1728 Behring made the important ablative end in ăbus, instead of is; thus, deabus, to or by the discovery of the strait which separates Asia from America, and goddesses ; filiabus, to or by the daughters. This change is made rendered the peopling of the New World no longer a question of in order to distinguish the dative and the ablative cases of these difficulty or doubt. feminine nouns from the same cases of the corresponding mas- The northern circumpolar regions had not been the theatre culine nouns, namely, deus, a god; which has deis or diis, in of any important expedition, from that of Baffin, above menthe dative and ablative; and filius, a son, which has filiis. tioned, until the middle of the eighteenth century. The era of
Nouns of the first declension which denote male beings are scientific expeditions was now begim. Geography, so long of the masculine gender (denoted by m). This fact remains a retarded in her progress to perfection, proceeded with a sure fact, though the termination of those nouns should happen to and rapid step. This was the most brilliant period of the be feminine. Thus, nauta, a sailor, is masculine, though its history of navigation from the time of the great discoveries of termination is the same as that of mensa, a table, and puella, the sixteenth century. It was particularly remarkable for the a girl. Masculine nouns of the first declension are declined positive character of its results. Bougainville, who had gained like feminine nouns of the first declension. Observe, however, renown in the wars of Canada, anticipated that which he gained that they take their adjectives in the masculine; that is, the as a navigator, by an expedition to the Malouine or Falkland adjectives agree not in form but in sense with these masculine Islands, where he went to found a French colony in 1764. The Douns of the first declension, as in the following example :- circumnavigation of the world by Commodore Byron, also begun
in the same year, produced very important results; and so did DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.
the voyages of Wallis and Carteret, in clearing up some FIRST DECLENSION-MASCULINE GENDER.
practical questions relating to the geography of Oceania. CarSingular.
teret, in particular, determined the geographical positions N. Bonus nauta, a good sailor, N. Boni nautæ, good sailors. [sailors. (that is, the latitudes and longitudes) of several islands in the G. Boni nauta, of a good sailor. G. Bonorum nautarum, of good direction of New Britain ; his vessel having been the first D. Bono nauta, to a good sailor. D. Bonis nautis, to good sailors, English man-of-war which had touched at the island of Celebes. Ac. Bonum nautam, a good sailor. Ac. Bonos nautas, good sailors.
Three years after his first voyage, in 1767, Bougainville underV. Bone nauta, O good sailor! V. Boni nautæ, O good sailors !
took his grand expedition to circumnavigate the globe. After a Ab. Bono nauta, by a good sailor. Ab. Bonis nautis, by good sailors.
short stay in the river La Plata, he was detained in the Strait EXERCISE.—Write out after the same manner and learn by of Magellan no less than fifty-two days. He then entered the heart
South Pacific Ocean, or South Sea, as it was then called, and Bonus agricola, a good husbandman. | Magnus Nerva, great Nerva. discovered the islands of Pomotou, which he called the DanMalus pirata, a bad pirate. Trepidus auriga, a timid charioteer.
gerous Archipelago. He then entered the chief port of Tahiti, VOCABULARY.
or Otaheite; and his transactions with the inhabitants of New
Cythera were not only pacific but amicable. He next visited Ad, to.
Jugurtha, Jugurtha, an Per, through. Auriga, -e, m., a cha- African prince.
the Samoa or Navigator's Islands, touched at Papua or New
Perfůga, -æ, m., a do-
Guinea, discovered to the east of it an assemblage of islands Equa, -, a mare. Magnopere, greatly. Poeta, -æ, m., a poet.
which he called the Louisiade Archipelago, several of the Equito, I, I ride. Navigo, 1, I sail. Silva, -&, a wood. Admiralty Isles, and another called by his own name near Solo. Erro, 1, I wander, I err. Patria, -ee, one's native Tristitia, -, sadness. mon Isles. In the same direction he discovered several other
country, fatherland, Umbra, -æ, a shade. islands of less importance, which had been seen by other naviEXERCISE 19.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
gators; and having visited New Ireland, discovered by Carteret,
he arrived at Batavia ; whence he sailed to Europe by the Cape 1. Pérfuga Jugurthæ est mihi. 2. Malus pérfuga est tibi. 3. Poetam bonum laudo.
of Good Hope. This expedition was well received in France and 4. Bonus poeta laudatur. apriga. 6. Nautæ ad insulam navigant. 7. Boni nautæ patriam been marked with interesting episodes which were related with
5. Equa landatur ab in Europe ; it had made several important discoveries, and had laudant. 8. Aquila a poetis sæpe laudatur. 9. Agricolæ magnopere delectantur plantis. 10. Erras, 0 nauta! 11. Nonne erratis, aurige? spirit and talent; and created a still greater desire for circum. 12. Tristitia poetarum bonorum est mihi. 13. Umbras silvarum mag- | navigating expeditions. nopere amo. 14. Agricolæ per silvam equitant.
The greatest navigator of modern times is acknowledged to EXERCISE 20.--ENGLISH-LATIN.
be Captain James Cook. His first voyage to the Pacific had
for its grand object the observation of the transit of Venus, that 1. Hast thou a deserter ? 2. Is the deserter bad ?
3. Good poets is, the passage of this planet in its orbit over the disc of the are praised. 4. I praise good poets. 5. Good husbandmen praise (their) native country. 6. The native country of good poets is
sun, a phenomenon alike important in astronomy, navigation, praised. 7. The pirate rides through the wood. 8. The sailor sails and geography. Having received his promotion from the rank to the island. 9. The mare of the good charioteer is good.
of master in the Royal Navy to that of lieutenant, he was put in command of the Endeavour, a small ship of 370 tons, in which
he left England in August, 1768. After touching at Rio de LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY-VI. Janeiro, he proceeded to the Strait of Lemaire, in order to double DISCOVERIES OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
Cape Horn. Tierra del Fuego did not present to him such a
dreadful aspect as it did to Wallis; the naturalists of the In 1700 Dampier, at this time celebrated for his buccaneer expedition, Sir Joseph Banks and his friend Dr. Solander, a (piratical) expeditions, discovered some new islands contiguous Swedish gentleman, a pupil of the eminent botanist Linnæus, to New Guinea, or Papua. Wood Rogers sailed round the collected there some plants and animals. One of their excurworld in three years and three months; and encouraged by his sions, however, nearly proved fatal to them. Having ascended successful expedition, the maritime powers proceeded to attempt a mountain whose vegetable products they wished to examine, similar enterprises, hitherto considered as extremely dangerous. they were overtaken by the shades of evening and the coldness Towards the end of the preceding century, France had also of a severe frost. Dr. Solander was on the point of perishing made expeditions into the Southern Ocean. Her first vessel under its influence, when the wise importunity, or rather perti. which appeared in the Pacific Ocean was commanded by one nacity, of his companions saved his life, by hindering him from