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thos, amicus, the accent being on the penalt. There is another in the old grammar schools, attached to the established methods way of marking the same fact; it is by the use of a short of pronunciation. After all, we cannot pronounce the Latin as it traight line, as , and a curve, as '. The former denotes a was pronounced by the Latins themselves, nor can the best trained long or accented syllable—for instance, doctrina ; the latter lips pronounce their poetry so as to reproduce its music. denotes a short or unaccented syllable--for instance, dominus. We thus see that doctrina and doctrina, dóminus and dominus point out the same thing-namely, that in pronouncing doctrina the stress of the voice must be laid on the i, and in pronouncing
OUR HOLIDAY. dóminus it must be laid
As the possession of a healthful frame and strength of muscle Another practice must be pointed out. In Latin, as will and sinew is absolutely necessary to all who desire to make the presently be learnt, the endings of words have a good deal to most of their mental powers, we have thought it desirable to do with their meanings. It is, on that account, usual to pro. devote a portion of the POPULAR EDUCATOR to a series of nounce them at least very distinctly. Indeed, we might say, papers on what is generally termed Physical Education, or, in that on every terminating syllable a sort of secondary accent is other words, the culture of the powers of the body. laid. Thus, dominus is pronounced dóminús. So in other forms We intend, therefore, to take “Our Holiday at regular of the word : thus, dóminí, dóminó, dóminúm. The object is to intervals, and invite our readers on these occasions to dismiss mark the distinction between, say, dominus and domino, a dis. all thoughts of graver studies for a while, and enter heartily into tinction of great consequence. Another form of this word is the consideration of the art of developing the strength, endudominos. For the same reason a stress is laid on the termina- rance, and agility of the human form by properly regulated tion os, which accordingly is pronounced as if it were written gymnastic exercises and athletic sports and games.
Words, too, which end in es have a secondary accent on We will take first a game which has during the last few years the e; as vulpes, a fox, pronounced vulpees. In a few cases the attracted special attention in this countryTowel is what we call doubtful, that is, it is sometimes short and sometimes long. This peculiarity is marked thus, as in
LA CROŞSE, THE NATIONAL GAME OF CANADA, tenebrae, darkness, when the accent may be on the penult, as
a game lately introduced into this country from the “ New tenébrae, or on the antepenult, as ténebrao. Observe, also, that Dominion,” where it occapies a position like that so long held 2 vowel at the end of a word is always pronounced in Latin. by cricket in England. It is of Indian origin, and has been Take, as an example, docéré, to teach, which is pronounced as it played here by Canadians and Indians brought over for the is marked, that is, with an accent on the last syllable no less purpose. It is a ball game, and derives its name from the than on the last syllable but one. Care must be taken to pro implement used in striking the ball, which is a long hickory nounce docéré as a word of three syllables, do-ce-re, and not stick bent at one end like a crosse, or bishop's crosier. Across do-cere, as if it were a word of two syllables only, remembering, this carve of the stick stout network is stretched, and extends as we have observed before, that the Latin language has no nearly half-way down its length. The "crosse” has, therefore, silent e, as we have : for instance, in wife. The reader may something of the appearance of a racket-bat, but is much longer. practise himself, according to these rules, in pronouncing thus
To the spectator the game presents the appearance of a the opening lines of that fine poem, Virgil's®“ Æneid." The combination of football and hockey, with some striking variatranslation made by the English poet Dryden gives a fair idea tions from both. It is a very animated game, interesting to the of the meaning of the original.
looker-on, and highly exciting to those engaged in the contest. “Arma virúmque canó, Trójaé qui primus ab óris
It requires a large space of ground, not less, as a rule, than about Italiáin, fátó profugus, Lávinia venit
400 yards square, and tolerably level. Towards the two ends of Littora ; múlt[um] m[e] ét térrís jáctátus et álto,
this ground goal-posts are fixed, as at football, and the players Vi superúm, saévaé memorém Júnónis ob iram ;
are divided into two parties, each having its own goal. Each goal Múlta quoqu(e) ét bélló pássús dúm cónderet úrbem, consists of two poles about six feet high and seven feet apart, Inférrétque Deós Latió; genus únde Latinum,
ornamented with flags of the colour-say red or blue-chosen Albánique patrés, átqu[e] áltaé moenia Rómae."
by the party who may take that side in the game. The distance "Arms and the man I sing, who, forced by fate,
between the two goals is optional, depending upon the space of And haughty Juno's uprelenting hate,
ground in which the game may be played, and other conditions Expelled and exiled, left the Trojan shore.
either accidental or the subject of agreement between the Long labours, both by sea and land, he bore, And in the doubtful war, before he won
contending parties. The number of persons who may play is The Latin realm, and built the destined town
optional also, but they are usually equally divided, as ir other His banished gods restored to rites divine,
field amusements. And settled sure succession in his line,
The object which is pursued by either party throughout the From whence the race of Alban fathers came,
game is to drive the ball through the opponents' goal--that is, And the long glories of majestic Rome.”
between their goal-posts. When this is done the game is over, In the above piece of Latin poetry will be noticed some having been won by that side which has succeeded in the letters enclosed by brackets. By certain rules which will be attempt. The ball used is made of hollow india-rubber, and found in Latin prosody, these letters are dropped, or not must not be more than nine nor less than eight inches in circumsounded, under certain conditions of position in Latin poetry, ference. It must, as a rule, be touched only with the "crosse," although they are sounded distinctly in Latin prose. In pro- and it may either be struck with this implement or carried upon Douncing the third line, we must cut off the um in multum it. The crosse is about four feet long, and the network with before the vowel i in ille ; and the e in ille before the e in et. which it is provided is nearly tight, but just sufficiently loose Also in the fifth line drop the e in quoque before the e in et. to hold the ball when resting on it. It is not allowed to assume In the last line, too, the è in atque is dropped or elided before the shape of a bag. Thus fashioned the ball may be readily the vowel a in altae, and the two words are run into one, and picked up from the ground and carried upon the crosse, or ; pronounced as if written atqualtae. Accuracy of pronunciation, Aung from it towards the opponents' goal. however, is not easily acquired from any written or printed The principal players engaged on either side occupy the directions. The living tongue is the only adequate teacher. following stations :-d. Goal-keeper, who places himself near And it will be well for the reader to get some grammar-school. the goal, it being his duty to defend it when in imminent boy to read to him and hear him read the passage given above danger. 2. Point, some twenty or thirty yards in front of from Virgil, and the exercises, or some of them, which will be the goal-keeper. 3. Cover-point, about the same distance in fonnd in future lessons. Although the pronunciation of Latin advance of point. 4. Centre, who faces the centre of the field; is of secondary importance, yet it is well to be as correct as and, 5. Home, who is stationed nearest the opponents' goal. possible, if only from the consideration that what is worth The remaining players are called the fielders, and have no doing at all, is worth doing well. But should any one, as he fixed position. justifiably may, hope by these lessons to prepare himself for The game is commenced midway between the two goals, the becoming even a teacher of Latin-say in a school-he would ball being struck off by the captain of one side, as may have in that capacity find the pronunciation considered as a matter been decided by lot. The struggle at once ensues, one party of consequence; indeed, à disproportionate value is, especially endeavouring, by striking and following up the ball, to carry it
onward until their opponents' goal is reached, and the other If the ball be put through a goal by one not actually a player, striving by every means in their power to beat back the ball, and it does not count for or against either side. force it in turn into the opponents' ground. Great agility and A match is decided by winning three games out of five, unless dexterity are required to play an efficient part in the game. otherwise specially agreed upon. Fleetness of foot and quickness of eye are the essential qualifi. We give an illustration of the play, and believe the instruccations of a good player. When one has caught and is carrying tions herein contained will be sufficient to enable any party of the ball upon his crosse, it is allowed to any of the opposite players who may not have seen the game to commence it for side to strike the ball from his crosse with their own weapon. themselves. It has all the elements of popularity, especially as Thus, at the moment when, after a long contest, he may be on a winter amusement, and possesses many of the advantages of the point of winning the game by a dextrous fling of the ball, other games, without that element of danger which is found, which he has obtained with much difficulty, it may be jerked for instance, in football and hockey. An accidental blow or beaten out of his crosse in a contrary direction, and the from the light stick with which the crosse is fashioned could struggle may have to be renewed as from the beginning. cause no serious hurt, and beyond this, or the chance of an
As played by the Indians, who adopt a light and picturesque occasional fall, there is nothing to cause incidental injury to costume for the purpose, the game, as we have said, is highly the players. interesting to the spectator. Their skill in the finer points of We conclude our notice of the game with an anecdote, from the game is admirable. A player, running at full speed, will which it will be seen that it once was on the point of endanger. frequently catch up the ball on the end of his crosse, drop it ing the English rule in Canada. About the middle of the last to the ground to baffle a pursuer, dextrously catch it again, and century, after the conquest by Wolfe, the Indian chief Pontiac repeat this until he has either passed it on to one of his own planned an attack on some of the principal forts, which was to side who is nearer the adversary's goal, or carried it well forward be carried out by stratagem through the medium of “la crosse.” himself. For, contrary to the rule in football, in this game the The known skill of the Indians in the game frequently induced player is allowed to do all he can to pass the ball on to another the officers of the garrison to invite them to play when they were competitor on the same side who may place himself in a more in the locality, and occasionally some hundreds were engaged. favourable position.
Pontiac designed, on one of these occasions, that the ball should The following are the rules to be observed in playing the be struck, as if accidentally, into the forts, and that a few of game:
the Indian party should enter after it. This was to be repeated The ball must not be caught, thrown, or picked up with the two or three times, until suspicion was lulled, when they were to hand, except to take it out of a hole in the grass, to keep it out strike it over again, and rush in large numbers in pursuit. They of goal, or to protect the face.
were then to fall upon the garrison with concealed weapons. The players are not allowed to hold each other, nor to grasp This ruse was carried into effect, and partially succeeded; but an opponent's crosse, neither may they deliberately trip or the Indians failed to enter the strongest of the fortifications, strike each other.
and were beaten back with much slaughter. Pontiac afterwards If the ball be accidentally put through a goal by one of the made friends with the English, but he was a treacherous ally; players defending it, the game is won by the side attacking and it was a subject of congratulation when he was at last that goal.
killed by one of his own race.
move towards the magnet, and stick to it, in the very same way
that the stone moves to, and sticks to, the earth until some FORCE: ITS DIRECTION, MAGNITUDE, AND APPLICATION.
person pulls it away by a stronger force. And so likewise does
the electrified ball draw towards itself the small pieces of cork The aim of these Lessons is to make evident to ordinary intel or feather we place near it. In all these cases, you see, there is, ligant persons, who will take a little trouble, the principles of first, a body, the ball, or bolt, or stone, or iron-filing, or cork; Mechanics—to treat that subject in a popular way, yet so that secondly, a force applied to it; and, thirdly, motion produced. the reader may form accurate notions about it, and be enabled But take now the lamp which hangs from the ceiling. It is to apply it to practice in solving common problems by calcula- at rest; but the earth, by its attraction, is trying to pull it tion. We have much to do, but all depends on the way of doing down, and down it would come were we to cut the chain or rod it. The reader I desire to have is the intelligent mechanic or by which it is suspended. Here, then, is force again, but it artisan, the country schoolmaster or pupil-teacher, the young produces only tendency to motion. But observe further, that student who wants to learn the science through a book without although the lamp does not move, the chain that holds it is & master, the college B.A. or M.A. whose mechanics was made a strained by its weight. And not only is the chain strained, but mess of in his young days, and would be glad, without again so is the ceiling joist to which it is attached; and, as this joist going to a “coach," even late in life to learn it. I should not rests its ends on the walls, this strain is transmitted to the walls despair of finding eren ladies among my scholars. More faith in the form of pressures on them. There is thus tendency to should be placed in the average human intellect than commonly motion, strain, and pressure produced as the effect of the force is. It ought to be possible to teach the sciences of form, and applied by the earth to the lamp, but no motion. And, if any of number, and force to more persons than usually learn them. you feel a difficulty in believing in those strains, let him suppose, These are the "common things" of life, and a knowledge of the instead of the lamp, a ton weight of iron suspended from the laws which regulate them ought to be within the reach of most ceiling : what will follow? The chain will snap, or the joist, people, if only the first principles be properly laid down and ex- or even ceiling, will give way, and down all will come on the plained, consequences deduced from them in a simple and natural floor. They snap or give way because they are strained beyond order, and language used which they can understand. I ask you, their strength. So, in like manner, when a train stands at rest then, to approach the subject without fear. Study simultaneously on one of those great iron girder bridges that span our rivers, with these lessons those upon Arithmetic; for, as we proceed, there is tendency to motion, with strains and pressures ; the a knowledge of the four Common Rules of Arithmetic and of great Earth below pulls at the train to bring it into the water; Proportion will be found essential. Any other mathematics you but the bridge resists, bears the pressure of the weight on it
, may require, I shall teach
and is strained throughout you as we go along, but the
its length besides. A more amount will be small. Ob.
familiar instance is the serve: accurate mechanical
struggle of two wrestlers. conceptions, and the power
No one will doubt that in of solving mechanical pro
the contest great force is put blems by construction by
forth by each. For a morule and compass or calcula
ment they are motionless, tion, are the objects we aim at.
like statues; the forces are First, then, let us ascertain
balanced, but the strain on what our science treats of.
their muscles is terrific. I believe it may accurately
There is in each tendency be described as follows:
to motion, caused by the MECHANICS is the science
force put forth by the other, of force applied to a material
but as yet no motion. At body or bodies.
last one of the combatants This let me fully explain. Mechanics is concerned about force prevails ; his force ends in producing motion, and his adversary that is its great subject. But it considers it only in the con. falls to the ground. sequences which follow its application to a body or bodies which These examples will, I trust, be sufficient to make clear to most be material. A force may push through an empty point you the account I have given you of force, namely—that it is the of space; but, as it can make no impression on that point, agency by which motion is produced in a material body, or & Mechanics does not consider it under such circumstances. The tendency to motion with pressures or strains. You will now underbody to which it is applied may be of any size, even an atom of stand the reason why Mechanics is divided into two branches, matter, sometimes termed “a material point;" and Mechanics Statics and Dynamics. Statios is the branch which treats of does inquire what effect forces have on such atoms. But, in forces which balance each other, and produce only tendencies the more common problems, it is concerned about bodies of to motion with pressures and strains, and is so called from the visible and tangible magnitude, such as a block of stone, a Latin word sto, which means "to stand,” or “
“be at rest." beam of timber, a girder of iron, a cannon ball, the earth itself, Forces which thus balance one another are said to be in equilithe moon, or the sun.
brio, a Latin expression which denotes the balancing of equal This being clearly understood and agreed on, our next weights; and it is important that you should keep the expression question is, What is force? I answer
in memory, as we shall have frequent occasion to use it. The Force is the power, or agent, whatever be its nature, by which other branch, Dynamics, treats of force or forces which do not motion is produced in a body, or a tendency to motion accom- balance.one another, but produce motion, and was so named from panied by strains or pressures in its parts.
the Greek word duvauis (du'-na-mis), power, under the mistaken For instance, a blow is given by the bat to the cricket ball, notion that there was more power in force when its effect is or a bolt is fired from a cannon : the blow in the one case, and motion, than when it produces strain. This, we have seen, is the exploding gunpowder in the other, furnish forces, the effect not the case; but the term “ Dynamics” may, notwithstanding, of which is the motion of the ball or bolt. Steam enters the continue to be used
without leading to error. The two branches cylinder of an engine, and away to work goes the machinery we may therefore define or describe as follows :connected with it, moving and printing this POPULAR STATICS is the branch of Mechanics in which forces are EDOCATOR. Here again is force, the elasticity of the steam, considered which equilibrate, or balance one another, producing and its effect is motion. A stone is let loose at the top of a tendencies to motion, with strains and pressures. tower, or from a balloon, and it falls to the ground : what DYNAMICS is the branch of Mechanics in which forces are makes it fall? The great Earth does, which, by its attraction, considered which produce motion. pulls the stone towards itself. This attraction is the force Now it so happens that, of these branches, Statics is the producing the stone's
motion. And if any of you doubt, or feel simpler and easier, and more natural for the student to any difficulty about this, let him take a magnet and put one of commence with. Questions about forces which balance eaeh its ends near a few loose iron-filings, scattered over a piece of other are not so complicated as those which involve motion. paper, and he will see how this is possible. The filings will ' The reason is, that time enters into all problems of motion, but
not generally into those of equilibrium. The speed or velocity being changed, intensity, direction, nor effect of the force, of a cannon-ball must be considered at every varying moment of it is clearly indiferent which point we make the point of its flight; but the strains and pressures among and on the application. beams of the roof of a railway station are the same at all Another instance is the raising of a weight by a rope. Weight moments. Time does not affect the latter unless by wear and and rope together make one body; and whether the lifting tear. With statics, therefore, we commence, and, of course, power be applied by engine, by horse, or by man, whether it with the simplest class of questions, those which relate to a acts over a pulley or not, every point of the strained rope force or forces acting on a single point. But here I must turn may be considered a point of application. Or let the case be back to the notion of force, and endeavour to fix it with greater that of three strings attached to a ring, and pulled in different accuracy in your minds. I must show you how it is said to be directions by three persons. It makes no difference, in applied and measured to the body it moves or strains; and this this compound body of ring and strings, whether the hold will best be done under the three following heads :
taken of the latter be long or short-all their points are points 1. The Direction of a Force.
of application of their respective forces. 2. The Point of Application of a Force.
We thus see that, in all cases, we may assume that the point 3. The Magnitude of a Force.
of application of a force is any point on so much of its line of 1. The Direction of a Force.-In Mechanics, forces are assumed direction as lies within the body. To suppose it applied to a to act in right lines. The assumption is made for the best of point outside would be absurd ; for, as we have shown, though reasons-namely, that of experience. All the simpler cases of a force may act or push through a point of empty space, it can motion confirm it, and all the more complicated can be make no impression on that point, either in the way of strain accounted for by it. A ball falls to the ground in a right line — or motion, and therefore cannot come under the consideration of that which points to the centre of the earth, whence the force Mechanics. of attraction which moves it acts. The billiard-ball moves in a 3. The Magnitude of a Force.—To find a suitable measure of right line; and the calculations of the skilful player, which are the intensity or magnitude of a force, we must also look to based on the supposition that it so moves, are never found to experience. It would be very convenient to measure forces be wrong. A ship, with her sails square set and wind aft, moves by comparing them with weights; but this is not always in a right line; and to make it leave that line the steersman practicable, and, even if it were, it would not answer all the must put the helm to port or starboard, and by turning the purposes of Mechanics. I may as well, therefore, explain to you face of the rudder against the water, cause another force to be the perfect method, as that is as simple as any other. Experiapplied to the ship across the line of its course, and at her stern, ence teaches that a double force produces a double velocity, a turning her round. It is true that the stone thrown obliquely treble force a treble velocity, and so on, in any body to which it into the air moves in a curved path; but in this case we know is applied. But then a difficulty occurs: the same force will that there are two forces—not one only-acting on it, namely, produce different velocities in bodies of different sizes. If it the original impulse, which makes it move in a right line, make a ball of one pound weight move at a certain rate, it will and the earth's attraction, which pulls it from that line into a give double that speed to a half-pound ball, and half to one of curved course. Moreover, all the calculations on which are two pounds. As a general rule, the greater the mass of the based the predictions of astronomers as to the places in which body, the less the speed produced. Everybody is familiar with the sun, moon, and planets will be on a certain day, hour, and this fact. We see, then, that if we desire to measure forces by minute, are based on this assumption, that forces act in right the velocities they produce, we must try them on bodies of some lines ; and the predictions invariably prove true. Our first fixed weight or mass. Tried on this particular mass, experience mechanical axiom may, therefore, on the ground of experience teaches that that which produces the greater velocity is the be assumed to be true-namely, that the direction in which a greater force. Now, the mass of matter which mechanicians force acts is that of a right line. Indeed, it is not easy to choose for this purpose is that of any substance which is equal conceive how it could act otherwise.
in weight to a cubic inch of distilled water. That much matter 2. The Point of Application of a Force.—The direction of a is designated the Unit of Mass, and for a reason I shall force being disposed of, we must fix our ideas as to its point of hereafter more fully explain. Imagine, then, a round ball, say application. The rule is, that any point on the line of its direc- of ivory, whose weight is that of a cubic inch of pure water, tion may be considered such; but this you must understand and suppose that several forces are in succession applied to it; with a limitation, or exception, which should not be forgotten. the velocities they produce will be accurate measures of their The point of application can only be on so much of the line of intensities, or of their magnitudes. direction as lies within the body. For instance, suppose a person But, then, how are the velocities to be ascertained ? Clearly to push with an iron rod, which he holds in his hand, at the by the spaces the ball would move over in any given time, say point A (as in the diagram), against a block of iron which lies the unit of time-a second-on the force being applied to it. on a table. Then, clearly A is the point of application of the Suppose, then, the unit ivory ball, put on a perfectly smooth force with which he pushes. Let now a hole be drilled through floor, and then suddenly struck by a blow equal to the force you the block in the direction of the push from A to E, into which the want to measure. By some means—and there are many which rod may fit closely but freely; and also other holes, downwards, may be devised-manage to ascertain the distance the ball moves b B, C c, d D, to meet the passage, A E, into which thumbscrews, over in one second. That space, or length of line, will be the b, c, d, are fitted. Let the rod now be passed through the measure of the force; and if any number of such forces be tried block so as to emerge at the other side, and clamp it down in the same way and on the same ball, that which causes it to firmly by the thumb-screw, b. If it be now pushed against the move over the greater space is the greater force, over a double block with the same force as before, it is clear that the force space a double force, and so on. will be arrested by the thumb-screw, b, at B, and that B will The final result, then, is that, in considering a force in become its point of application to the body. So, in like manner, Mechanics, we must first suppose drawn within the body a line may it be applied to c and D, by tightening in succession each representing its direction. Then, on that line, let any point be screw, while the others are left loose. In all these cases the taken for its point of application. Thirdly, on the line of force is the same, and the direction the same ; but the points of direction so fixed, let as many inches be measured from the application are different. But will the effects in the several point of application as, on any scale you agree to use, represents cases be different? No; for the portion of the rod within the the space the force would cause the unit ivory ball to move over block, and extending from A to any of the points of application, in one second. Then you have a line which also in magnitude performs the same part in transmitting the force from A to the represents the force. Or in fewer words, point within, as the iron which was removed did when the force A FORCE is represented, both in magnitude and in direcwas first applied directly at A. The removed iron has its place tion, by a finite right line passing through its point of appli. filled by an equivalent of that metal in rod, and the body is cation. virtually in its original condition. The force of the hand may If in the above explanations I have succeeded in giving you still be considered applied at a, thence to be transmitted to B, clear notions of the aim of Mechanics, and of the nature and or C, or D, as we please, by the portion of rod within. The effects of force, you are prepared for the consideration of a second caso becomes identical with the first, and the effects, force, or forces, applied to a single point, which will be the therefore, must be identical in every respect; and, nothing subject of our next Lesson
LESSONS IN FRENCH.-II.
grave accents, and is placed over each of the vowels except y. SECTION I-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued).
It indicates that the letter over which it is placed has a sound
twice as long as it has without it, viz.:-
Gite, Mé-lée, Tête. French language constitutes a marked peculiarity which cannot This accent also indicates the suppression of the letter s, escape the attention of the student. Rarely, except in elemen- after the vowel over which it is placed; thus tary works of the English language, is the syllable of any given
18. But it is not so in the French language: here, accents of were formerly written various kinds are constantly meeting the eye on every page.
The s was not sounded, but gave to the preceding vowel that word which must receive the stress of voice in common pro- prolonged sound now represented by the circumflex accent. nunciation.
The circumflex accent also serves to distinguish parts of 19. Modern French grammarians have established the follow-speech from each other; thus, ing rule, namely:-to place the stress of voice on the last pronounced Crű is a participle from the verb Sar is an adjective. syllable of every word.
$ur is a preposition. 20. A slight inspection only of the following examples will
Cru is a noun and adjective. Ta is a participle from the verb illustrate the above remarks.
Dú ís a participle from the verb
Tu is & pronoun. 1. Dé-vo-rer (pronounced Day.vo-ray).
is an article and noun. The first syllable of this word is marked with an accent; must 26. Besides the three kinds of accents just enumerated, cer. the stress of voice, therefore, be placed upon the syllable de ? tain other marks or signs are used, called No: if the rule be applied to this word, the stress of voice falls on the last syllable, rer.
Cedilla, Diæresis, Hyphen, and Apostrophe. It will then be asked, What is the use of this accent? We The CEDILLA ($) is a peculiar mark, somewhat resembling & answer, It modifies the sound of the vowel over which it is placed. figure 5 inverted, and placed only under the letter c, before the 2 Lé-gère-ment (pronounced Lay-zbair-mon, with the sound of the vowels a, o, and u, thus: ç. final n suspended).
It indicates that the letter c under which it is placed, has the Again, the word used now as an example has the same kind soft sound of ss, as in the word lesson :of an accent as the word used in the previous example had; and Çà pronounced ssà.
Façonner, pronounced fas-son-nay. also, it is placed over the same vowel. But it has another dif
dus-sà. Maçon ferent accent over the first vowel of the second syllable; and, Façade
Reçu according to the rule, the stress of voice is not placed either
27. The DLÆRESIS (“) consists of two dots placed over the opon the first or second syllable, but upon the last.
vowels e, i, and u. It shows that the vowel over which it is This second accent (observe its form and position) only serves placed is pronounced separately from the preceding vowel, thus to modify the sound of the vowel over which it is placed. Some indicating, in reality, a distinct syllable, as :times, however, an accent is placed over a vowel of the syllable which, according to the rule, receives the stress of voice, viz.:
Naiveté pronounced Na-ive-té. Célé-bri-té.
28. The HYPHEN (-) is a short horizontal mark, which is used Again, in the word used here as an example, a third and still to connect words and syllables, as :different accent is placed over the vowel a. Its presence affects
Celui-ci, Demi-kilomètre, the sound of that vowel only. It has nothing whatever to do with
Its use in connecting syllables is precisely the same as in the rue, the stress of voice is not so strong in the French as in the English language ; that is, when a word is divided, so that a English language.
part of it is at the extreme right hand of a line, and the rest at 21. Accents, therefore, as used in the French language, are
the extreme left of the line following. certain marks differing from each other, and placed over certain end of letters instead of at the lower end, or at the bottom on
29. The APOSTROPHE (') is like a comma placed at the upper rowels only, for specific purposes.
a line with the lower end. 22. There are three accents, viz.:-,
Its use is to show the elision, or cutting off, of a vowel before called the Acute accent (thus, é)
words commencing with a vowel or h mute, and is much used in Grave ( e)
the French language, as:-Circumflex (
L'ami, instead of le ami.
L'homme, instead of le homme. 23. The acute accent is used only over the vowel e, and
30. The EUPHONIC T is thus called on account of its peculiar Secondly, to mark the existence of a distinct and final position between two parts of speech, viz., the verb and the
It is used only in asking questions, and then a hyphen is
placed both before and after it, thus :24. The grave accent is used only over the vowels a, e, and A-t-elle ? A-t-il ? Ira-t-on ? Demande-t-on ?
Parle-t-il ? Va-t-on ?
This letter cannot be translated, because it has no meaning. and serves two purposes :
It is thus used merely for the sake of euphony, or agreeable First, to modify the sound of the vowel e.
sound. Secondly, to distinguish one part of speech from another; 31. PARENTHESIS AND PUNCTUATION.-In the French lan
guage, the marks used in punctuation, etc., are the same, and a is a verb.
la is an article. ou is a conjunction. used for the same purposes, as in the English language. (Sco à
» preposition. la adverb. où is an adverb, READING AND ELOCUTION.) 25. The circumflex accent is the union of the acute and
SECTION IV.- THE ARTICLE USED PARTITIVELY. It is impossible to find, in the English language, perfect equiva
1. The article, preceded by or contracted with the preposition lents for en, on; the former sound finds a near approach in aunt and de [Sect. III. 1, 2], is placed in French before words used in a can't, and the latter in Mon-ta-gue, Song, etc.
partitive sense. Such words may generally be known in English
syllable, as :