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Take a low sound for the key-note. Sing, when you have the dotted open note and the close note, to show that these two traced the tone on the modulator, rapidly and lightly, marking notes should be sung as one. The note is written in this way, delicately the accents. In singing from the book, your eye will instead of being written as a dotted open note without a stem scarcely rest on the soft accents. You will only have time to think (which would give the same length), that the accent may be of the " loud" and "medium" marks. (A curve is placed over marked.]

(The words from "Ballads for the Times,” by M. F. Tupper, Esq.) KEY F. M. 96.

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You should take a rather low note for your Dos here. Tell to the other note in this case ME. When you have carefully For patterning friend—“the key of F with one flat.” The first traced the first phrase of the tune (five notes) on the modulator, thing you will notice, in looking at this tune, is, that some of then sing it with special attention to this point-letting the the "aliquota” or pulses have two notes in them. The dot notes SoH ME (which are placed in one pulse of the voice) rum which follows Son, the second note, always means that the note from your tongue just twice as fast as the others. And so on before it takes half a pulee. It, of course, leaves the other half with the rest. You will notice that both the first and second

en. 00.

ooe OT wce.
un or wl,
nee or wee.










parts of the tune are repeated, so that it is not so long as it vowels, in the same word, are thus divided, to show their prolooks. If you find the “ second" part of the tune low for your nunciation :-voice, pitch the key-note a little higher. Be careful to point on iai i-ai


ou-i the modulator from memory. Remember that every tune, thus iau i-au

uai u-ai

ieu thoroughly learnt, becomes a power by which others will be



u-ei ooah or wah. nio

u-ie more easily mastered. You need not attempt the words yet.


uuh. When you do, let those printed in CAPITALS bo sung with increased force and loudness of voice, and those in italics with in. 70. Diphthongs of four successive vowels in the same word are creased softnoss. [The square note is used to indicate the place thus divided for pronunciation :of Don at the beginning of the staff, but it is not to be sung.

onai ou-ai The place of Don, being thus once marked, is not afterwards


oute ou-6 indicated by a square note as in previous exercises. The pupil

ooay. must learn to keep the place of Dor in his mind. The notes

VIL. NASAL VOWEL SOUNDS. with a tail to the stem are to bo sung half as long as those

71. The sound of am and an, em and en, im and in, is reprowithout the tail.]

sented by the letters anh, and is like the sound of the letters an

in the English words an-chor and can-ker, with an effort to speak LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XIV.

through the nose, as it is termed. But be particular to avoid

the sound of English g in all nasals. SECTION 1.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued). There is, striotly speaking, a real difference between the VI. DIPHTHONGS (continued).

nasal sounds of an, en, and in, but it is so slight, and so pecu

liarly delicate, that scarcely any one not a native Frenchman UA.-Name, wah. Sound: this diphthong has the com- can detect and describe it intelligibly. In common reading and bined sound of the French u, together with that of a in the conversation, these nasals above-mentioned have but one sound, English word fat, unless the latter be under a circumflex accent; viz., that which has been assigned them in our previous Lessons. in which last case the a has the sound of a in the English It is considered correct enough for all practical purposes. word mark.

When extraordinary nicety of pronunciation is demanded, as FRENCH.

is always the case in asing the language of prayer, and in holy PRONUN. ENGLISH FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. Ecuage Ay-kuazh Scutage (in Guano


and devotional language, the a of the nasals am and an should

feudallaw). Huard
Var Soa-eagle.

be pronounced broader than the e or i in the nasals en, en, im, Empuan. Anh-puanh. To infect.

Nuazh Cloud. and in. In the former case, let the a have the sound of ah; in ter tay Puant Puanh Ofonsive. the latter, the sound of a in the word fat.

The sound of om and on is represented by the letters onk, Sometimes this diphthong has the sound of a in the English and is like the sound of the letters on in the English word conword fat, viz. :

quer, uttered with an effort to speak through the nose, as it is Aiguade Ay-gad A watering-place.


The sound of um and un is represented by the letters unh, To an Englishman, at least, the sound of a w is naturally and is like the sound of the letters un in the English word un-cle, suggested in the pronunciation of this diphthong.

uttered with an effort to speak through the nose. We might illustrate its sound by the use of a w in the above Concerning these nasals, remember these two general rules, words, viz. :

viz. :

Rule 1.- Single m's and n's followed by vowels are not Ecuage Ay-k'wazh



nasals. Empuanter Anh-pownh-tay. Nuage



Rule 2.— When the m and n are doubled, the nasality is

destroyed. This last illustration, however, is not strictly correct, becanse Exceptions to this last Rule will appear in their proper places. it do not preserve the distinct sound of the French w, which We now proceed to illustrate these nasal sounds, commencing sound, especially in combination, many Frenchmen themselves with examples in which the sounds am and an are found. are not careful to preserve. In common conversation, this diphthong sounds like an English w.


In French words commencing with qua, the diphthong ua has


Embassy. two different sounds. In some the sound of ua would be illus. Ambre


Amber. trated by the letters koua or k'wa, but in others by ka, viz. :- Chambre


Chambor. Quadrangle is pronounced kouah-dranh-gl', or k'wah-dranh-gl.

AN, Quadrature, a geometrical phrase, is pronounced kouah-dra- FRENCH.


ENGLISH. ture, or k'wah-dra-ture. But the same word, used as a term of Ancêtres


Ancestors. horology, is pronounced kah-dra-ture.


Quai, a wharf, is pronounced kay.



Quoiche, a naval term, meaning a ketch, is pronounced kaish.

Until the learner has become really familiar with the French Aim, ain, and ein have each the nasal sound of an, repre. language, the surest way to be correct in the use and pronun- sented by anh. The reason will be obvious, if we but dissect ciation of words commencing with cua, will be to consult a these combinations, which we now proceed to do, viz.:dictionary.

In the first, aim, ai is equivalent in sound to a only; hence, UE.-Name, we. Sound: this diphthong oocars most fre- substituting a for ai in the combination aim, we have simply quently as the final letters of French words, after the consonants am, whose sound has been explained. g and q, in which cases both are silent.

In the second, ain, its sound is represented by anh, for the When final, and before other consonants, thcy have the usual same reason. sound of the French u.

In the third, ein, ci is equivalent only to a in sound; hence, UI.-Name, we. Sound: this diphthong has the combined substituting a in the place of ei in the combination ein, we have sound of the French u, together with that of French é, which an, whose sound is represented by anh. latter is like the letters ee in the English word bce.

Again, ean and oan have each the nasal sound represented by

the letters anh. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH Appui Ap-puior A-pwee Support. Oui

Aen in the proper name Caen have also the sound of an,

Ooee or Wee Yes. Conduite Konh-d'weet Tube. Puissance P'wee-sanhs Power,

represented by the letters anh; hence the word Caen is proHuit Ueet or Weet Eight. Ruine Rueen

or Ruin,

nounced Kanh. Lui Luee or L'wee Him.


The following will afford good examples in illustration of the Nuit Nuee or N'wee Night.

(trill ther)

nasal vowel sounds em and en :69. The ten diphthongal combinations of three successive

• Like the sound of e muto.

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Ils sont quelque part.

They are somewhere,

Ils ne sont nulle part.

They are nowhere,


Est-ce que je demeure chez vous ? Do I live at your house ?
Aull-ploah or p!'wah

Do I eat too much?

Est-ce que je mange trop ?



Absent, -e, absent.

Time. Temps or Tema Tanh

Concert, m., concert. Noir, -e, black. Adresse, f., address. Couper, 1, to cut. Perruquier, m., hain Banque, f., bank. Cuir, m., leather.


Banquier, m., bankor. Depuis, since.

Point, not.
Beeanh (one syll.)

Billet, m., note.

Ecole, f., school. Poste, f., post-ofice.

Bois, m., wood.

Écolier, m., schelar, Rouge, red.

To charm.

Chapeau, m., hat. Eglise, f., church. Village, m., village.

Chapelier, m., haiter. Marché, m., market.

Vert, -e, green.

Appointed place.



1. Où est-ce que je vais ? 2. Vous allez chez le chapelier. Surprendre Sur-pranhdr

To surprise.

3. Est-ce que je vais à la banque ? 4. Vous allez à la banquo SECTION XXIV.--INTERROGATIVE FORM OF PRESENT

et au concert. 5. Est-ce que je coupe votre bois ? 6. Vous INDICATIVE.

ne coupez ni mon bois ni mon habit. 7. Est-ce que je porte un

chapeau vert ? 1. In the first person singular of the present of the indicative

8. Vous ne portez pas un chapeau vert, vous en of almost all those French verbs which in that person have only portez un noir.. 9. Votre écolier va-t-il quelque part é 10. 11

va à l'église, à l'école et au marché. 11. Ne va-t-il pas chez le one syllable, the common interrogative form (Sect, XXII. 9) is perruquier ? 12. Il ne va nulle part. 13. Ne portez-vous point not allowed. To render the verb interrogative, the expression des bottes de cuir rouge ? 14. J'en porte de cuir noir. ,15. Est-ce que is prefixed to the affirmative form (S 98 (5) (6)].

N'allez-vous pas chez le banquier ? 16. Je ne vais pas chez lui; Est-ce que je vends du drap ? Do I sell cloth ?

il est absent depuis hier. 17. Vient-il à la banque ce matin ? Est-ce que je joue souvent ? Do I play often?

18. I a l'intention d'y venir, s'il a le temps.* 19. A-t-il envio 2. The first person singular of the indicative of avoir, to have; d'aller au concert ? 20. Il a grande envie d'y aller, mais il n'a eze, to be; aller, to go; pouvoir, to be able; devoir, to owe;

pas de billet. 21. Demeurez-vous dans ce village ? 22. Oui, savoir, to know, etc., may, however, be conjugated interroga- Monsieur, j'y demeure. 23. Envoyez-vous ce billet à la poste ? tirely according to the general rules.

24. Je l'envoie à son adresse.
Ai-je vos mouchoirs ?
Have I your handkerchiefs ?

Combien vous dois-je ?
How much do I owe you ?

1. Do I wear my large black hat? 2. You wear a handsome

3. Does the banker go to the hairdresser's this 3. The form est-ce que is always allowable, and sometimes green hat. preferable, when the first person singular of the present of the morning?. 4. He goes there this morning. 5. Does he intend indicative of a verb has several syllables ($ 98 (6)].

to go to the bank this morning ? 6. He does not intend to go

there, he has no time. 7. Do you send your letters to the postEst-ce que je vous envoie des livres? Do I send you books ?

office? 8. I do not send them, they are not yet written (écrites). Est-ce que je commence à parler ? Do I begin to speak ?

9. Do I send you a note ? 10. You send me a ticket, but I have 4. Est-ce que may, in familiar conversation, be used with all no wish to go to the concert. 11. Does your brother go to the persons of those tenses susceptible of being conjugated in school to-morrow? 12. He goes (there) to-day, and remains at terrogatively:--Qu'est-ce que vous lisez ? may be said, instead home to-morrow. 13. Do I go there? 14. You do not go of, Que lisez-vous ? What do you read ?

anywhere. 15. Where do you go? 16. I am going to your

brother's, is he at home? 17. He is not at home, he is absent 5. INTERROGATIVE FORM OF THE INDICATIVE PRESENT OF since yesterday. 18. Does your brother live in this village ? ALLER, to go. ENTOYER, to send. VENIR, to come.

19. He does not [Sect. XXIII. 12], he lives at my nephew's. Est-ce que je vais ? do Est-ce que j'envoie ? do Est-ce que je viens? 20. Are you wrong to go to school ? 21. No, Sir, I am right to

I 90, or am I going! I send, or am I sending? do I come, or am I go to church and to school. 22. Do you wish to come to my
Vis-tu ?
Envoies-tu ?

Viens-tu ? [coming? house ? 23. I like to go to your house, and to your brother's
Va-t-il ?
Envoie-t-il ?


24. When are you coming to our house ? 25. To-morrow, if I Allons-nous ? Envoyons-nous ?

Venons-nous ?

have time. 26. Does the banker like to come here ? 27. He Allez-vous ? Envoyez-vous ?

Venez-vous ? Voat-ils?

likes to come to your house. 28. Is the hairdresser coming ? Envoient-ils ?

Viennent-ils ?

29. He is not yet coming. 30. What are you sending to the 6. The article le, preceded by the preposition à, is contracted scholar ? 31. I am sending books, paper, and clothes. 32. into au before a noun masculine commencing with a consonant, Where is he ? 33. He is at school. 34. Is the school in the or an h aspirate; and into aux before a plural noun (S 13 (8)]. village ? 35. It is there. Allez-vous au bal ou au marché ? Do you go to the ball or to the market? 7. À l'eglise means at or to church; à l'école, at or to school.

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-VII. Nous allons à l'église et à l'école, We go to church and to school.

SECTION XI.-REPRESENTATIVES FOR LEAVES IN 8. Quelque part means somewhere, anywhere ; nulle part,


LEAVES, properly so called, only exist on plants which bear Votre neveu où est-il ? Where is your nepherc?

flowers. The reader may test this by his own experience. Dia Il est quelque part, He is somewhere.

he ever see a leaf on a mushroom, or a moss, or any other He is nowhere.

cryptogamic plant? Probably he may say, “Yes, I have seen RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

them on ferns, and these are cryptogamic plants.” Well, wo Est-ce que je vais à l'école ? Do I go to school ?

have already stated that the leaf-like expansions on ferns are Vous allez à l'église aujourd'hui. You go to church to-day.

not leares, but fronds, and we have explained the distinction Est-ce que je commence mon tra- Do I begin my work ?

between a leaf and a frond. It only remains to be said, in

connection with this subject, that the little stem to which these Est-ce que je parle Anglais ? Do I speak English ? Est-ce que j'envoie ce livre à mon

fronds are attached, and which corresponds to a petiole in a real Do I sond this book to my brother ?

leaf, is denominated a stipes, from the Latin stipes, the trunk of ANəz-vous au marché demain ?

& tree. Do you go to market to-morrow ?

In the next page is a representation of one of the tree5s vais apris.demain. I go there the day after to-morrow ?

ferns of tropical climates, the trunk of which is denominated a Envoyez-vous vos enfants à l'école? Do you send your children to school ? caudex, from the Latin cauder, a stem. La les envoie chez le professeur, I send them to the profossor's. Je les y envoie cette après-midi. I send them there this ofternoon.

The i of si is elided before il, ils, but in no other case. This is the Vor habits où sont-ils ? Wheure are your clothes ?

only instance of the elision of i,


Il n'est nulle part,

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In past ages these tree-ferns must have been amongst the look at and agreeable to smell, the botanist is obliged trequentiy most numerous of vegetable productions. Coal, we need hardly to destroy them before he can make himself acquainted with the say, is well known to be nothing more than the remains of peculiarities of their structure; that is to say, he is obliged to vegetable substances, so long buried under great pressure in the out or pull their various organs from their attachments; this earth that they have changed to the condition in which we at operation is termed dissection. Presently, then, we shall have present find them. Notwithstanding the change of quality, yet to dissect a flower and learn its various parts. As a preliminary in many cases the original shape of the vegetable has not under- to this examination, however, it will be necessary that the learner gone alteration. So that a person sufficiently acquainted with should make himself acquainted with some general terms emBotany can readily tell the kind of plant from which any speci. ployed in this department of Botany. men of coal under consideration has been formed.

First of all, then, the manner in wbich flowers are arranged Although fronds are the substitutes for leaves in ferns and upon any plant is termed the inflorescence of that plant. By several other cryptogamic plants, nevertheless these organs are this term botanists understand not merely the flower itself, but not the universal substitutes; but the general complexity of various appendages to the flower; in short, the term inflorescence cryptogamic plants, the microscopic nature of these organs, and has a very wide signification. the comparatively limited acquaintance with this division of the vegetable world, render it undesirable to state much concerning

SECTION XIV.-MANNER IN WHICH FLOWERS ARE them in a series of papers like these, in which so many tribes of

ATTACHED. flowering plants claim our notice.

The attachment of flowers to the parent stem usually takes SECTION XII.

place through the intervention of a little branch-like appendage, - ON THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF PLANTS : THE FLOWER AND ITS APPENDAGES.

to which the term peduncle, or occasionally pedicel, is applied.

The reader will therefore remember that a peduncle or pedicel Having written what is necessary concerning the nutritive stands to a flower in the same relation as a petiole to a leaf. It parts of plants, we shall now de

is also called the primary axis of scribe their reproductive members,

inflorescence, and the flower-stalks the flower and its appendages. It

which spring from it are called would be folly, indeed, to describe

the secondary, tertiary, etc., axes. formally what is meant by a flower,

These pedicels or flower-stalks are but the purposes to which a flower

arranged on various plants in difis designed in the economy of vege

ferent ways, and thus give rise to table nature will require our atten.

various terms indicative of the native consideration. Without flowers

ture of inflorescence. The word there could be no fruit; without

peduncle is derived from the low fruit there can be no seed; and

Latin pedunculus, a little foot, while without the latter the greater num

pedicel is derived from the Latin ber of vegetables could not be

pediculus, which has the same meanmultiplied. The reason, then, for

ing. Both words are diminutives denominating flowers the reproduc

of the Latin pes, a foot. tive organs of plants will be mani.

The inflorescence, or mode of fest. To state this fact, that flowers

flowering, is said to be definite or are the reproductive portions of a

terminal when the primary axis is plant, is very easy. To demon

terminated by a flower. When the strate, however, the elaborate means

original stem goes on growing in by which the functions of reproduc

a straight line, giving off as it protion are discharged is very difficult.

ceeds little flower-shoots or secondIndeed, the laws affecting the mul.

ary axes of various degrees on tiplication of animals and vegetables

either side, but does not terminate 80 similar in many respects,

in a flower, then the term indefinite that many of the terms employed

inflorescence is applied; the proin this department of Botany are

priety of which term will be obborrowed from the sister studies of

vious. The term axillary is someanimal anatomy and physiology ;

times given to this condition of and without some preliminary know

inflorescence. If the reader glance ledge of these sciences it would be


for an instant at Fig. 60 in the next to impossible to make the

opposite page, he will be at reader comprehend the intricacies of vegetable reproductions. no loss to comprehend what is meant by indefinite or

We therefore shall not attempt to deal with these intricacies, axillary inflorescence. The reader will here please to obbut shall content ourselves by saying that all plants most pro- serve the little leaf-like things from the axillæ (or junctions bably, certainly all evidently-flowering or phænogamous plants, with the primary axis) of which the flower-peduncles spring possess sexes, and these sexes are usually in the same plant, in in this example. Such leaf-like appendages are frequently the same flower of the plant. Occasionally, however, the two to be seen attached to the peduncles of many flowers. They sexes are on different flowers, and sometimes on different are called bracts, from the Latin bractea, a thin plate of metal

, plants. We may, therefore, popularly say, that the greater and although their usual appearance is green like a leaf, yet they number of flowers contain both gentlemen and ladies; but occa- sometimes undergo very strange modifications. Thus, the pinesionally, on some plants, the gentlemen and ladies have flowers, apple, which we discovered long ago to be no fruit, is, in reality

, each sex to itself; and occasionally, again, the gentlemen mono- nothing more than an assemblage of fleshy bracts, and the scale polise all the flowers on one plant, and the ladies all the flowers of the fir-cone is nothing more than hard leathery bracts. In on the other. When the two sexes

reside in two sets of flowers proportion as bracts are developed nearer to a flower, so does on one plant, then such a plant is said to be monæcious,

from two their natural green colour give place to the colour of the 1 Greek words, movos (pronounced mon'-os) and Oikos (pronounced flower itself. Occasionally the flower actually springs from oʻ-kos), signifying "one house;" the plant, we suppose, being the upper surface of a bract, as in the case of the linden regarded as a house, and the flowers as chambers in the same. (Fig. 61). When, however, the males all reside in the flowers of one plant, Sometimes bracts unite at the base of each group of flowers, and the females in all the flowers of another, then such plants and on the same plane, as, for example,

we find it in the are said to be diæcious, or "two-housed,” the reason of which carrot. This association of bracts gives rise to what botanists will be obvious.

term the involucrum, a Latin word, which is derived from volvo, SECT. XIII.-ANATOMICAL EXAMINATION OF A FLOWER.

to wrap or roll, and which means anything that serves to wrap

or cover. Pleasing objects of contemplation as flowers are, beautifal to Under the classification indefinite inflorescence are compre



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