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the liberty of the subject. The wisdom of Elizabeth's advisers Englishmen could be induced to rise up and say, “This thing bad used these instruments sparingly, and had kept them as shall not be.” With a government as weak, or weaker than much as possible out of sight. They were now to fall into James's, Charles pretended even greater claims than his father, Lands which knew not how to use them wisely-hands which and exercised his prerogative even more annoyingly and more clutched the blade instead of the hilt of the weapon, and got tyrannically. He levied certain taxes on the people, not only themselves badly cut accordingly.

without the consent of Parliament, but in direct contravention The ngly instruments in question were the Star Chamber and of several statutes; he issued proclamations, and required them High Commission, tribunals unknown to the common law of the to be obeyed as laws; he resented the offer of advice as nn. land, exercising a jurisdiction quite incompatible with the exist-warrantable interference; and he refused finally to summon the ence of liberty, and apt to become the means of all sorts of counsellors, whose advice was always so unpalatable. Brought oppression. It would take too much space to examine here the up in the notion that kings are appointed directly by God, and veole history of these courts. With regard to the former of that the Church of England was also of Divine institution, he them, the Star Chamber, much ignorance prevails, and advantage put forward offensively his own claims on the one hand, and has been taken to throw a sentimental and false colour upon its backed with all his might the claims of the Church on the other. actions, with a view to making it an element in the composition In order to do this he was necessitated to employ very exten. of historical romances. It will be sufficient to say that it was sively, in the face of increasing opposition, the two courts of a court composed of the king himself, and such members of his which mention has been made. privy council as he chose to summon; that it took cognizance Two members of Parliament, Sir John Eliot and Sir Dudley of certain offences not then noticed as such by the ordinary law Digges, were imprisoned by order of the Star Chamber, for coarts, such as libel and slander, and also assumed a right to "seditious” words used by them, as members, when the Duke of take any case it chose from the consideration of the regalar Buckingham was impeached; and when the House refused to courts of law, and especially the criminal courts, and deprived a vote supplies till its members were released, the king threatened nun in this way of the right of trial by his peers, which had them, but gave way about his prisoners. Then came a series of been secured for him by Magna Charta. The lords of the attacks on the constitution by the king and his ministers, which council were at once judges and jury, even in cases where the were repelled with more or less damage to the good-will between Town was concerned; there was not any appeal from their him and his people; the king tried to govern withuat Parliaentenco, and the sentences of the court were often most ruinous ment, and Parliament was resolved there should be no peace for botwithstanding the clause of the Great Charter which forbade him if he did. With the Earl of Strafford as chief adviser in any man to be fined to such an extent as would prevent his state affairs, and Archbishop Laud as head of the Church, Charles getting a livelihood), even where they did not condemn a man strove to make himself an absolute king, caring little apparently to imprisonment, and sometimes to torture. Any punishment how rough-shod he rode over the feelings and affections of his short of death-and many of the punishments came only just people. The honour of the nation was forgotten by a disgraceful short of it-the court of Star Chamber asserted its power to foreign policy, pirates from Morocco were allowed to prey upon indict; and the claim having been put forward in aotion at a ships in the English Channel, the influence of England abroad time when men were not able to question it, came at length to had sunk to zero, and at home all power and statesmanship were be looked on almost as a matter of course, except by those who directed to the one object of laying the nation, bound hand and suffero. by it, and by those faithful guardians of the liberties of foot, at the feet of the king. England who only bided their time to announce that the court The Star Chamber was set in motion against the opponents of itxelf was an illegal thing, and ought to be abolished.

the kingly power, and indeed against all who ventured to The High Commission was a tribunal invented under Queen criticise the actions of government. Sir David Foulis was fined Wizabeth, a sort of ecclesiastical Star Chamber, composed of £5,000 for dissuading a friend from paying an unlawful tax ; Feclesiastics, who made it their business to "sniff out moral Prynne, a barrister of Lincoln's Inn, for an abusive book he had mainta, and to be down on any one who worshipped God in any written against some of the practices in the king's household, other way than that prescribed by the Church of England. It and against the ultra-High Church practices of the primate, was 128 armed with power to fine and imprison, and this power it sentenced to be disbarred, to be put in the pillory at Cheapside ased till resistance became so strong, even under Elizabeth, and at Westminster, to havo both ears cut off, to be fined

was deemed prudent to admonish it from above. It was £5,000, and to be imprisoned for life! People were ruinously sort of Protestant Inquisition ; but Englishmen were not fined for turning their arable land into pasture, in contravention Spaniards, and the seeds of priestly tyranny were crushed ero of some obscure law of Henry VII.; for refusing to lend money they could grow into a plant. Still it existed, in company with to the king; and for encroaching on the royal forests. One the star Chamber, which ever waxed more and more intolerable man, Morley, was fined £1,000 for reviling and striking one of in its administration under the successors of Elizabeth.

the king's servants at Whitehall; another, named Allison, was Men had endured much from the Tudor princes, as they fined £1,000, imprisoned, and pilloried at Westminster, for always will endure at the hands of rulers whose strong personal having said falsely that the Archbishop of York had incurred character makes them respected, even though feared; but from the king's displeasure. For calling the Earl of Suffolk “ princes of the House of Stuart, they were by no means ready to lord,"

Sir Richard Granville was ordered to pay £4,000 to the put up with insult and oppression, so that when members of earl and £4,000 to the king ; Sir G. Markham having thrashed Parliament were cited to appear in the Star Chamber to answer, Lord Darcy's huntsman for abusing him, and having promised as to a crime, for language spoken by them in their place in Par to do the like by Lord Darcy, should he approve his servant's rament, they resisted, and remonstrated with the king, and conduct, was fined £10,000.* Landed proprietors being ordered ceclared what he had done to be a breach of privilege of by the king's proclamation not to live idly in London, but to go Parliament. Against other acts of the Star Chamber, and of to their estates, were fined in the Star Chamber for non-comthe government, the Houses also protested, and Paritans in pliance. In 1637 Burton, a divine, and Bastwick, a physician,

as well as in religion, who had been trained up in were condemned for sedition and schism to the same punishment Elizabeth's parliaments, and who sat in the parliaments of as had been inflicted on Prynne, and that unfortunate man James, uttered their words of remonstrance and warning, not having again offended, was further mutilated and fined another fearing even the dismal dungeons in the Tower, which the £5,000. Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, was fined £10,000, and chances were would be their reward for their boldness.

sent to the Tower, for some trumpery offence against Laud; The king was despicable, his government was weak; the Osbaldistone, the master of Westminster School, for having Parliament men were for the most part noble, and unquestion nicknamed Laud in a letter to Williams, was ordered to be ably they were strong ; so all through the reign of James I., pilloried before all his school, and to pay £5,000, but he saved 1603-1625, there were perpetual conflicts between the sovereign himself by fight. Lilburne, charged with distributing seditious and the people, and though when the king died the Crown had pamphlets, was whipped by the hangman, pilloriod, and imnot given up any of its so-called prerogatives, there had been prisoned with irons on him. conjured ap a deep spirit of resistance to them, a spirit which It was under circumstances like these, when despair seemed Cound expression in the reign of James's successor, his ill-fated son, Charles I.

* This case occurred in the previous reign, but it shows the tension But much had yet to be borne before order-loving, law-fearing to which the power of the court could be strung.

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to have seized the minds of mon; when the king was hurrying Earl of Strafford, the supporter of the impeachment of Land, forward headlong in a caroer of violent misgovernment, and no the life and soul of all the constitutional opposition which the one was found to stand in his way and stop his mad course ; parliament made to the king. His name is not to the warrant when oppression seemed to be triumphant, and right and justice for the execution of Charles I. (January 30, 1648-49), though were openly trodden under foot; when honour had gone from with Hampden, Hazelrig, and two more, he was one of those England, and the homes of her people were no longer pleasant five members whose arrest the king in 1641 endeavoured to places, that Hampden, and Pym, and Hazelrig, and Cromwell effect in person (see "Historic Sketches,” IV., page 120); but proposed to quit her shores and begin life anew in America. his name stands out brilliantly among those advanced patriots The royal order, arbitrarily issued, prevented them as we have and purely disinterested men who in 1641, immediately after seen. They returned to their homes and their duties, and when, the execution of Lord Strafford, wrung from the king a consent compelled as a last resource to summon Parliament, whose to the abolition by statute of the courts of Star Chamber and advice he had not sought for eleven years, the king again ad. | High Commission. dressed the House of Commons, these men were in their places, Of Oliver Cromwell, the fourth man among the detained, resolved to do their duty to the uttermost, even to exceed it ! it is unnecessary now to write. Much has been said for him,

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some will say. Be that as it may, of the men whom Charles's much more, but less weighty, has been said against him; but order stopped from emigrating, Hampden in the same year his name and his character have brightened since the light of brought forward the question of the king's right to levy taxes, honest, critical inquiry was turned upon him. Some there are when he resisted even to trial the demand which was made who cannot admire him enough for his policy, which raised the on him for ship-money; and he fell subsequently, mortally foreign influence of England to a height it had not attained wounded, at Chalgrove, early in the war between the king and since Henry the Fifth was crowned in France, and which at the parliament. Sir Arthur Hazelrig was foremost among the home brought order, albeit by a stern method, out of the chaos more intemperate enemies of the king in all the subsequent into which the Great Rebellion had thrown all things. Others troubles, but he did not identify himself remarkably with any of there are who seem to think that nothing can atone for a usur. the great questions upon which the sword had finally to pro- pation which nevertheless declined to perpetuate itself by este nounce judgment. Of Pym much, but scarcely enough, has been blishing a dynasty, and who can never forgive or forget the fact written. Unselfish, truly persuaded as to the course he was that Cromwell's name appears among the first signatures on pursuing, unswerving in his fidelity to that course, incorruptible, Charles's death-warrant, and that but for him that death warrant calm amidst tumults, a fountain of wisdom in a sea of folly, he would never have been written.* was eminently fitted for the post which he a long while filled, that of leader of the popular party in the House of Commons. • For Synopsis of Events in the Life and Reign of Charles I., and He was the framer of the articles of impeachment against the | List of Contemporary Sovereigns, see page 122.

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY.–VII.

nected with mental operations. Their uses have more relation

to our animal than to our intellectual life, and the appetites THE ORGAN OF SMELL.

which arise from a desire to gratify these senses have always In the preceding articles on the organs of sight and hearing been considered to be less refined and more sensual than those it was remarked that while the sensations excited through their which pertain to the senses of sight and hearing. It is true agency were so different, the external causes which operated on that a spurious delicacy and refinement of the sense of smell the

eye and ear respectively were not dissimilar, Rapid vibra- have caused the wealthier classes in times of high civilisation tions, propagated by bodies themselves in violent but otherwise to delight in costly and rare essences and scents; but the unnoticed vibration, are conveyed through intervening media extensive use of those has been the characteristic of effeminate for great, and, in the case of light, unlimited distances, by races, and of times when civilisation, in its highest sense, had waves which are capable of indicating the direction from which begun to succumb to luxury. When Rome boasted of her

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I. TERTICAL SECTION OF HUMAN HEAD, SHOWING THE RELATION OF THE PASSAGES FOR AIR AND FOOD. II. FRAMEWORK OF THE NOSE.

III. MUSCLES OF THE NOSE. IV. SEPTUM OF THE NOSE AND ITS NERVES. Ref. to Nos. in Figs.-I. 1, upper turbinated bone ; 2, middle do. ; 3, lower do. ; 4, hole leading to the canal which drains the eye; 5, Eusta

chian hole; 6, palate; 7, uvula ; 8, epiglottis ; 9, pharynx; 10, larynx ; 11, cricoid cartilage ; 12, thyroid cartilage ; 13, cavity of the month. II. 1, part of upper jaw bone ; 2, nose bone; 3, upper side cartilage ; 4, lower do.; 5, cellular tissue. III. 1, pyramidal muscle of the nose ; 2, muscle to lift the side cartilages; 3, compressor of the nose ; 4, front dilator of the nostril; 5, small compressor of the nostril ; 6, hind dilator of the nostril; 7, muscle to pull down the side cartilages. IV. 1, nerve of the lobe of nose; 2, olfactory lobe ; 8, nerves of the septum ; 4, nerve of palate.

they proceed. These vibrations, therefore, can inform the mind costly perfumes, she had almost ceased from the prouder boast concerning objects far removed from its instrument, the body, of being mistress of the world; and the more manly tone of with an accuracy which makes us scorn the idea that we can be modern and western society has decided between Hotspur and deceived in that which our eyes have seen and our ears heard. the fop, to the prejudice of the latter. Through these avenues the human mind extends itself, till it Matter or material substances exist in three forms—the solid, touches, and by the aid of reason may be said to grasp, the liquid, and gaseous; and almost all substances can be made to universe ; and the highest powers of mind are employed assume each of these forms. Thus ice may be transformed in interpreting the messages brought to us by light and into water and into steam. When the particles of matter sound.

hang together so closely and rigidly that they will not move In marked contrast to these are the remaining senses of over one another without the application of force, they form a which we have to write-namely, those of smell, taste, and solid. When the particles hang together so loosely that they touch. These senses are excited by material particles applied will move over and

round each other with the slightest force, directly to those parts of the body which can take note of their so that they can scarcely be said to hang together at all, the peculiar qualities, and hence they are far less necessarily con- substance is called a liquid. When the particles act only do

not hang together, but exert a force to fly off from one another, entrance above, and the epiglottis is bent down, while the sides the substance they form is called a gas. The sense of touch, of the hole below are so contracted beneath its overhanging strictly and properly defined--that is, excluding the sensation and protecting hood, that the food passes over it, and the drink of heat and of resistance-has to do with solids. The sense of on each side of it, without danger of their making an entrance taste has to do with liquids only, as nothing is sapid which is into the larynx. It will be seen that the effluvium from food not liquid or capable of being dissolved. The sense of smell not only rises into the nasal organ when it is presented to the occupies itself with gases; for these alone can gain access to mouth, but passes to it, also, after it has been introduced into the organ, or cause the sensation of smell. Lest the reader the mouth, so that the nose is an effective guard to this entrance, should suppose this statement opposed to the testimony of his as well as to that which it more immediately occupies. experience, from the well-known fact that solids, such as cedar- The external protecting framework, or nose, covers in the wood, camphor, and musk, excite the sensation of smell, while nasal chambers in front, and, on account of its oblique direction, ordinary scents are preserved and carried about in a liquid overhangs the orifices, which are further defended from intrusive form, it must be explained that these substances contain volatile solids by a number of stiff hairs. At the upper part, or roof of essential principles, which, on free exposure to the air, are slowly the nose, this framework is of bone, because there no flexibility given off in a state of vapour. Some solids give off particles is required, but towards the point it is composed of cartilages, of their substance in a state of vapour without first becoming which are more elastic, and which can also move in relation to liquid, as is ordinarily the case. Thus snow, which coats the one another, while the outer and lower sides of the orifices are earth in winter, will diminish daily, even though the air is composed of yet more bendable cellular tissue. These wings of frosty, and there is no melting process going on. In other the nose can play up and down, and to and from, the central cases, as in cedar-wood, oils naturally volatile seem to be long partition by the action of muscles, so as to enlarge, contract, or entangled in the solid matter, and but slowly rendered to the slightly alter the direction of the openings; but the framework air; but their odoriferous power is so great that very small is, nevertheless, stiff enough to keep the nostrils moderately portions of them produce strong perfumes. This is sometimes distended while in a state of rest. Stretching horizontally truly wonderful. Dr. Carpenter states that a grain of musk backward from the nose are the nasal chambers, divided from may be freely exposed to the air for ten years, during which one another by a plain partition, which is bony behind and time it perfumes the whole surrounding air; yet when weighed, gristly in front, and they pass under the chamber of the brain there is no perceptible loss observed. Matters which exhale and over the cavity of the mouth, to open backward over the odorous emanations are detected at a great distance, from the throat. Solid floors of bone divide this second storey of the head tendency of gases to pass through and diffuse themselves from the upper and lower rooms, and bones also wall in the equably throughout all other gases. Thus, though there be but right and left sides. These walls, however, are not smooth and a very small escape of coal-gas in one part of the room, it soon plain like the central partition, but have three bony projections announces itself to the nose in every corner of the apartment. one above the other, which are called turbinated bones, because This is a faculty peculiar to gases, and produces many in- they are curled upon themselves like scrolls, the first convex teresting results, which, however, cannot now be dwelt upon. surface of the scroll being directed inwards. These turbinated

The final cause for which the sense of smell given to the bones stretch inwards, nearly reaching the plain partition, and higher animals—i.e., to beasts, birds, and reptiles—is primarily thus divide each lateral chamber into three horizontal passages, to warn them against receiving into the lungs and stomach called the upper, middle, and lower meatuses. All the interior noxious matters, and secondarily to guide them in the search of the chambers is covered with a membrane, which is very for wholesome air and food. As a rule, to which, however, thick and pulpy on the scroll bones, the roof of the chamber, there are many exceptions, nauseous smells are associated with and central partition. This membrane is peculiar in that it noxious gases, and that food which gives off a pleasant aroma secretes a slimy mucus, it is very vascular, and so contains is of a nature, and in a condition, to supply good nutriment. much blood, and the ultimate fibres of the nerve of smell lose The bulk of the atmosphere consists of inodorous gases, admi- themselves in its substance. The nervous apparatus of smell rably mixed so as to suit the purposes of respiration, and the on each side arises from under the brain by three roots; it is in main products of vegetable life are nutritive and bland; but the shape of a little round horizontal bar of brain matter, ending small quantities of destructive effuvia and of deadly poisons in a bulb, and it lies in a groove of the soft brain above, and of are no uncommon things in nature, and unless some kind of the hard bone beneath, being separated from its fellow by & quarantine were exercised on air and food, the system could not crest of bone. These bulbs being placed in the brain-case, send be maintained in health. True, therefore, to its office of down, from all along their course, through many holes in the sanitary inspector, the organ of smell holds a position at the bones on which they lie, nervous cords, which divide and subentrance of the passages for air and food. In order to appre- divide, and run, some to the vertical central partition, aome to ciate its office it is necessary to understand the relation of these the top scroll-bone, and some to the roof of the chamber. Their passages to one another. This is best done by a reference to distribution, of course, indicates where the sense of smell resides, the illustration. The largest figure represents the nose chamber that is, not in the main channel of the air, which passes along of the left side; the hollow of the mouth below it; the pharynx, the floor of the passage, but in the upper part of the chamber. or channel for food, running down towards the stomach on the Hence, when we want to smell anything, we take means to get left side (of the figure); and the larynx, or channel of the air, the gas driven upward into the upper part of the nose. This is when pursuing its course to the lungs, parallel to it, on the effected by contracting the nostrils, and drawing the air suddenly right-hand side, as they would appear if the head were cut in and sharply in, so that it is directed upwards instead of along two with the downward stroke of a sharp, resistless knife, made the floor of the passage. as near to the middle plane as possible, yet so as to be on tho It has been remarked that the membrane of the nose is very left of the upright partition between the two nose-chambers. full of blood-vessels, and this is important, because the presence The ordinary course of the air, when no food is being swallowed, of much warm blood, distributed over a surface purposely folded to is upward through the nostril

, then horizontally through the give it a greater extent, has a tendency to warm the cold air as lower part of the nose-chambers, then downward and forward it passes through the complicated channels before it is introbehind the soft palate, entering the hole immediately below duced into the lungs. That cold air, introduced through the the part marked as the “ epiglottis," and so on to the lungs. nose, instead of through the mouth, is less likely to be injurious, The simpler course of the food is horizontally through the is so far recognised, that respirators are used by delicate persons mouth, and then vertically downward. If the reader has in cold air, while it is not thought necessary thus to protect understood the engraving, he will see that the air and food | the nose. passages cross one another; or, perhaps, it makes it more clear There are curious connections between the nasal chambers to say that the air passage enters the food canal from above, and the hollows in many of the bones of the face and head, and passes out again below and in front of it. This is a which are analogous to the air cavities of birds' bones. The singular arrangement, and open, one would have said, to the nose has also another office, in that it serves as a sower for obvious objection that the food might get into the lungs, where the eye. Two little ducts from the inner corner of the eye it is not only not wanted, but could not be for a moment join and form a tube, which, after passing through a bony canal, eudured. This catastrophe is, however, provided against by delivers its drainage into the lower meatus of the nose by a the act of swallowing, in which the soft palate closes the air small orifice, shown in the engraving. Hence, violent blowing

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of the nose is often resorted to in order to clear the eye from bably with the verb to be and the preposition by, denoting the dast and tears.

active power or agent, as a prefix, performs tho part of an So far as concerns ourselves, the use of the olfactory organ intensive, and increases, sometimes in a bad sense, tho inherent is rather to teach us what to avoid than what to soek, ard the import of a word; e.g., beloved, bedaub, besmear, bepraise. In pleasures of smell are rather incidental to other healthful con- other cases it seems to do little more than aid in forining words, ditions than much prized on their own account; yet the varied as an adverb out of an adjective; as behind (hind, hinder), before, fragrance of a thousand flowers, so delicately diffused as not to below, beneath. The adverb betimes (early) is made up of by pall the sense, or to surcharge the pure air, is no small addition and time, bytime; that is, in time. to the delights of the garden and the country. If, however, we

“ He that goes out betimes in the morning is more like to dispatch endeavour to imprison these odours, and make them our own,

his journey than he that lingers till the day be spent."-Pishup Hall. they are nearly always suggestive of a sickly effeminacy, and have called down sneers on their possessors. Thus, Cowper By means also, near, as “ Stand by me.” writes

“Aud as he (Jesus) passed by, he saw Levi” (Mark ii. 14).
" His better hand, more busy, gives the nose
Its burgamot;"

Hence the phrase by and by denoted immediately, as may be and Tennyson

seen in Mark vi. 25, in which, and in other passages of Scrip

ture, it is the representation of a Greek word which signifies “ His essences turned the live air sick;"

straightway, forthwith. The repetition of the by may have had and again Shakespeare

emphasis for its object. Hence is explained the word by-stander, “ He was perfumed like a milliner."

that is, one who stands near. At present, by and by seems in conversation to intimate some little distance of time from the

actual moment. LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-VIII.

Bene, a prefix of Latin origin (from bonus, good; bene, well), is

found in union with words of Latin origin; thus with facio, I do, PREFIXES (continued).

and its parts facere, factum (in combination a may pass into i),

it forms benefaction, benefit, beneficial, beneficent; so in union Apo, of Greek origin, from; as apostle, from the Greek ano

with dico, I say (dicere, dictum), bene forms benediction, and pronounced ap'-o), from, and otew (pronounced stel-lo), I send; with volo, I am willing, it forms benevolent. Hence, one who is that is, a person sent from one to another, a messenger.

benevolent is one who wishes well; and one who is beneficent is Apo has the force of our English prefix un, as in uncover.

one who does well; a benediction is a good word, a blessing, and This is its exact import in the word apocalypse, a revelation,

a benefaction is a good deed, a gift. The opposito prefix is the from the Greek ano, and Kalvttw (prononnced ka-lupe’-to), I Latin male (pronounced ma'-le), ill or evil. The contrast is well conceal; that is, according to the Latin, an unveiling; and illustrated in these words, where, as in other instances, the old according to the Greek, an uncovering.

spelling is retained, as offering so many historical factsO for that warning voice which he who saw

“The kyng, willing to show that this benefit was to hym much acceptTh' apocalypse, heard cry in heaven aloud.”-Milton.

able, and not worthy to be put in oblivion, called this grant of money Arch (ch sounded like k), of Greek origin (from apxm, pro

a benevolence, notwithstanding that many with grudge and malevolence poanced ar'-ke, a beginning), in the forms arch, arche, and archy, gave great summes toward the new foudo (found) benevolence." —Hall,

" Edward IV." denotes the origin, the head, and hence government. It is the second syllable in monarch, monarchy; and as the letter which Bi, in the forms of bi and bis, of Latin origin (bis, twice), has in Greek represents the ch is pronounced like k, arch thus intro- in English the force of two or twice; liped (pes, Latin, a foot), duces a Greek pronunciation into our tongue. Hence you may two-footed, biscuit (cuire, French, to cook), twice-cooked. learn the error which pronounces architect (from apxn, first, or

“The inconvenience attending the form of the year above men. head, and TEKTOV, pronounced teck'-ton, a maker or builder), as if its arch was pronounced like the monosyllabic word arch; tioned, was in a great measure remedied by the Romaus in the time of

Julius Cæsar, who added one day every fourth year; which (from the that is, the arch in a building.

place of its insertion, viz., after tho sixth of the calends of March) Besides a type and an antitype, theology recognises an was called bissextile or leap-year.”—Priestly, on History. archetype, or original type, an original mould or model, in which, in virtae of which, and after the likeness of which, all created

Cata, of Greek origin (kata, pronounced kat'-a, down), properly beings were formed, as was taught by the Greek philosopher denotes motion in a downward direction, and appears in the Plato.

word cataract (from the Greek kata and passw, pronounced

ras'-so, I strike or dash), which, according to its derivation, " There were other objects of the mind, universal, eternal, im- signifies a breaking-down ; that is, of the rock which leads to a motable, which they called original ideas, all originally contained in oze archetypa! mind or understanding, and from thence participated by downfall of water. This prefix is found in other words of Greek aferior minds and souls.”—Cudworth.

origin, as in cataclysm (from the Greek KaTaKavojos, pronounced

kat-a-kluse'-mos, a deluge, from the verb kataKAUÇw, pronounced This word arch (from apxn) is found also pronounced in the kat-a-klu'-zo, to inundate), a term applied to the deluge. ordinary English manner, as in archbishop-that is, a chief bishop, the chief bishop of a province. In its signification of cight feet in height, and from two to five in breadth, extending to an

“The catacombs are subterranean streets or galleries from four to chief it is used also to denote something questionable, bad, or hamorous.

immense and almost unknown length, and branching out into various

walks under the city of Rome."-Eustace, Italy." "Doggett thanked me, and after his comic manner spoke his request with so arch a leer that I promised,” etc.—Tatler.

Cent, of Latin origin, from centum, a hundred, is found in “Come, tell us honestly, Frank," said the squire with his usual centenary, a hundred or hundredth ; centuple, a hundred-fold; arcknesa, ' suppose the church, your present mistress, arest" in lava centurion, a commander of a hundred soldiers in the Roman sleeves, on one hand, and Miss Sophia, with no lawn about her, on the

army. The old Saxon word hundredor may be compared with other, which would you be for?'"--Goldsmith.

centurion. Auto, of Greek origin, equivalent to self, is found in autocrat,

Hundredors, aldermen, magistrates, etc."-Spelman. from the Greek avtos (pronounced aw'-tos), one's self, and The import of hundredor or hundreder may be learnt from RpQtta (pronounced krať-e-a), power, government, one who governs the following words, describing the ancient civil division of of himself and by himself; hence autocracy is arbitrary power, England for the purpose of government :despotism.

As ten families of freeholders mado up a town or tithing (a tentlı), "The divine will is absoluto ; it is its own reason; it is both the

so ten tithings composed a superior division, called a hundred, as con. producer and the ground of all its acts. It moves not by the external sisting of ten times ten families.”— Blackstone, “ Commentaries." impulze, or inclination of objects, but determines itself by an absolute autceracy."-South.

Circum, of Latin origin (Latin, circus, a circle or ring), signifies

around, as in circumstances (from circum, and the Latin vero sto, Be, of Saxon origin, in the forms be and by, connected pro- I stand), literally the things which stand around you; what has

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