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point f; from f, with the radius fg, draw the arc gi; bgi of a little help from geometry; we advise him also to draw all will be the curve required.
these lines of arrangement with a light hand, that they may be The curve called the Cyma Recta (Fig. 59).—Let the curve be more easily effaced when done with. formed between the lines a b and cd; draw the line b d, and To draw the pear (Fig. 63), we will first draw a line to divide it into five equal parts; mark the second division from b, represent the length or axis, and from this line " offsets" on viz., e; upon be describe the equilateral triangle b e f, and upon each side as shown by dotted lines. The pupil may please him. e d describe the equilateral triangle deg; from f, with the self as to the number of these “offsets” and their whereabouts ; radius f b, draw the arc b e, and from g, with the radius ge, he will not be long before he finds that such lines are best draw the arc ed; bed will be the curve required.
arranged opposite, and to meet, angles, and the greatest disThe pupil can draw an equilateral triangle upon a given line tance of curvature from the axis. He will then proceed to by the following method. Let a b (Fig. 60) be the line upon draw the outline through the extremities of these offsets, which the triangle is to be described; from a and b as centres, especially observing the kind of line requisite between each with the radius ba, describe two arcs intersecting each other point: in some parts the outline is more outwardly curved than in the point c; join c a and cb; the triangle a b c is an equi. in others, in some it is nearly straight, in others the curve lateral triangle. (See Lessons in Geometry, VII., page 209.) is inward. If the pupil will exercise his observation in this
The curve called the Ogee (Fig. 61).—Let it be drawn between way when looking at solids and natural objects, which he can the lines a b and c d; draw d e perpendicular to cd, and divide do at all times, whether he has a pencil in his hand or not, it into four equal parts; through the first from e-namely, he even when out for a walk, he will be not a little surprised, draw the line h ig parallel to a b, mako h i equal to he; draw should be make this his general practice, to find how rapidly he the line k i l parallel to e d, and from i, with the radius i k, will gain confidence and power, and be able to produce truthful
draw the semicircle k gl: join l d, and upon it draw the equi- and useful drawings. We will give him another example lateral triangle 1 m d; from mas centre, with the distance (Fig. 64), for which he must arrange the scaffolding himself, nd or m l ag radius, draw the aro d n l; the line d nlgk with one exception, because it includes a principle which we will be the curve required. By recommending the practice of will merely allude to now, as we shall have better and more geometrical drawing, we only wish to direct the pupil where to frequent opportunities by-and-by to enlarge upon it. The find further assistance in free-hand drawing; we will now show, exceptional assistance we offer in this case, is that of the dotted by a few examples, how these principles may be applied. An line which runs through the centre of the handle of the trowel, oval or egg-shaped figure (Fig. 62) would be very difficult to and passes in a direct course to the point of the blade. We draw, if the boundary line only were to be attempted without may here observe that an implement of this kind, to be really some assistance from geometry; there would be a great deal of useful, ought to be so constructed ; and if we look at it with an rabbing out and alteration before it was finished. Let the pupil artistic eye, the composition of lines which make up this very try the figure in the following manner : first by the help of com. simple subject, must strike any one as being more symmetrical passes, then by hand only. Draw the straight line a b, and than if the handle and the blade had been united at any other divide it into two equal parts in the point d. Through d draw angle. This remark upon so insignificant an object as a garden
de at right angles to a b, and make dc equal to a d or d b. trowel may appear trivial, but it is the principle we contend for, Construct upon a b the equilateral triangle a e b, and take the and which is, in reality, of the greatest importance. It is true point y at one-third of the distance from e to b, and determine we might have selected a more noble object, but it would not the point f in the same way.
Then from the points f, g, draw have better illustrated our meaning, or have made it more the lines f i, g h, perpendicular to a e and eb respectively, and evident, and at the same time have provided the pupil with an make each of them equal to one-half of e f or e g. After this example for his practice more suited to the experience he has at arrangement has been made, draw the semicircle a c b and the present attained as a draughtsman. Nature teaches us this arcs b e and a e through h and i. It will be necessary to repeat lesson, and it is evident everywhere that harmony of line and it a few times, when the pupil will begin to see the advantage proportion always accompany the greatest utility and strength.
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.—XV. decimal places as are equal in number to this excess, prefixing
ciphers if necessary. DECIMALS (continued).
If the number of decimal places in the dividend and divisor 10. Division of Decimals.
be equal, the division will be the same as in whole numbers. CASE 1.-Divide 120-3033 by 3:27.
If the number of decimal places in the dividend be less than
the number in the divisor, annex as many ciphers to the dividend 120:3033 ; 3.27 = 1103033 = 18 = 1293033 X 1200 = 1970.
as will make the number equal to the number in the divisor, 3679 is the quotient arising from dividing the dividend by the and then proceed as in whole numbers. divisor as if they were whole numbers, and the denominator 100 12. We subjoin other examples of division of decimals. shows that there must be two decimal places in the quotient. EXAMPLE.—Divide 1 by 10473, carrying the quotient to 5 These two decimal places arise, as will be seen by the fraction places of decimals.
, from the fact of there being two decimal places more in We are at liberty to write 1 thus-1.00000, putting as many the dividend than in the divisor.
ciphers after the decimal point as may be required. Since there CASE 2.-If the number of decimal places in the divisor and are to be 5 decimal places in the quotient, and since there are dividend were the same, the result would be exactly the same 3 in the divisor, we must add 8 ciphers. as if the divisor and dividend were whole numbers. Thus,
10:473) 1.00000000 ( 9548
94257 X 1000 = 3679. 1203:033 • •327 = 1203033 = CASE 3.-Suppose that there are more decimal places in the
57430 divisor than in the dividend.
52365 Take, for example, 120303:3 • •327.
50650 120303:3 = 327 - = 1208033 • = 1293033 X 4102
41892 The true* quotient in this example is an integer, but it will not be so in all cases.
83784 It will be better in practice, before commencing the operation, to annex ciphers to the dividend sufficient to make the number
3796 of decimal places equal to the number in the divisor, in which case the result will be exactly the same as if the division had
Hence the required answer is .09548, prefixing a cipher in been in whole numbers.
order to get 5 decimal places in the quotient. ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE OF CASE 2.--Divide 411.95 by 1.25.
13. EXAMPLE.—Divide 8 by .00002.
Annexing 4 ciphers to .8, since there are 5 decimal places in 1.25 ) 411.95,00 ( 329:56
the divisor, we have375
*00002) .80000 ( 40000
the division by the rule being, in fact, the same as that of 1195
80000 by 2. 1125
14. It will be observed that we are not required in some
cases to find more than a certain number of figures of the 700
quotient when it is a decimal. Sometimes, by continuing the 625
division far enough, we shall find that there is no remainder750
i.e., that the quotient can exactly be found in the form of a 750
decimal. But if by continually dividing we cannot arrive at a stage where there is no remainder, then we can only get what is
termed an approximation to the result. The more figures of the Dividing as in whole numbers, wo get a quotient 329, and a
quotient we take, the nearer we shall be to the value of the remainder 70. Now annex ciphers to the dividend, which will
true quotient. not alter its value, and continue the division. We now find stopped at four decimal places in the quotient, the result would
Thus, in the division above performed in Art. 12, if we that the true quotient is 329:56. ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE OF CASE 3.—To divide 356-7 by 2:31. that 8 is the next figure of the quotient, and thereforo—this 8
be .0954. Carrying on the operation one step further, we see Annexing a cipher to 356-7 before commencing the operation, meaning iwo we are nearer to the true quotient by podwo; we have 2:31 ) 356.70 ( 154
Where we are required to find a quotient to a given number of 231
places, it is customary to carry on the division to one place
more than is actually required, in order to see whether the next 1257
figure is greater or less than 5. If it is greater than 5, then wo 1155
shall be nearer to the true result if we increase the last figure
of the required number of places by unity. 1020
Thus, in the case above given, finding that the fifth decimal 924
place is 8, the quotient to four decimal places will be moro accurately written ·0955 than .0954, because •0955-or, what is
the same thing, .09550—is nearer to .09548 than 09540 is. The part of the true quotient already obtained is an integer, Now ·09550 is riwo more than ·09548 ; whereas ·09540 is soiu the division being in fact the same as that of 35970.
less than 09548. ciphers be annexed to the dividend, we shall get decimal places The same method is applied whenever a limited number of in the quotient, and the more we obtain the nearer to the true decimals is employed. We shall return to this subject hereafter. quotient shall we arrive. 11. These examples will sufficiently illustrate and explain the
EXERCISE 33. following
1. Find the quotients of the following examples in division of Rule for the Division of Decimals.
decimals :Divide as if the divisor and diviuend were whole numbers. 1. 5.64 – 4.
10. 4.32067 ^ *001. 19. 681234.6 – 2682. If the number of decimal places in the dividend exceed the
2. 5.64 + 4.
20. 7.231068 + 12. number in the divisor, cut off from the quotient as many
3. 5.64 • *04. 12. 000015 – 9.
21. 26.3845 - 135. 4. 46.84 + 7.9. 13, 4 * *00001.
22. 6 • *0000001.
5. 1.658 – 25. 14. •018769 = '0000137. 23, 8 * *0000002. * We shall use the expression true quotient to indicate the total 6. 4.00334 + 6.31. 15. 67234 + 85.
24. 634123 4567 — 21. result obtained by the division of one number by another, thus distin- 7. 00033 - 011. 16. 73.8213 • 061. 25. 7461.30765 + 112. guishing it from the quotient defined in Lesson V., Art. 1 (page 69), 8. 236.041 + 1.75. 17. 300-402 – 12.1.
26. 325.67543 – 20*02, wbich is only the integral part arising from a division,
9. 60.0001 = 1:01. i 18. •00006 * *003.
27. 2186.054 • *993.
ENGLISH, 2. Find correctly to 4 places of decimals the quotients result
Hooded. ing from the following divisions :
Sea-hardened. 1. 4134 32 13.
3. 2-3748 1.4736.
To man a ship. 2. "079085 4 83497.
4. 180 3:14159.
Anh-may-lay (2nd syll. long) To entangle.
Furnishing a house. 3. How many boxes will it require to pack 71.5 pounds of
Emménagements Anh-may-nach-manhs Ship’s conveniences. butter, if you put 5.5 pounds in a box?
To furnish a house, 4. How many suits of clothes will 29.6 yards of cloth make, Emménagogue Anh-may-na-gog
Emmenagogue. allowing 3-7 yards to a suit ?
To take away. 5. If a man can walk 30-25 miles per day, how long will it Emmenotter Anh-mono-tay
To handcuff. take him to walk 150.75 miles ?
Sweetened with honey.
To sweaten with honey. 6. How many loads will 134642-156 pounds of hay make,
To wrap up. allowing 1622.2 pounds for a load ?
To consecrate a bishop. 7. If a team can plough 2:3 acres in a day, how long will it
To mortise. take to plough 63-75 acres ?
Banked with earth. 8. How many bales of cotton are there in 56343-75 pounds, Emmuseler Anh-muz'lay
To muzzle. allowing 375 pounds to a bale ?
It is believed the above list comprises nearly every word in 9. Determine the quotient in the following examples in divi. sion of decimals by removing the point in such dividend to the the French language which departs from the general rule of
nasals in em. left, and adding ciphers when necessary :
74. The following words are exceptions to the first general 1. 4672.3 * 100.
5. 42643621 + 100000.
rule concerning nasals (page 214), namely:2. 8 + 10000. 6. 6723000-45 * 10000000.
FRENCH. 7. 1.2300156 • 100000.
ENGLISH, 3. 672315-67 * 10.
Enivrant 8. 2.00763 46 • 1000000
Intoxicating. 4. 10342.306 100.
Intoxication. 10. Multiply the following numbers together by removing the Enivrer (and all de- Anh-nee-vray
To intoxicate. decimal points :
rived from it)
To render proud. 1. 85.4321 X 100.
8. •5 x 1000. 2. 42930 213101 x 10, 9. 75 X 100000.
SECTION XXV.-IDIOMATIC USES OF VERBS, ETC. 3. 1067-2350123 x 100.
10. 65 ten thousandths x 1000. 4. 608.34017 ~ 1000.
11. 48 hundred thousandths 1. The verb aller is used, in French, in the same manner as 5, 30 467214067 X 10000.
the verb to go, in English, to indicate a proximate future. 6. 446.3214022 x 100000. 12. 218 thousandths * 100000.
Allez-vous écrire ce matin ? Are you going to write this morning? 7. 21 *3456782106 x 100000.
Je vais écrire mes lettres,
I am going to write my letters. 11. Multiply ·863541 by :10983, retaining 5 decimal places. 2. The verb venir is used idiomatically, in French, to indicate 12. Multiply 1.123674 by 1:123674, retaining 6 decimal places. a past just elapsed. It requires, in this signification, the prepo13. Multiply .26736 by .28758, retaining 4 decimal places. sition de before another verb. 14. Multiply · 1347866 by .288793, retaining 7 decimal places. Je viens d'écrire mes lettres, I have just written my letters. 15. Multiply •681472 by .01286, retaining 5 decimal places.
Nous venons de recevoir des lettres, We have just received letters. 16. Multiply .053407 by .047126, retaining 6 decimal places. 17. Multiply.3857461 by .0046401, retaining 6 decimal places. to, to come to, in connection with nouns or pronouns representing
3. Aller trouver, venir trouver, are used in the sense of to go
Go to the tinman,
J'ai envie d'aller le trouver,
I have a desire to go to him.
Venez me trouver à dix heures, Come to me at ten o'clock. SECTION I.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued).
4. Aller chercher means to go for, to go and fetch. 72. THERE are a few exceptions to the preceding illustrated
Allez chercher le médecin,
Go and fetch the physician. pronunciation, which will be given, namely:Ennui. According to Rule 2 (page 214), the first en of this Je vais chercher du sucre et du I am going for coffee and sugar.
café, word would not be nasal, because the n is doubled. In this word, however, en is a nasal.
5. Envoyer chercher means to send for, to send and fetch.
Envoyez chercher le marchand, Send for the merchant.
J'envoie chercher des légumes, I send for vegetables. In the following words the en is a nasal, viz. :
6. The first and second persons of the plural of the impera Ennuyant Anh-nuee-eeanh
tive are, with few exceptions, the same as the corresponding Eunuyensement Anh-nuee-eechz-manh Tediously.
persons of the present of the indicative. The pronouns nous, Ennuyen Anh-nuee-eeuh
vous, are not used with the imperative. Ennayeux
7. PLURAL OF THE IMPERATIVE OF ALLER, ENVOYER, AND
VENIR. In the word ennuyer, the en is nasal. The same is true of all derivatives from that word.
Allons, let us go.
Venons, let us come.
8. Tous, m., toutes, f., followed by the article les and a plural 73. There are some exceptions, also, to the pronunciation illustrated under the nasalem (page 214), in the following noun, are used in French in the same sense as the word every in
English, words, in which the m is doubled, but the nasality is not
Votre frère vient tous les jours, Your brother comes every day. destroyed, namely:
Vous allez à l'école tous les matins, You go to school every morning. FeExch. PRONUNCIATION.
9. Tout, m., toute, f., followed by le or la and the noun in the Anh-magaz-ee-Dazh
singular, are used for the English expression the whole, coming Enamaigrir Anh-may-greer
before a noun.
To grow lean.
Il reste ici toute la journée, He remains here the whole day.
To swaddle. Etamanchement
10. A day of the week or of the month, pointed out as the Anh-manhsh-manh
Putting on a handle.
To put a handle to.
time of an appointment or of an occurrence, is not preceded by Anh-menh-shay (naval term) To enter a channel.
a preposition in French.
Come on Monday or Tuesday.
Venez le quinze ou le seize Avril, Come on the fifteenth or sixteenth of Ecomannequiner Anh-man-kee-nay To put into a basket.
11. When the occurrence is a periodical or customary one, LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-VIII. the article le is prefixed to the day of the week or the time of the day.
DISCOVERIES OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, Il vient nous trouver le Lundi, He comes to us on Mondays. SIR John Ross, who sailed in the Victory in 1829, on an ex. Il va trouver votre père l'après. He goes to your father in the after- pedition to the north, again explored Baffin Bay, Lancaster midi,
Sound, and Prince Regent Inlet; discovered land which he RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
called Boothia Felix, from the name of his patron; and explored
the coasts of this new country, until he was so hemmed in by Je vais parler à M. votre père. I am going to speak to your father. Nous venons de recevoir de l'argent. We have just received money.
the ice, that he could neither advance nor return. The expedi. Que venez-vous de faire ? What have you just done ?
tion accordingly remained in this condition during the space of Je viens de déchirer mon habit. I have just torn my coat.
four years, the longest period on record of the detention of Votre frère va-t-il trouver son ami? Does your brother go to his friend ?
navigators in the northern regions. While thus detained the Il va le trouver tous les jours. He goes to him every day.
members employed their time in making excursions which Il vient me trouver tous les Lundis. He comes to me every Monday. enlarged our geographical and meteorological knowledge, and Allez-vous chercher de l'argent ? Do you go and fetch money? added to philosophy the fine discovery of the north magnetic Je n'en vais pas chercher.
I do not. (Sect. XXIII. 12.) pole. Besides the isthmus and peninsula of Boothia Felix, the Allez-vous chez cette dame Lundi? Do you go to that lady's house on expedition discovered King William Land, and the western sea
called after the same sovereign. As to the north-west passage, J'ai l'intention d'y aller Mardi. I intend to go there on Tuesday. J'y vais ordinairement le Mercredi. I generally go there on Wednesdays.
he found that this did not exist in Prince Regent Inlet, nor to Il va à l'église le Dimanche. He goes to church on Sundays.
the south of latitude 70° N.; but Sir John Ross failed in dis
covering a free passage in the frozen seas of America, by which VOCABULARY.
he could find his way to Behring Strait; in fact, the peninsula Année, f., year. Demain, to-morrow. Mardi, m., Tuesday,
which separates Prince Regent Inlet from this northern sea, at Apprend-re, 4, ir., to Dimanche, m., Sunday. Mercredi, m., Wednes- the place where the expedition made its principal researches, is learn. Ecossais, -e, Scotch. day.
not only very narrow, but is chiefly covered with lakes which Après-midi, f., after. Ecri-re, 4, ir., to write. Musique, f., music. reduce the isthmus between the two seas to a breadth of threa
Enseign-er, 1, to teach. Parceque, because. miles. Commenc-er, 1, to com. Excepté, except. Prochain, -e, next.
Other expeditions, no less dangerous, and equally difficult, if menco,
Irlandais, -e, Irish. Rester, 1, to remain, not more so, had been undertaken by land, with a view of Compagne, f., com. Jeudi, m., Thursday. to live. panion.
Journée, f., day. Samedi, m., Saturday. exploring the northern regions of America, and the coast of the Connaissances, 1., ac- Lundi, m., Monday. Teinturier, m., dyer.
Polar Sea, in order to assist in the discovery of the passage to quaintances. Malade, sick. Vendredi, m., Friday. ardently sought for during so many ages. Samuel Hearn,
employed by the Hudson Bay Company, in 1771 commenced EXERCISE 45.
his expedition at Prince of Wales Fort, and discovered the 1. Qu'allez-vous faire ? 2. Je vais apprendre mes leçons. Coppermine River, which he traced to its embouchure in the 3. N'allez-vous pas écrire à vos connaissances ? 4. Je ne vais Polar Sea. Franklin, in 1820-21, made an expedition by land écrire à personne. 5. Qui vient de vous parler ? 6. L'Irlandais along the same coast, between the Coppermine River and Cape vient de nous parler. 7. Quand l'Écossaise va-t-elle vous Turnagain. This adventurous expedition, accomplished amidst enseigner la musique ? 8. Elle va me l'enseigner l'année pro- a thousand dangers, among which famine was not the least chaine. 9. Va-t-elle commencer Mardi ou Mercredi ? 10. Elle formidable, was highly useful in a geographical point of view. ne va commencer ni Mardi ni Mercredi ; elle a l'intention de Two years afterwards the same officer undertook another er. commencer Jeudi, si elle a le temps. 11. Votre compagne va-t- pedition to the north, and explored the country between the elle à l'église tous les Dimanches ? 12. Elle y va tous les Mackenzie River and Cape Back; at the same time Dr. Dimanches et tous les Mercredis. 13. Qui allez-vous trouver ? Richardson, one of the party, explored that part between the 14. Je ne vais trouver personne ? 15. N'avez-vous pas l'inten. Mackenzie River and the Coppermine River. The part of the tion de venir me trouver demain ? 16. J'ai l'intention d'aller coast left unexplored between the limits of Captain Beechey trouver votre teinturier. 17. Envoyez-vous chercher le médecin? and Captain Franklin's discoveries, extending to 150 miles, was 18. Quand je suis malade, je l'envoie chercher. 19. Reste-t-il nearly completed in this respect by Captain Back, and after him avec vous toute la journée ? 20. Il ne reste chez moi que quel by Messrs. Dease and Simpson, so that the northern shores of ques minutes. 21. Allez-vous à l'école le matin ? 22. J'y vais North America are now geographically known almost through. le matin et l'après-midi. 23. Y allez-vous tous les jours ? 24. out their whole extent. J'y vais tous les jours, excepté le Lundi et le Dimanche. 25. Le Our geographical knowledge of the interior of the continent Samedi je reste chez nous, et le Dimanche je vais à l'église. of North America was greatly increased by some other imEXERCISE 46.
portant expeditions. Lewis and Clarke travelled to the sources
of the Missouri among the Rocky Mountains, and reached the 1. What is the Irishman going to do? 2. He is going to Pacific Ocean by descending along the course of the Columbis teach music. 3. Has he just commenced his work ? 4. He River. Pike, in exploring the sources of the Mississippi
, dishas just commenced it. 5. Who has just written to you? 6. covered those of the Arkansas and the Red River. Major Long, The dyer has just written to me. 7. Does your little boy go James Peak, Messrs. Cass and
Schoolcraft, travelled over this to church every day? 8. No, Sir, he goes to church on Sundays
, vast region, so remarkably studded with lakes and rivers, and and he goes to school every day. 9. Do you go for the phy- belonging partly to Britain and partly to the United States
. sician ? 10. I send for him because my sister is sick. 11. Do Mackenzie, in 1789, went from Montreal, and travelling to the you go to my physician or to yours ? 12. I go to mine, yours north-west, descended along the course of the river which bears is not at home. 13. Where is he? 14. He is at your father's his name, and found that its source was in the Slave Lake, and its or at your brother's. 15. Do you intend to send for the termination in the Arctic Ocean; he then crossed the chain of physician? 16. I intend to send for him. 17. Am I right to the Rocky Mountains, and reached the Pacific. In South America, send for the Scotchman ? 18. You are wrong to send for him. Baron von Humboldt began his explorations, and accompanied 19. Do you go to your father in the afternoon ? 20. I go to by M. Aimé Bonpland, the celebrated botanist
, visited Columbia
, him in the morning. 21. Does your brother go to your uncle's now divided into the republics of Venezuela and Ecuador, and every Monday ? 22. He goes there every Sunday. 23. Are the Granadian Confederation, studying during his travels all the you going to learn music ? 24. My niece is going to learn it, if phenomena of nature, tracing the geography of the country, she has time. 25. Am I going to read or to write ? 26. You measuring the heights of the Andes, examining the craters of are going to read to-morrow. 27. Does he go to your house volcanoes, delineating on maps the courses of rivers, and,
in every day? 28. He comes to us every Wednesday. 29. At short, exploring the greater part of this magnificent country; what hour? 30. At a quarter before nine. 31. Does he come On the river Amazon, he made observations equally curious and early or late ? 32. He comes at a quarter after nine. 33. What important. He proceeded from Peru to Mexico, and made do you go for? 34. We go for vegetables, meat, and sugar. similar observations in the latter country; and he has described 35. We want sugar every morning.
his scientific discoveries in these regions in a style both effectivo
and interesting ; so that in no portion of the globe have greater stone, some of which weigh eighty tons. The great gates are advances been made in the knowledge of physics and geography, each composed of one single mass; and there are colossal and of all the sciences connected with them. Botanical geo- images rudely sculptured, showing that at a very early period graphy may, in fact, be said to have originated with Baron von there must have been some communication between the Old Humboldt. If to this we add that the author of the “ Tableaux World and the New. The traveller above mentioned then visited de la Nature" studied the countries in which he travelled both in succession the cities of Cochabamba and of Santa Cruz de in an economical and political point of view, his merit as a la Sierra ; courageously penetrated into the province of the scientific traveller stands unrivalled.
Chiquitos, which he surveyed in every direction to the river The travels of La Condamine in Peru and on the river Amazon; Paraguay and the Brazilian province of Matto-Grosso; noted the of Smith and Maw, on the same river; of Messrs. Spix, Martins, manners of the Guarayos, a tribe still entirely savage; traversed and Auguste St. Hilaire, in Brazil ; of Don Felix Azara, in the province of the Moxos, to the north-east of Upper Peru ; Paraguay; of Captains King and Fitzroy, in Patagonia and passed some time in the forests inhabited by the Yuracares Tierra del Fuego; of M. Stephenson, in Chili and Peru ; of M. Indians ; discovered the points of discharge of the Rio Beni and Gay, in Chili; and of M. Schomberg, in Guiana, have all con- Rio Mamoré, tributaries to the Amazon ; returned to Santa tributed to the perfection of our knowledge of the geography, Cruz; visited Potosi, the city of inexhaustible mines; and finally the productions, the geology, and the population of South Ame- sailed for France from the coast of Peru. This remarkable rica. Among these later travellers must be mentioned M. A. expedition lasted for the space of eight years, and produced d'Orbigny, a learned French geologist, who, in 1826, after a valuable results for the geographer, the natural historian, and sojourn of seven months at Buenos Ayres, ascended the Parana | the geologist.
as far as 1,000 miles from its month, travelled over the province From the extremity of South America let us pass on to the of Corrientes, and other parts of the Argentine Confederation, regions which surround the Antarctic pole. There we see navivisited the hordes of savages which people the Grand-Chaco, and gators of all nations braving the storms and the icebergs of returned to a civilised territory, passing through the provinces those seas which are covered with everlasting mists, in order to of Entre Rios and Santa-Fe. He then travelled into Patagonia, enrich geography with important observations and discoveries. ascended the Rio Negro, and sojoured eight months in that after the immortal name of Cook, came those of William Smith country amongst the stalwart savages, whose Herculean forms (1818), of Lieutenant Barnsfield, of the Russian officers Belling. and size had been described with so much exaggeration by hansen and Lazareff (1819), of Botwell (1820), of Weddell and Pigaletta, Drake, Sarmiento, Lemaire, Byron, Bougainville, and Palmer (1822), of Biscoe (1830), and of Balleny (1839). It is to many other navigators. This intrepid naturalist then proceeded these navigators, some commissioned by the government of the to Chili, having doubled Cape Horn and reached Bolivia, some- nations to which they belonged, and others who were simply times called Upper Peru, of which he explored the western whalers or seal-catchers, that we owe the successive discoveries region, rendered so remarkable by the labours of the ancient of New South Shetland, the South Orkneys, Palmer Land, Quichuas. He ascended the summits of the Andes, and on his Trinity Land, the islands of Peter and Alexander, Enderby Land, reaching the opposite sides of these amazing heights, beheld a Adeliê Land, Graham Land, and the islands of Biscoe and magnificent panorama of snowy peaks, and of immense chains Balleny. Three voyages in the southern circumpolar seas—those of mountains. He at last reached the vast table-land on which of Dumont d'Urville, of Captain James Clarke Ross, and of the is situated the great Lake of Titicaca, 150 miles long, rendered American Commodore Wilkes-deserve particular notice. The 80 famous by the Temple of the Sun, built by the Incas, on an French expedition, under the command of Captain Dumont island in its centre.
At the village of Tiahuanacu, near the d'Urville, after a careful exploration of the Strait of Magellan, banks of this lake, are also to be seen the remains of the proceeded in 1838 towards the icy regions, and was stopped by stupendous palace erected by the ancient Peruvians. The an iceberg in latitude 64° S. The two vessels endeavoured to interior courts, 360 feet square, are built of enormous blocks of overcome the obstacles which opposed their progress, but they