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sense.

when some or any is or may be prefixed to them [$ 13 (10), Has the bookseller's son a gold pencil.case ? 22. Yes, Sir, he $ 78 (1)].

has a gold pencil-case and a steel pen. 23. Who has your Du pain Bread, or some bread.

sister's watch ? 24. Your brother has the gold watch and the De la viande Meat, or some meat.

silk hat. 25. We have gold, silver, and steel. (See Rule 5.) De l'argent

Money, or some money. 2. The French numeral adjective un, m., une, f., answers to

SECTION V.-THE NEGATIVES, ETC. the English indefinite article a or an [S 13 (4) (11)].

1. To render a sentence negative, ne is placed before the

verb, and pas after it.
Un homme

A man.
Une femme

A woman.
Je n'ai pas le cheval.

I have not the horse.
Vous n'avez pas la maison.

You have not the house. 3. The e of the preposition de is elided before un and une [$ 146], and replaced by an apostrophe.

2. When the verb is in a compound tense ($ 45 (8)], the first

negative ne is placed before the auxiliary, and the second D'un livre, m.

Of or from a book.

between the auxiliary and the participle.
D'une maison, f.
Of or from a house.
Je n'ai pas eu le cheval.

I have not had the horse. 4. When the nominative or subject of an interrogative sen

Vous n'avez pas eu la maison. You have not had the house. tence is a noun, it should be placed before the verb; and immediately after the verb in simple tenses, and after the auxiliary

3. It will be seen in the above examples that the e of ne is in compound tenses, a pronoun must be placed agreeing with elided, and replaced by an apostrophe, when the verb begins with the nominative in gender, number, and person (S 76 (4) (5)].

a vowel [$ 146).

4. When the words ni, neither; rien, nothing; jamais, never ; Le médecin a-t-il de l'argent ?

Has the physician money?

personne, no one, nobody, occur, the word ne only is used, and Le boucher a-t-il de la viande ?

Has the butcher meat ?

those words take the place of pas (S 41 (3)]. Le libraire a-t-il du papier ?

Has the bookseller paper ? La dame a-t-elle de la soie ?

Has the lady silk ?

Je n'ai ni le livre ni le papier. I have neither the book nor the paper.

Avez-vous quelque chose ? Have you anything ?
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Nous n'avons rien.

We have nothing, or not anything. Avez-vous du pain ? Have you bread 1 Personne n'a le livre.

No one has the book. Vous avez du pain, du beurre, et You have bread, butter, and cheese. Vous n'avez jamais le couteau. You never have the knife.

du fromage. Votre frère a-t-il une livre de Has your brother a pound of

5. A noun used in a partitive sense (Sect. IV. 1), and being the beurre ?

butter?

object of a verb, conjugated negatively, should not be preceded Avez-vous le livre du libraire ? Have you the bookseller's book ? by the article, but by the preposition de only [S 78 (7)]. Non, j'ai le livre de la dame. No, I have the lady's book.

Nous n'avons pas d'argent.

We have no money. La scur du médecin a-t-elle du Has the physician's sister paper

Vous n'avez pas de viande.

You have no meat. papier et de l'encre ?

and ink? 5. It will be seen, by some of the above examples, that the something, anything, should only be used in an affirmative of

6. Quelqu'un, some one, any one ($ 41 (7)]; quelque chose, article must be repeated before every noun used in a partitive interrogative sentence, or in a sentence which is negative and VOCABULARY.

interrogative at the same time.
Beurre, m., butter.
Acajou, m., mahogany.

Café, m., coffee.
Avons-nous quelqu'un ?

Have we any one ?
Bière, f., beer.
Acier, m., steel.

Cuiller, f., spoon.
Avez-vous quelque chose ?

Have you anything?
Aujourd'hui, to-day. Beuf, m., beef.

Dé, m., thimble,

N'avons-nous pas quelque chose ? Have we not something ? Encre, f., ink. Libraire, m., book. Plume, f., pen.

7. In a negative sentence, nepersonne, signifies nobody, not Epicier, m., grocer.

seller.

Sucre, m., sugar. anybody; and ne--rien, nothing, not anything.
Fils, m., son.
Livre, m., book.

Vin, m.,
vine,
Je n'ai personne.

I have no one, not any one.
Fourchette, f., fork. Livre, f., pound.

Votre, your,
Vous n'avez rien.

You have nothing, or not anything.
Fromage, m., cheese. Morceau, m., pioce. Thé, m., tea.
Gant, m., glove.
Papier, m., paper.

8. AVOIR, TO HAVE, IN THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE. EXERCISE 5.

Nogatively.

Negatively and Interrogatively. SINGULAR.

SINGULAR. 1. Avez-vous de la viande ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai une livre

I have not.

N'ai-je pas ? Have I not? de viande. 3. Votre fils a-t-il un morceau de pain? 4. Oui, Tu n'as pas, Thou hast not.

N'as-tu pas ?

Hast thou not ? Madame, il a un morceau de pain. 5. Le libraire a-t-il un livre? Il n'a pas, He has not.

N'a-t-il pas ?

Has he not? 6. Il a de l'encre et du papier. 7. Votre seur a-t-elle une

Elle n'a pas,

She has not, N'a-t-elle pas ? Has she not? montre d'or ? 8. Elle a une montre d'or et un dé d'argent.

PLURAL.

PLURAL. 9. Le boulanger a-t-il du vin ou de la bière ? 10. Le boulanger Nous n'avons pas, We have not. N'avons-nous pas? Have we not? a du thé et du café. 11. Votre frère a-t-il du fromage ? 12. II Vous n'avez pas, You have not. N'avez-vous pas ? Have you not ?

Ils n'ont pas, a du fromage et du beurre. 13. La dame a-t-elle une cuiller

They, m., have not. N'ont-ils pas ? Have they,m., not? d'argent? 14. La dame a une cuiller et une fourchette d'argent.

Elles n'ont pas, They, f., have not. / N'ont-elles pas ? Have they, f., not? 15. Le boucher a-t-il de la viande aujourd'hui ? Oui, Monsieur,

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. il a un morceau de bœuf. 17. Le charpentier a-t-il une table ? Le tailleur a-t-il le bouton ?

Has the tailor the button! 18. Oui, Monsieur, il a une table d'acajou. 19. Avez-vous le Le tailleur n'a pas le bouton. The tailor has not the button. livre du médecin ? 20. Non, Madame, mais j'ai le livre de votre Il n'a pas eu le drap.

He has not had the cloth. 21. Qui a du café et du sucre ? 22. L'épicier a du café

Il n'a eu ni le drap ni le cuir. He has had neither the cloth nor the

Have I meat ?

[leather. et du sucre. 23. La sæur du libraire a-t-elle un gant? 24. Non, Ai-je de la viande ? Monsieur, mais elle a un livre. 25. A-t-elle une plume d'acier? Vous n'avez pas de viande. (R. 5.) You have no meat.

Avons-nous quelque chose ? Have we anything ? 26. Non, Monsieur, elle a une plume d'or. 27. Vous avez le

Nous n'avons rien.

We have nothing, or not anything. porte-crayon du médecin.

Nous n'avons jamais de café. (R.5.) We never lave cojice.
EXERCISE 6.

VOCABULARY. 1. Have you any tea? 2. Yes, Madam, I have a pound of Ami, m., friend. Deux, tuo.

Ni, conj., neither, nor. tea. 3. Who has bread ? 4. The baker has bread, butter, and Angleterre, f., Eng. Drap, m., cloth.

Personne, m., nobody. cheese. 5. Has the tailor cloth ? 6. The tailor has a piece of land.

Du tout, adv., at all. Quelque chose, m., cloth. 7. Has the physician gold ? 8. Yes, Sir, the physician Aussi, also.

France, f., France.

something, anything. has gold and silver. 9. Has the lady a silver watch ? 10. Yes, Autre, other.

Histoire, f., history. Quelqu'un, m., some

Libraire,m.,bookseller. one, any one. Miss, the lady has a silver watch and a gold pen. 11. Has Chapelier, m., batter.

Chien, m., dog.

Marchand, m., mer. Soie, f., siu. your sister silk? 12. Yes, Sir, she has silk and cotton. 13.

Coton, m., cotton.

chant.

Velours, m., velvet, Have you a knife ? 14. Yes, Sir, I have a steel knife and a

Cousin, m., cousin.
Mon, m., my.

Voisin, m., neighbour. silver fork. 15. Have you meat to-day, Sir ? 16. Yes, Sir, I

EXERCISE 7. have a piece of beef. 17. Has your carpenter a mahogany table ? 18. Yes, Sir, he has a mahogany table.

19. Has your

1. Le chapelier a-t-il de la soie ? 2. Le chapelier n'a pas sister a glove ? 20. Yes, Sir, my sister has a silk glove. 21. de soie, mais il a du velours. 3. A-t-il du velours de coton ?

Je n'ai pas,

8our.

4. Non, Monsieur, il n'a pas de velours de coton, il a du velours velvet. 3. Who has silk velvet ? 4. The hatter has silk velvet de soie. 5. Avez-vous de la viande ! 6. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai and a silk hat. 5. Have you two silver buttons ? 6. No, Sir, de la viande. 7. Le médecin n'a pas d'argent. 8. Qui a de I have a cloth coat, a silk hat, and a velvet shoe. 7. Has your l'argent ? 9. Le marchand n'a pas d'argent, mais il a du drap, neighbour a wooden table ? 8. Yes, Sir, he has a mahogany du velours, et de la soie. 10. Avez-vous quelque chose ? 11. table. 9. Has your cousin a history of England ? 10. No, Sir, Non, Monsieur, je n'ai rien du tout. 12. Le tailleur a-t-il he has a history of France. 11. I have neither the cloth nor deu bontons d'argent? 13. Non, Monsieur, il a deux boutons the velvet. 12. We have neither the meat nor the coffee. 13. de soie. 14. Qui a votre chien ? 15. Le voisin a le chien de Has any one a book ? 14. Your cousin has a book, a velvet mon cousin.

16. N'a-t-il pas votre cheval aussi ? 17. Non, coat, and a silk hat. 15. Have you the physician's book : Monsieur, il a le cheval de votre ami. 18. Avez-vous l'histoire 16. Yes, Madam, I have the physician's book and the lady's de France ? 19. Non, Madame, je n'ai ni l'histoire de France gold pen. 17. Has the merchant cloth ? 18. The merchant ni l'histoire d'Angleterre. 20. N'avez-vous ni le livre ni le has no cloth, but he has money. 19. Who has your neighbour's papier? 21. Non, Mademoiselle, je n'ai ni l'un ni l'autre. dog ? 20. Nobody has my neighbour's dog. 21. Has any one 22. Qui a du papier ? 23. Le libraire n'a pas de papier. 24. my book ? 22. No one has your book. 23. Has your cousin's Quelqu'un a-t-il un livre ? 25. Personne n'a de livre.

brother anything? 24. No, Sir, he has nothing. 25. Who has EXERCISE 8.

your friend's book? 26. Your brother has my cousin's book.

27. Has he the tailor's coat ? 28. He has not the tailor's coat. 1. Has the baker velvet? 2. No, Sir, the baker has no 29. We have neither the cloth nor the silk.

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-II.

being joined to the thick down-stroke of the second in a line

passing midway between the two horizontal lines within which In our last lesson we gave the student an example of the first the letter is written ; while the letter t is formed by the bottomstroke that should engage his attention in beginning to acquire turn, commenced at the same distance above the upper of these the art of writing, and explained to him that it was a down- horizontal lines as that at which the dot is placed above the stroke square at the top and brought downwards with an equal letter i, and crossed a little above that line by a short horizontal pressure of the pen until it narrows at the bottom into a fine hair-stroke. hair-line, which is turned upwards towards the right. This It may be as well to say something about the form in which our down-stroke with a fine up-turn, or “ pot-hook," as it is Copy-slips are placed before our readers. The lines a a, b b, as familiarly called, but which we shall term a bottom-turn for the , in Copy-slip No. 4, are the lines between or within which what sake of brevity, enters into the composition of no less than we may call the body of each letter is written. These lines and nine letters of the alphabet in writing, of which four-namely, the space between them resemble in some measure the staff in i, u, t, 1-consist of this stroke only, with certain slight modi- music, portions of certain letters being carried above the upper Scations. We mention this to the self-teacher to encourage him line a a in some cases, or below the lower ono b b in others, as 10 perseverance in the task he has undertaken, for he will see ledger notes are carried above or below the staff in musical plainly enongh, after a little consideration, that when he is able notation. The line cc, midway between the lines a a, bb, is to imitate this bottom-turn correctly, he has not only learnt to that in which the letters, or component parts of letters, should make this simple stroke itself, but has actually advanced more be joined together, while the line d d shows the distance above than half-way towards writing the four letters we have just a a at which the letter t should be commenced, or the dot placed named, besides five others that will be pointed out in the course above the letter i. The diagonal lines sloping from right to left of future lessons.

show the proper inclination of the thick down-strokes of the A brief examination of the copy-slips given in this page will letters, and act as guide lines to enable beginners to make all be sufficient to prove the truth of our statement. The letter i, , their letters of the same slope, and keep the down-strokes the simplest letter in the alphabet, is merely the elementary parallel to one another. A little trouble taken at starting bottom-turn shown in Copy-slip No. 1, with a dot or point a to keep on the same level the heads, loops, and tails of all little above it in the direction of the slope of the letter, or, in letters that extend above or below the lines within which the other words, immediately above the letter in a straight line body of each is written, will go far to ensure neatness and which

passes through the centre of the thick down-stroke from regularity when the learner can write with ease and rapidity, top to bottom. The letter u, again, is merely the bottom-turn and his handwriting begins to assume a character peculiar twice repeated, the fine hair-stroke of the first bottom-turn to itself.

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9

LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-II.

6. Three hundred and forty-one 11. Eighty millions two hundred thousand seven hundred and

and three thousand and two. THE ROMAN METHOD OF NOTATION.

eighty-two.

12. Two hundred and two millions 7. One million.

twenty thousand two hunThe symbols by which the Romans expressed all numbers

8. Nine thousand nine hundred dred and two. were:

and ninety-nine millions, 13. Twenty thousand millions. I denoting one с denoting a hundred

nine hundred and ninety. 14. Two hundred thousand and V

five
D or 15
five hundred
nine thousand nine hundred

twenty millions two thou. х ten M or CI5

a thousand
and ninety-nine.

saud.
L
fifty

9. Write the number which 15. The next number to thirty follows this last one in

thousand billions nine hun. By combining these symbols according to the following rules all

order. numbers can be represented :

dred and ninety-nine thou. 10. One trillion and three.

sand. When two symbols are placed together, if the one denoting the less value is on the left of the other, then the less number

ADDITION. is to be subtracted from the greater; if on the right hand, it is to be added to it. Thus IX denotes ten with one subtracted, 1. The process of uniting two or more numbers together, so or nino; XI denotes eleven ; XL denotes forty; LX, sixty. If as to form a single number, is called Aldition. The number the symbols are of equal value, then they are simply to be thus formed is called the sum of the separate numbers. added. Thus XX denotes twenty; CC, two hundred, etc. The 2. The sign + placed between two numbers indicates that value represented by lɔ is increased tenfold by every additional they are to be added together. This symbol is called plus. The O placed on the right. Thus 5,000 is denoted by Iɔɔ, and sign placed between two numbers denotes that they are 50,000 by Iɔɔɔ. The value of the symbol Cly becomes in. equal. Thus 2 + 3=5, expresses that 2 and 3 added together creased tenfold by the addition of C and ɔ, one on each side of are equal to 5. the line I. Thus 100,000 is denoted by CCCIɔɔɔ, 1,000,000 by

3. Suppose that it be required to add the two numbers 3452 CCCCIO005, and so on. A straight line placed over any one

and 4327 together. of these symbols increases its value a thousand-fold. Thus

These are respectivelyī denotes 1,000; V, 5,000; 1, 50,000; 7, 100,000. 2,000 was

3 thousands, 4 hundreds, 5 tens, and 2 units, usually denoted by CIOCIɔ, but sometimes by IICIƆ, or IIM,

4 thousands, 3 hundreds, 2 tens, and 7 units, or MM. Similarly, 4,000 was denoted by IVCIO, otc.

which, added together, are equal toThe above remarks will sufficiently explain the following Table of Roman Numerals :

7 thousands, 7 hundreds, 7 tens, and 9 units.

The
I denotes
XI denotes eleven | XXI denotes twenty-one

sum, therefore, of 3452 and 4327 is 7 thousands, 7 hun. II two XII twelve XXII twenty-two

dreds, 7 tens, and 9 units, which, according to our system of III

three
XIII
thirteen
etc.

notation, will be written 7779. IV

four
XIV
fourteen XXX

thirty This is got by putting down the two numbers one under the V

XV
fifteen
XL

forty other, the units under the units, the tens under the tens, and so VI six XVI sixteen L

fifty

on; and then adding up the lower to the upper figure in each VII

XVII
seventeen' LX

sixty

place, thus :VIII eight XVIII, eighteen LXX seventy

3452 IX nine XIX nineteen LXXX eighty

4327 X ten XX twenty XC

ninety с denotes one hundred DCC denotes seven hundred

7779 CI hundred DCCC

eight hundred

4. In the example we have taken, the sum of the numbers and one DCCCC

nine hundred CX

of the thousands amounts only to a number expressed by one one hundred M or CI•

one thousand and ten MM (or see also two thousand

figure, namely, 7; and similarly for the hundreds, the tens, CC two hundred above)

and units. CCC

three hundred MDCCCLXVII one thousand Suppose, however, that we have a case in which this is not CCCC four hundred

eight hundred so; for instance, to add D (see also above) five hundred

and sixty-seven

8976 and 4368.
DC
six hundred
etc., as above.

These are respectively equal to
EXERCISE 3.

8 thousands, 9 hundreds, 7 tens, and 6 units, 1. Write ont the names of all the numbers from one to a

4 thousands, 3 hundreds, 6 tens, and 8 units; hundred, and express them in figures.

or, added together, to 2. Write out the names of the numbers which immediately follow:

12 thousands, 12 hundreds, 13 tens, and 14 units. 1. One hundred.

4. Nine thousand nine hundred This, however, is not at present in a form which can be at once 2. One hundred and ninety-nine. and ninety-nine.

written down according to our system of notation. We must, 3. L'our hundred and ninety.nine. 5. One million.

therefore, alter its form. 3. Express, in figures, the numbers named in the preceding 13 tens and 14 units are the same as 14 tens and 4 units.

Now 14 units are the same as 1 ten and 4 units; therefore cxample, and those which immcdiately follow them. 4. Write the names of the numbers which are next to the | 12 hundreds and 14 tens are the same as 13 hundreds and

But 14 tens are the same as 1 hundred and 4 tens; therefore following numbers, and express both sets in figures :

4 tens. 1. One million and ninety-nine. 3. Nine millions nine hundred

But 13 hundreds are the same as 1 thousand and 3 hundreds; 2. One million five thousand nine and ninety - vine thousand therefore 12 thousands and 13 hundreds are the same as 13 hundred and ninety-nine.

nine hundred and ninety-nine. thousands and 3 hundreds. Read or express the following numbers in words :

Hence we see that 12 thousands, 12 hundreds, 13 tens, and 1, 202 7. 20030208 13. 100010001000

14 units, are the same as 13 thousands, 3 hundreds, 4 tens, and 2. 1001 8. 1010101

14. 3000000000000 4 units, which, by our notation, is written 13344. 3. 15608 9. 9999999

15. 777669555444 5. The preceding process will sufficiently explain the following 4. 306042 10. 3-7125783

16. 123456789123 Rule for Addition :5. 5678914 11, 202021010 17. 48484848484648

Write down the numbers under each other, so that units may 6. 26312478 12. 9090909090 18. 10210230430400

stand under units, tens under tens, etc., and draw a line beneath 6. Write or express the following numbers in figures :- them. Then, beginning with the units, add the columns sepa1. Four hundred and four. 4. Six hundred and five thousand rately. Whenever the sum of the figures in a column is a number 2. Three thousand and thirty-two.

and nineteen.

expressed by more than one figure, write down the right-hand 3. Twenty-four thousand and 5. Eleven thousand eleven hun. figure of such number under the column, and add the other eighty-six,

figure or figures into the next column. Proceed in this way

dred and eleven,

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91

+

+

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throughout all the columns, and set down the whole sum of the will afford sixteen exercises on larger numbers than those in the last or left-hand column. Thus :

preceding square:-
8976
4368

2177956 4652906 1583968 4058918 989980 3464930 395992 13344

494990 2976954 4751904 1682966|4157916 1088978 2870942 Adding the units, 8 and 6 are 14. Therefore write down 4

2969940 593988 2375952 | 4850902 1781964 3563928 1187976 and add 1 to the tens column.

Adding the tens, 1 and 6 and 7 are 14. Therefore write down 1286974 3068938 692986 2474950 4256914 18809623662926 4 and add 1 to the hundreds column.

Adding the hundreds, 1 and 3 and 9 are 13. Therefore write 3761924 1385972 3167936 98998 2573948 4355912 1979960 down 3 and add 1 to the thousands column.

20789583860922 791984 3266934 Adding the thousands, 1 and 4 and 8 are 13.

197996 2672946 4454910 N.B.-The same rule evidently applies if there are more than

4553908 1484970 3959920 890982 3365932 296994 2771944 two lines of figures to be added together.

6. Test of Correctness.—There are various methods by which the correctness of the process of addition may be tested. Perhaps the most convenient test is to add the numbers

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-I. together in the reverse order; that is, to commence with the top line instead of the bottom. If the second result be the

INTRODUCTION. same as the first, the work may be presumed to be right; for it At the outset we may as well state thai by the term BOTANI is highly improbable that the same error will have been made in we mean the science which teaches all about plants ; such as performing the operation in two different orders.

their form, their aspect, the number and structure of their

flowers, their seeds, and, in short, all that in any way relates EXERCISE 4. 1

to them. The word botany is derived from the Greek, in which 1. Add together the following sets of numbers :

language Borávn (bot-a-ne), signifies a plant. Our friends the 1. 75234 + 41015 + 19075 + 176.

Germans call the study pflanzenlehre, plant-teaching; and, in

56710607

7. 493742 2. 85064 + 9035 + 72358 + 919. 23461 + 400072 + 6811004 +

our opinion, they are quite right to find a name for this and 3. 1500267 + 45085 + 4652 + 8999003 + 26501.

many other sciences out of their own language. We English 4780400 + 90276 + 89760841. 8. 16075 + 250763 + 7561 + might with great propriety do the same on many occasions, but

4. 40702135 67070420 + 830654 + 293106 + 2537104 + it is not the custom. 670856 + 4230825 + 750642 +31 725.

Botany is a very interesting, no less than a very useful study, 8790845.

9. 142857 + 428571 - 285714 and it possesses over many others the advantage of being 5. 756 + 849 + 934 + 680 + + 857149 + 571428 714285 | attended with no expense. 720 + 843 + 657689 + 989876498 + 142857.

Inasmuch as botany is the science which teaches all about + 8045685 + 807260780.

10. 9034781 + 57 + 4897 + 6, 432678902 + 310046734 + 309 + 587896 + 369875625 + plants, the learner will agree that it is necessary to set out with 2167005 + 327861 + 293000428. 1876 + 398 + 79 + 8.

precise notions as to what a plant is. Nothing would appear

to be more easy than this; and easy enough it is when we take 2. Add together the following numbers :

extreme cases: thus, for instance, no one would ever take an Twenty-three thousand three hundred and forty-nine ; seven thou- oak-tree for an animel, or a horse or an elephant for a vegetable; sand two hundred and seven ; three hundred and twenty-five ; five but there are certain beings whose characteristics are so little millions two hundred and fifty-three ; fifty-six billions three hundred marked, that philosophers are to this day not agreed as to the and nine millions five hundred and thirty-one thousand six hundred division of nature to which they ought to be referred; in other and nino; four thousand and seventeen millions; four thousand and

cases, again, beings have been taken out of one classification four.

and inserted under another; this remark applies to the sponge, 3. Find the sum of all the numbers from 1 to 100.

which, although it grows attached to rocks under the sea, is 4. Arrange the nine digits in the form of a square, that is, now universally considered to be an animal, or, more properly in three rows of three figures each, so that when the columns speaking, the skeleton of an animal, the soft portions of which are added vertically (up and down), horizontally (from side to have been dissolved away. side), or diagonally (from corner to corner), they will still pro

The great Swedish naturalist Linné, better known by the duce the same sum.

Latin form of his name—Linnæus, adopted the following pithy 5. In the following square, taken from Professor De Mor- designation of minerals, vegetables, and animals. gan's "Elements of Arithmetic,” the columns added vertically, “Minerals,” he said, “grow; plants grow and live; but animals horizontally, or diagonally, will all produce the same sum, thus" grow, live, and feel.” A very neatly turned expression this is, affording twenty-four different exercises in addition :

we must all allow, and the task would not be easy in few words

to show wherein it is insufficient. Naturalists of the present 2016 4212 1656 3852 1296 3492 936 3132-5762772 216 day, however, do not consider it quite correct, and, what is

more, naturalists own that their ingenuity has been unable to 252 2052 4248 1692 3888 1332 3528 972 3168 612 2412 find a distinction which is quite correct: however, the following

is perhaps more nearly correct than any other. Animals are 2448| 288 2088 4284 1728 3924 1368 3564 1008 2808) 648

those living beings which derive their nutriment from an in6842484 324 2124 4320 17643960 1404 3204 1044 2844

ternal cavity (the stomach), and vegetables are those living

beings which absorb their nutriment from without. 2880 720/2520 3602160 4356 1800 3600 1440 3240 1080

SECTION I.-ON THE PRINCIPLES WHICH SERVE FOR THE

CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 1116 2916 756 2556 396 2196 3996 1836 3636 1476 3276

Whatever may be the subject of our study it requires to bo 3312/1152 2952 792 2592 86 2232 4032 1872 3672 1512

classified, classification being the very key-stone of order, with

out which our ideas become obscure and confused : therefore it 1548 3348 1188 2988 432 2628 72 2268 4068 1908 3708 is that even the least botanical amongst us, when speaking of

vegetables, make a rough sort of classification for ourselves, 37441584 3384 828 3024 468 2664 108 2304 4104 1944 usually dividing them into herbs, plants, bushes, or shrubs and

trees. And for many common purposes this rough and ready 1980 3780 1224 34201 864 3060 504 2700 144 2340 4140

distinction is sufficient; but it is not very correct, and therefore 4176/1620 3816 1260 3456 900 3096 540 2736 180 2376

will not answer the purposes of a botanist.

To prove that the distinction is not correct, we will mention

two cases in point, and we are sure the learner will accede to G. The following is another example of the same kind, which the justice of the remark. What would the reader term a myrtle

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as he sees it growing in our climate ? A poor tiny thing dragon-trees are amongst the largest and the oldest, if not the scarcely bigger than a geranium he would not term a tree, he very largest and very oldest, of known trees. The great dragonwould call it a shrub or a bush ; nevertheless, this very same tree of Orotava, in the island of Teneriffe,* an accurate represpecies of myrtle assumes under the more genial sun of Southern sentation of which is given below, was of such dimensions that Europe and Northern Africa the dimensions of a goodly tree. ten full-grown men, joining hand to hand, were scarcely sufficient Again, what would the reader term the mignonette? A plant, to encircle its base. It is now about four hundred and seventy of course ; yet in Northern Africa, along the Barbary coast, its years ago since the island of Teneriffe was first discovered. stem becomes woody, and it assumes the aspect of a bush or The great dragon-tree of Orotava was then, and until 1867, the shrub at least.

twin wonder of that island, dividing its interest with that of

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When the true relations subsisting between vegetables are the stupendous peak. Precise accounts have been handed down well considered, we shall find that the mere size of a vegetable of its size, from a consideration of which it appears that the has nothing to do with its real nature : thus the sugar-cane, monster increased but little in dimensions since the discovery which grows to the elevation of fifteen or sixteen feet, is still of the island—a probability which is still further confirmed by to all intents and purposes a grass ; as in like manner is the bamboo, which assumes the dimensions of a tree. Then, again, sisty

miles s.w. from the coast of Marocco,

belonging to Spain.

One of the Canary Islands, a group in the Atlantic Ocean, about the lily tribe : does not the very sound of the word lily cause ideas to arise of some delicate herb-like growth, surmonnted They were supposed to have been known to the ancients as the

“Fortunate Isles." The earliest discovery, however, of these islands with drooping flowers ? Of this kind are the lilies which grow

of which we have any authentic account was made by De Bethencourt, in our climate ; but all lilies are not thus. The great dragon, a Norman, about 1400, and they were purchased from his descendants tree, as it is called, is still a lily; and as though Nature desired and annexed to Spain about eighty years after. The celebrated dragon. to confound our prejudices by one bold master-stroke, these tree was destroyed by a hurricane in the year 1867.

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