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2. Again, supposing the weights of the two cylinders a, c, to AXIS OF SYMMETRY—STABLE AND UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM— latter, if equal transverse forces, be applied to both at equal

be equal, but the base of the former greater than that of the INTRODUCTION TO THE MECHANICAL POWERS, ETC.

heights, then o R being also equal in both and equally inclined

to OP, the resultant will tend more to fall within the base in a THERE is a large number of cases in which, though we may

than in b, that is, everything else being the same, the broader not be able actually to find the centre of gravity, we can say it the base, the greater the stability. is on some line in reference to which the body is symmetrically

3. Further, if, as in b and c, the bases and weights being the formed. In an egg, for example, the line joining the round and same, and the transverse force applied to each cylinder being

pointed ends still one pound, the force is applied higher up in one cylinder is an axis of than in the other, then the resultant is more likely to meet symmetry. If

the ground within the base in the latter than in the former ; make

that is, the lower down the transverse force is applied, every: cross sections thing else being the same, the greater the stability. of it perpen

4. Lastly, as is evident from d, e, f, in Fig. 35, when the dicular to this

bodies incline to one side, the perpendicular from the centre of line, they will gravity meets the base nearer to its circumference on that side ; be all circles and, if the transverse force is applied in that direction, the through the resultant tends more to fall outside the base; that is, everything centres of

else being the same, the stability is least when the upsetting which the line force acts in the direction in which the body leans. will p&ss.

These are truths known to everybody from experience, but of The elliptic which here you see the “reason why," and what is of no less oval at a,

advantage, you obtain a rule by which you may measure the

Fig. 33, and amount of stability or instability in any case that may come Fig. 33.

the cylinder


you. If you draw figures for bodies of different weights,

at c, and the different bases, different transverse forcos, and their heights of right cone at d, are instances. The cubical box at e, is another application, you in which the cross section is a square, the line joining the meet

will by trial feel ings of the diagonals on the upper and lower

your way, and faces being a symmetrical axis. The oval

soon clearly un. board at b, also, in which all the dotted

derstand the lines are bisected by the arrow perpen.


But the cases dicular to them, is another instance, the arrow being the axis of symmetry. Wher.

to which the ever two such axes exist, of course the

terms “sta. centre of gravity is their point of inter

bility" and “in. section; but if there be one only, as in

stability the portion of the ring in Fig. 34, the Fig. 84, more commonly position of the centre on it must be ascertained by other means.



there is only one In the last lesson, I showed you that when a body rests in pointof support, equilibrium on a horizontal plane, the perpendicular from the and the slightest centre of gravity falls within its base. This condition being force from withsatisfied, it will not upset of itself, but may be overturned from out causes dis

Fig. 36.

Fig. 37. without by a force acting sideways. What are the conditions turbance. In on which depend the ease, or the difficulty, with which it can be Fig. 36, as was shown in Lesson V., (page 188) the bods BO upset ? Let three cylinders, a, b, c, Fig. 35, be taken in supported at the point o is in equilibrium in the two positions illustration; the first of broad base and small height, the other 0 A B and OCD. Now the first of these is one of stability,

two of equal heights and the second of instability. What do these terms denote i 1

bases, the latter narrow in This; that, if you pull the stable body out of its rest into each. Suppose that a force, any other position to right or left, say O EF, back it will say of one pound, repre- return to A O B, as though by a free choice.

In the dissented by the dotted arrow turbed position o E F, the weight aeting downwards at G pulls pointing to the right, is ap- it back; it can descend, but not ascend. Try the same on the plied transversely to each, position OCD; the body, no longer supported from below, can: and let the weights of the not re-ascend; down it will rush to the stable position ; and, bodies be represented by after oscillating there for a few turns, come to rest. Wo see arrows pointing downwards thus that in stable equilibrium the centre of gravity is in the on the vertical lines in lowest possible position; in unstable in the highest. which their centres of Now take the same body attached to the post at its centre of gravity lie. Now, the re- gravity, G, Fig 37. However you turn it round, G is supsultant in each cylinder of ported, and the body rests. The equilibrium, therefore, is these two forces, repre- neither stable nor unstable. It sented by the arrows slant- neither returns on disturbance


6 Fig. 35.

ing to the right, is the up to the first position nor rushes

setting force. If this arrow away from it. This is termed strikes the ground outside the base of any cylinder, it will over- “ neutral equilibrium ; ” the turn; if within, it will remain standing as before.

centre can neither ascend nor 1. Now, taking any one of the cylinders, say a, it is evident descend. that the transverse force remaining the same, and the height at Now take the egg-shaped which it is applied the same, the greater its weight is the bodies, Fig. 38; that represented longer will the arrow op be, and therefore the more will the at b is stable, for the centre of resultant o R elope downwards towards o P, tending to fall gravity, supported from below, is

Fig. 38. within the base. Therefore, everything else being the same, the in the lowest possible position. Disturb it into the position, greater the weight of the body the less easily is it upset, that is, this centre ascends, and the weight pulling downwards brings it the more stable it is.

back to b. The body in the position c is unstable. It is ir




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equilibrium, but on disturbance rolls through the position c INTRODUCTION TO THE MECHANICAL POWERS. into the position b. In this case also you see the centre, for Before turning to the mechanical powers, the following prinstability, must be in its lowest position ; for instability, in its ciples, which are necessary to complete a knowledge of parallel kighest. But perfectly round balls, such as in Fig. 27 forces—the first of them required for explaining the lever-must

be established and understood. In the account given of parallel forces in Lesson IV. such only were considered as act in the same direction, pall or push together, each adding to the effect of every other; and of these the subject of the centre of gravity in Lessons V. and VI. furnished numerous exemplifications, the forces all pulling

s towardstheearth's

centre. Now you d

have to consider

twoforces, unequal D

and parallel, but Fig. 39.

acting in opposite

directions. (pago 220), are neutral, their centres, as you roll them on the Suppose twosuch RV ground, can neither ascend nor descend.

applied to a body, Také now the balls in a, Fig. 39, which represents a geological as in Fig. 43, section of hills and valleys. Those on the tops of the hills are where A and B are unstable, because their centres of gravity are in their highest the points of appositions. Disturb them, and down

plication, and the

Fig. 43. they roll into stable positions in

arrows AP, BQ, the valleys, the lowest positions of

represent their magnitudes and directions. Let A p be 7 pounds these centres. But here now &

and BQ 3 pounds; how can we find their resultant? From new principle is brought to light.

a very simple consideration. Whatever it be, or at whatever A body may admit of several posi

point it acts, it must be such that a force at that point, equal tions of equilibrium, but an unstable

and opposite to it, will balance it, and therefore make equiliis always between two stables, and

brium with its components A P, B Q. Now, that point cannot be 4 stable between two unstables.

inside the line A B, for in that case the resultant of the two The ball in the valley has a ball

which pull together could not be opposite to the third. The perched on the hill on either side,

point must, therefore, be outside A B and on the side of the and the ball on the hill has a ball

greater force A P. Let the point therefore be o, and o R the in the valley on either side.

resultant, o s being the force equal and opposite to it, which Take another illustration. Let

Fig. 40.

makes equilibrium with a P and B Q. it be a convex body, like a sea

Then, since there is equilibrium, the resultant of the two that shore pebble, with one side, as in Fig 39, b, Aatter than the pull together, B Q and o 8, must be equal and opposite to AP; other. I showed you in the last lesson that such a body should and therefore, as proved in Lesson IV., A P is the sum of BQ have as many positions of equilibrium on a plane as you can and o s. But A P being 7 pounds, and B Q 3 pounds, evidently draw lines from its centre of gravity piercing its surface at os must be 4 pounds, the difference of these forces. The reright angles. Let such points in this pebble be A, B, C, D, the sultant in magnitude therefore is the difference of the com.

first and third more distant from the centre ponents.
G than the other two. If I now try to Now for the point of application. Since the resultant of 4
make it rest on the ground at A, the centre pounds at o and 3 pounds at B must cut B o at a inversely as the
being higher than it would be if the body forces, if I divido A B into four equal parts, threo of them will
touched the ground on either side of that be in A 0; or, which is the same thing, seven parts in B 0 and
point, it will roll down to either B or D, three parts in A 0, showing that o is the point whose distances
which are two stable positions. We thus from A and B are inversely as the forces. Putting all together,
learn that,

we learn that The Positions of Equilibrium of a convex 1. The Resultant of two Unequal Parallel Forces which act Fig. 41.

body, supported from below, are alternately at two points of a body in opposite directions is equal in magni. stable and unstable.

tude to their difference. As a further illustration of the peculiarities of the centre of 2. Its point of application is outside of the greater force, gravity, take an egg. Why does it generally rest with its pointed at distances from the points of application of the components, end downwards, as at d, Fig. 39, while an egg, as at c, turned which are inversely as these forces. in wood of the same size and form, rests broad-end down ? Es. The rule to be observed practically in finding this centre is, plain, also, the reason the prancing-horse toy, represented at to cut A B into as many equal parts as there are pounds, or Fig. 40, supported at the edge of a table,

other units, or fractions of a unit, in the difference of the forces, and having a wire attached to him, which

and then to measure outwards from A along the production of carries a heavy ball at its other end, does

A B as many of these parts as there are pounds or other units in not fall on the ground, but when disturbed,

BQ; the point o so obtained is the parallel centre required. rocks backwards and forwards. Also, how

And you see that what is thus proved for the numbers 3 and 7 & rocking-horse is set rocking by the child

must hold equally for other numbers, whatever they be. on his back. The four-oared boat and

There is one particular case of this principle, which I shall crew in Fig. 41, supported by the point

just notice. Suppose a P becomes equal to B 0; what of their of a needle on the iron upright below, tmi.

resultant ? how large is it, and where applied ? In magnitude tates a boat's motion at sea, rising, and

it is nothing, being the difference of the forces; and the point of plunging, and going round, if the oars are

application is nowhere, at least within reach ; for on A B proloaded at their ends; explain this. Also,

duced no point o can be found such that A o be equal to B 0. how the harleqnin, Fig. 42, is balanced on

Pairs of forces of this kind are termed “couples," and they play his pedestal, as he twirls round and bows, Fig. 42

an important part in Mechanics, in producing a tendency to leaning forward and falling backward at

rotation; but we shall not consider them here. the imminent peril of coming to the ground. Instances of this One consequence more: How find the resultant of any numkind could be multiplied without end, but as much as our space ber of parallel forces, some acting in one direction, othors in the allows has been said on the centre of gravity, which we shall opposite? Evidently by compounding separately, and finding Dow leave to apply the principles so far set forth to practice, the centres of, those which act in the opposite directions. You commencing with the Mechanical Powers.

thus get two single parallel and opposite forces the resultants




of the opposing sets, and their centres of application; and there of the Power or Resistance, and the Condition of Equilibrium fore, by the aid of the principle above established, learn that- is stated as follows:

1. The Resultant of a system of Parallel Forces, which act, For Equilibrium in a Lever the Moments of the Power, with some in one direction others in the opposite, is in magnitude reference to the fulcrum, and Resistance should be equal. the Difference of the Sums of the Opposing sets of Forces.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN LESSON V. 2. Its Point of Application is had by finding the paralel centre of each opposing set, and taking a point on the side of outside his base as he springs on the fore-foot to advance. On coming

1. To prevent the perpendicular from his centre of gravity falling the greater sum, on the production of the line joining these down to counterpoise the centre of gravity's falling forward. centres whose distances from these points are inversely as the 2. He draws his feet under the chair, in order to get a base over sums of the opposing forces.

which, by leaning forward, he brings his centre of gravity, and lifta For example: Suppose eight parallel forces are applied to the that centre upwards by his muscular strength. eight corners of a box, five of 2, 4, 6, 7, and 9 pounds directed to 3. He leans to the opposite side in order to keep the common centrs the east, and three of 10, 11, and 15 pounds to the west; the of gravity of himself and bucket over the base of support. resultant will be 8 pounds, acting towards the west and at a

4. Else the perpendicular from his centre of gravity would meet the point on the line joining the parallel centres of the two sets, ground in advance of his feet. and outside the greater, whose distances from these centres are horse and rider acting at their common centre of gravity, is then more

5. Because the resultant of the forward motion, and the weight de inversely as 36 to 28.

apt to meet the ground outside the base of support of the horse's legs. These principles, with others previously established, we

6. Because in that case the perpendicular from the centre of gravity, apply to the Lever; first taking the cases in which the being lower down, is less apt to meet the ground' outside the buss forces, usually termed the “ Power ” and the “Resistance,” or when the road slopes to one side. “ Weight,” are parallel. The principle of leverage may be [It will be noticed that some of the figures which have been understood by the aid of Fig. 44. Two balls, say of iron, employed in Lesson VI. in Mechanics, have been introdnced a

connected by a second time in the present lesson. This has been done to spare
thin bar, are sup- the reader the trouble and annoyance of having to turn from
ported by a cord one page to another when reference has been made in the course
at a point o. of a lesson to any figure which has been used before as a means
How is this point of illustrating the text. Whenever, therefore, any figure is re-
to be selected so peated, it must be understood that this is the reason for its
that the balls repetition.]
may equally ban

lance each other,
Fig. 44.
the weight of

the rod not being SECTION 1.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued).

taken into con 75. We proceed with our illustrations of the nasal vowel sonunda sideration ? Again, having recourse to numbers, let the balls im and in, om and on :be 13 pounds and 4 pounds, and their centres the points A and B;

The nh in the pronunciation of anh and onh must have a short how is o to be found? Evidently by cutting a B so that 10 stopped sound, as in the im of timbre, and the on of beautionen be to Bo inversely as 13 to 4; or, on dividing that line into the fall sound of n, which would give vann for vin, and isna seventeen equal parts, so that four of them be in 4.0 and for bon, should be studiously avoided. thirteen in B o. If the bar be supported by the cord from

IM. above, or by a prop from below, at this point there is equilibrium.


ENGLISE. This is the principle of the Lever, of which the ball, B, may be con


Foolish. sidered the Power, and the ball, A, the Resistance. We say, there

Impénitence Anh-pay-nee-tahns

Impenitence. fore, that the support, or prop, commonly called the “fulorum,"

Impératoire Anh-pay-rat-oahr or t'wahr Master-wort. must be so placed that the arms A O, BO of the lever on each Impossible Auh-po-sibl

Impossible. side of it be to one another inversely as the Power and Resist- Limbe



But, as inverse ratio puzzles some persons, I shall put tho
matter in another light. You observe that at the end, A, FRENCH.


ENGLISE. of this lever, there are only 4 equal parts in the arm, but Cing


Five. 13 pounds in the resistance, while in the arm, B o, the parts are


Road. 13, and the pounds only 4. Now, suppose the parts were all inches,


End. then if you at either end multiply the number of inches in an



Physician, arm by the number of pounds on that arm, you get the same


number-namely, 52, for product. Choose any other numbers
different for 13 and 4, and the result is the same; the numbers


ENGLISH at either enā multiplied together give the same product. There- Bombe


Shell. fore another way of stating the Condition of Equilibrium in a Comble


Consummation lever is, that the product of the Power and arm on one side Lombard

Lombard shonld be equal to that of the Resistance and arm on the Nombre


Number, other.


Lead (a metal). But here be careful to be clear as to what is meant by “the

Trompette Tronh-pett

Trumpet. product of Power and arm, Resistance and arm." This puzzles some persons extremely, from its never being clearly


ENGLISH explained to them. Strictly speaking, the product of a force


Good. and a line, or of a resistance and an arm, is nonsense. Multiply



Then. a bag of flour by the iron beam from the end of which it hangs,

Long-temps Lonh-tannh

A great way and who can divine what the result of the operation is to be ? Maison


House. neither flour nor iron, but something between ! Well, then, to


Mine. remove overy possibility of confusion on this point, keep in mind Raison


Reason. (as the example above shows) that we multiply numbers only, not Répondit Ray-ponh-dee

Replied. the Power and its arm, or the Resistance and its arm, but the NUMBER which denotes the units of Force in one, by the NUM all sorts of ways, except the right way, in common conversation.

76. The French word monsieur is pronounced by foreigners BER which denotes the units of LENGTH in the other. Then you The author knows of no one French word so much in use by can make no mistake, there will be no confusion; and you can still those who speak the English language as this, and yet pro say, knowing the meaning of your words, that the Power multi- nounced so variously and incorrectly. Let us analyse this word plied by its arm is equal to the Resistance multiplied by the and, if possible, set forth its correct sound. other arm. This product is commonly termed the “ Moment”

Remember, then, that the n and r of the word monsieur are



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always silent; the n is silent by the rule of custom, and the r is expressed or understood, is also in French placed before the silent according to the general rule which obtains concerning verb: final consonants.

Il me parle, il lui parle,

He sponks to me, he speaks to him. Take out of the word the letters n and r, and we have mosiou. Il nous donne une fleur,

He gives us a flower.* Divide it now into syllables, and we have mo and sieu. In the Il vous parle, il leur parle,

He speaks to you, ho speaks to thom. first syllable the o is short, like the letter o in the English word

3. The personal pronoun is generally placed after the follownot, therefore the pronunciation of the first syllable, mo, is ing verbs : aller, to go; accourir, to run to; courir, to run; venir, easily ascertained. But in the second and last syllable, sicu, we

to come; penser à, songer à, to think of. have a diphthong of three successive vowels, viz., ieu, divided

Il vient à moi,

He comes to me. this , i-er, but pronounced as one syllable, preserving the sounds Il pense à vous, à eux,

He thinks of you, of them. of both divisions. The sound of i is short, like i in the English

4. In the imperative used affirmatively, the pronouns follow word jig, and the sound of eu is exactly like e mute or un

the verb. accented. These are the elements of the different sounds in the French Aimez-les, parlez-leur,

Lore them, speak to them. ford monsieur, and are thus pronounced, viz., mo-sieu, or 5. The words en and y follow the above rules, except the 29-sich.

third. Sometimes it is pronounced mos-sieu, but incorrectly, because J'en parle, j'y pense,

I speak of it, I think of it. the Parisian critic and scholar gives it but one s, and that at

6. The pronoun used as the indirect object of a verb, answerthe beginning of the second syllable.

Hence it will be perceived that it is simply ridiculous to pro- ing to the genitive or ablative of the Latin, and to the indirect rounce this word mong-seer or mon-seeuh. The on in this word object which in English is separated from the verb by a preis not a nasal, because the n is silent. The i is not long, and position other than to, is in French always placed after the verb. cannot be illustrated by ee, but is short, as above explained. Je parle de lui, d'elle, d'eux, I speak of him, of her, of them.

I remain with you and with them. 17. We now proceed to examples in which the nasal vowel Je reste avec vous et avec eux, Funds you and un are found.

7. All pronouns used as objects of verbs must be repeated.

Je les aime, je les respecte, je les I love them, respect, and honour


them. Humblement Unh-bl-manh



M'entendez-vous ?

Do you hear (or understand] me? The following are exceptions to the above illustrated pronun- Je ne vous entends pas.

I do not understand (or hear] you. ciatioa, viz. :

Les entendez-vous ?

Do you hear them ?

I see them and understand thom.

Je les vois et je les entenda.

He loves and honours us.

Il nous aime et il nous honore.

Lembago. Bum, Rhom,

Do you speak to me of your friend ? Rum


Me parlez-vous de votre ami ? and Rumb

Je vous parle de lui. (R. 6.) I speak to you of him.


Nous parlez-vous de ces dames ? Do you speak to us about those ladies ?
Je vous parle d'elles.

I speak to you of thom.

Ne leur parlez-vous pas ?

Do you not speak to them ?


Je n'ai pas envie de leur parler. I have no wish to speak to them. Ancan O-kunh


Parlez-lui; ne lui parlez pas. Speak to him or her; do not speak to Chacun Shak-unh (first syll. short) Each.

him or her.

Allez à lui, courez à lui.

Go to him, run to him.


Parlez-leur ; ne leur parlez-pas. Speak to them; do not speak to them. The following are exceptions to the above illustrated pronun

VOCABULARY. sation, viz.:

Affaire, f., affair, Compagnon, m., com. | Pens-er, 1, to think. Nucapatif Nonh-ku-pah-teef

Nuncupativo. * Arbre, m., tree.


Poirier, m., pear-treo. Nundinal Nonh-de-nal


Avis, m.,
Déjà, already.

Pommier, m., apple-
Cerisier, m., cherry-tree. Ecri-re, 4, ir., to write.

tree. 78. Ym and yn are now very seldom found in the French Communiqu-er, 1, to Exemple, m., example. Respect-er, 1, to reseznage ; they are, however, pronounced like im and in, which communicate,

Nouvelle, f., news. spect, ste been already illustrated.


1. Allez-vous lui écrire ? 2. Je vais lui écrire et lui com. 79. There are seven nasal diphthongal combinations, and they muniquer cette nouvelle. 3. Allez-vous lui parler de moi ? 4. te thus divided and pronounced, viz. :

Je vais lui parler de vous et de votre compagnon. 5. Leur ian divided into i-an

6. Je leur envoie des pomand pronounced eanh.

envoyez-vous de beaux arbres ? ien i-en eanh.

7. Ne m'envoyez-vous

miers, des poiriers et des cerisiers. ion i-on eonh.

pas de cerisiers. 8. Je ne vous en envoie pas, vous en avez uanh or wanh.

déjà. 9. Avez-vous raison de leur parler de cette affaire ? 10. tin u-in uanh or wanh.

Je n'ai pas tort de leur parler de cette affaire. 11. Venez à doanh or wanh.

nous demain matin. 12. Venez nous trouver cette après-midi. Otin ou-in doanh or anh.

13. Allez-vous les trouver tous les jours ? 14. Je vais les

trouver tous les soirs. 15. Leur donnez-vous de bons avis ? SECTION XXVI.-PLACE OF THE PRONOUNS.

16. Je leur donne de bons avis et de bons exemples. 17. Nous 1 The personal pronoun used as the direct [§ 2 (2), § 42 (4)] parlez-vous de vos smurs ? 18. Je vous parle d'elles. 19. Ne best of a verb, 1 is in French placed before the verb, except in

nous parlez-vous pas de nos frères ? 20. Je vous parle d'eux. be second person singular or in the first and second persons 21. Ne les aimez-vous pas ? 22. Nous les aimons et nous les bacal of the imperative used affirmatively.

respectons. 23. Pensez-vous à ce livre, ou n'y pensez-vous ne voit, il l'aime, He sees me, he loves him.

24. Nous y pensons et nous en parlons. 25. Nous n'y laous aime, il vous aime, He loves us, he loves you.

pensons pas.

EXERCISE 48. The personal pronoun representing the indirect object of te vorb ( 2 (3), § 42 (5)] answering to the dative of the Latin, 1. When are you going to write to your brother ? ed to the indirect object of the English with the preposition to going to write to him to-morrow morning. 3. Do you intend

to write to him every Monday ? 4. I intend to write to him A bw term meaning " verbal," in the sense of " not written.”

every Tuesday. 5. Do you wish to speak to him to-day ? * Pertaining to a fair, or market.

6. I do wish to speak to him, but he is not here. 7. Where The young student will easily distinguish the personal pronoun is he? 8. He is at his house. 9. Do you speak to them? 10. ad as the direct object of a verb, by the fact that there is in English prapoestion between the verb and this pronoun.

* The preposition to is understood. He gives a flower to us.







pas ?

2. I am your houses ?

Yes, Sir, I speak to them about (de) this affair. 11. Do they

VOCABULARY. give you good advice ? 12. They give me good advice and good commis, m., clerk. Guère, but little.

Poisson, m., fish. examples. 13. Do you go to your sister every day ? 14. I Connaissance, f., ac- Marchande de modes, Pologne, f., Poland, go to her every morning at a quarter before nine. 15. Does quaintance.

1., milliner.

Préter, 1, to lend. she like to see (voir) you ? 16. She likes to see me, and she Croi-re, 4, ir., to believe. Montr-er, 1, to shore. Semaine, t., toeck. receives me well. 17. Do you think of this affair ? 18. I think Dette, f., debt.

Oubli-er, 1, to forget. Souvent, often. of it the whole day. 19. Do you speak of it with (avec) your

D-evoir, 3, to owe. Pay-er, 1, to pay. Voyage, m., journey. brother? 20. We speak of it often. 21. Do you send your

EXERCISE 49. companion to my house? 22. I send him every day. 23. Are

1. Voulez-vous donner ce livre à mon frère ? 2. Je puis le you at home every day ? 24. I am there every morning at ten lui prêter, mais je ne puis le lui donner. 3. Voulez-vous nous o'clock. 25. Do you like to go to church ?

26. I like to go les envoyer ?

4. La marchande de modes peut vous les envoyer. there every Sunday with a companion. 27. Do you speak of 5. Les lui montrez-vous ? 6. Je les vois et je les lui montre

. 28. I speak of them (en). 29. Does your brother 7. Avez-vous peur de nous les prêter? 8. Je n'ai pas peur de speak of his friends ? 30. Yes, Sir, he speaks of them (d'eux). vous les prêter. 9. Ne pouvez-vous nous envoyer du poisson? 31. Does he think of them ? 32. Yes, Sir, he thinks of them 10. Je ne puis vous en envoyer, je n'en ai guère. 11. Voulez(d eux). 33. Does he think of this news ? 34. Yes, Sir, he

vous leur en parler? 12. Je veux leur en parler, si je ne l'oublie thinks of it (y). 35. I love and honour them.

pas. 13. Venez-vous souvent les voir ? 14. Je viens les pour SECTION XXVII.-RESPECTIVE PLACE OF THE PRONOUNS: tous les matins, et tous les soirs. 15. Ne leur parlez-vous point

1. When two pronouns occur, one used as a direct object of de votre voyage en Pologne ? 16. Je leur en parle, mais il ne the verb (accusative), and the other as the indirect object (dative),

veulent pas me croire. 17. Est-ce que je vois mes connaissances the indirect object, if not in the third person singular or plural, le Lundi? 18. Vous les voyez tous les jours de la semaine. 19. must precede the direct object [$ 101 (1)].

Vous envoient-elles plus d'argent que le commis de notre mar

chand. 20. Elles m'en envoient plus que lui. 21. En entores Je vous le donne, I give it to you.

vous au libraire ? 22. Je lui en envoie quand je lui en dos. Il me le donne, He gives it to me. 23. N'avez-vous pas tort de lui en envoyer ?

24. Je ne puis Il nous le donne, He gives it to us.

avoir tort de payer mes dettes. 2. When the pronoun used as an indirect object [dative, Sect.

EXERCISE 50. XXV. 2] is in the third person singular or plural, it must be placed after the direct object ($ 101 (2)).

1. Will you send us that letter? 2. I will send it to you, if

you will read it. 3. I will read it if (si) I can. 4. Can yon land Nous le lui donnons,

We give it to him.
Nous le leur donnons,
We give it to them.

me your pen?_5. I can lend it to you, if you will take care o

it. (Sect. XXI. 3.) 6. May I speak to your father? 7. Yea 3. The above rules of precedence apply also to the imperative may speak to him, he is here. 8. Are you afraid of forgetting used negatively :

it? (Sect. XX. 4.) 9. I am not afraid of forgetting it. 10. Ne nous le donnez pas (R. 1), Do not give it us.

Will you send them to him? 11. I intend to send them to Em Ne le lui donnez pas (R, 2), Do not give it to him, if I have time. 12. Do you speak to him of your journey. 18

. 4. With the imperative used affirmatively, the direct object I speak to him of my journey. 14. I speak to them of it la precedes in all cases the indirect object (§ 101 (5)].

Can you communicate it to him? 16. I have a wish to con

municate it to him. 17. Do you see your acquaintances every Donnez-le-nous, Give it to us.

Monday ? 18. I see them every Monday and every Thursdss. Montrez-le-leur, Show it to them.

19. Where do you intend to see them ? 20. I intend to the 5. En and y always follow the pronouns :

them at your brother's and at your sister’s. 21. Can you send Je lui en donne, I givo him some.

him there every day? 22. I can send him there every Monday, Il nous y envoie, He sends us thither.

if he wishes (s'il le veut). 23. Can you give them to me? 24.1

can give them to you. 25. Who will lend them books ? 26. No 6. PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS.

one will lend them any. 27. Your bookseller is willing to sell them VOIR, to see. VOULOIR, to be willing. | POUVOIR, to be able.

good books and good paper. 28. Is he at home ? 29. He is Je vois, I see, do sce, or Je veux, I will, or am Je puis, or je peux, 1 his brother's. 30. Are you wrong to pay your debts ? 31. I am seeing. willing.

can, I may, am able.

am right to pay them. 32. Will you send it to us? 33. I am Tu vois. Tu veux. Tu peux.*

willing to send it to you, if you want it. 34. Are you willing

Il peut. Nous voyons.

to give them to us ? 35. We are willing to give them to yout Nous voulons.

Nous pouvons.
Vous voyez.
Vous voulez,
Vous pouvez.

acquaintances. Ils voient.

Ils peuvent. 7. The above verbs take no preposition before another verb.

HISTORIC SKETCHES.–VIII. 8. The preposition pour is used to render the preposition to, when the latter means in order to. Je vais chez vous pour parler à I go to your house to speak to your adherents into the House of Commons ? If you do, the fire

“ My Lord George, do you really mean to bring your rascally votre frère et pour vous voir,

brother and to see you, J'ai besoin d'argent pour acheter I want money to (in order to) buy man of them that enters I will plunge my sword, not into la des marchandises,


body, but into yours.” Strong language, certainly, especially

for the House of Commons, and yet never was speech spoke RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

more earnestly or significantly than this, and the unusta Voulez-vous nous le donner ? Will you give it to us?

character of it passed without rebuke from the Speaker. Th Je veux vous le prêter. I will lend it to you.

person addressed was Lord George Gordon, the man who Pouvez-vous me les donner ? Can you give them to me ?

addressed him was his own kinsman, Colonel Murray; the dat Je ne puis vous les donner. I cannot give them to you. Votre frère peut-il le lui envoyer ? Can your brother send it to him ? of the speech was Friday, the 2nd June, 1780, and the occasion Il ne veut pas le lui envoyer, He will not send it to him.

on which it was delivered will be set forth in the following Qui veut le leur prêter ? Who will lend it to them ?

sketch. Personne ne veut le leur prêter. No one will lend it to them.

Soon after the death of Henry VIII., in 1547, the policy Envoyez-les-nous. Send them to us.

impolicy, the religious zeal or the intolerant spirit—which yot Ne nous les envoyez pas. Do not send them to us.

will—of the English Government, deemed it necessary that the Donnez-nous-en. Give us some (of it).

who lately had been subject to systematic persecution for their Ne leur en envoyez pas.

Do not send them any.
Envoyez-le-leur, pour les con- Send it to them (in order), to satisfy Laws of the most stringent

kind were passed by the Protestant

religious opinions should change places with their persecutor tenter. Je puis vous l'y envoyer. I can send it to you there.

king, Edward VI., against Papists, as the professors of the Roman

Catholic faith were then commonly called, and by them it w3* • After the verbs pouvoir, to be able; vser, to daro; savoir, to know, made an offence punishable with heavy fine and imprisonment

, the negative pas may be omitted.

and in certain cases capitally, for a man to hold the faith in

I voit.

Il veut.

Ils veulent,


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