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which he had been educated. Queen Mary, in 1553, repealed them to their legitimate aspirations, though it must be confessed these laws, but they were re-enacted with fresh rigours by there was no fitter incarnation of their weaknesses and their Elizabeth when she came to the throne in 1558. At the time folly. They were indignant at the slight concession given to these laws were made, it was not contemplated that there their fellow-Christians, and they resolved, if possible, to procure could be such a thing as dissent from the newly-established the repeal of it, and if that was not to be, then they would do Church of England, but when the Puritans arose—the men who whatever their too ready hands might find to do. At the fought the battle of religious and political freedom against a suggestions of Lord George, petitions were got up and nume. Tudor queen, and against all the Stuart kings-fresh laws were rously signed, begging the Legislature to deliver the land from framed to check them, and fetters the most oppressive and the the guilt of allowing certain of the inhabitants to pray together! most harassing were forged for them as they had been forged Every means were taken to make the petition from the Profor the Roman Catholics. Every one within the realm was testants of London a “monster petition.” Advertisements were ordered to go to church on Sunday, or to be fined twelvepence issued, speeches were made to inflame the public mind, and per, - sum in those days equal to more than two days' wages sonal entreaties were not wanting to indure the people to add for a labouring man—and those who did not go for a month their names. were fined £20. Subsequently, in the reign of Charles II. Towards the end of May, 1780, a crowded meeting was held (1660-1685), it was ordered that no one should be admitted to in Coachmakers' Hall, where Lord George spoke at length, office in any corporate town who had not within a year pre- addressing the people in a highly inflammatory harangue. He viously taken the Lord's Supper according to the rites of the promised to present their petition to the House of Commons Church of England, and certain oaths were prescribed to of which he was a member, if they would attend him with not persons elected which no Romanist could take. The Book of less than 20,000 persons, on the 2nd June. Resolutions were Common Prayer was ordered to be used in every place for passed pledging the Association to meet with as many friends public worship, and no one was allowed to be a schoolmaster, as they could muster on that day in St. George's Fields; and or to have anything to do with the instruction of youth in order the better to distinguish those of the “ true Protes(dancing, for instance), unless he had signed a declaration tant” party, it was agreed that the petitioners and their friends of conformity to the Liturgy. Meetings of more than five should wear blue cockades in their hats. persons for the purpose of worshipping God otherwise than by On Friday, the 2nd of June, Lord George Gordon met his using the Prayer Book were liable to be broken up by force, followers, some 60,000 strong, in St. George's Fields, and after and the preachers fined. The Test Act, passed in the twenty: addressing them in a foolish speech, full of intolerant and faith year of Charles II., required all civil and military officers, strife-stirring words, marched them, six abreast, over London and all persons in the service of the Crown, to take the oaths Bridge, ap Fleot Street and the Strand to Palace Yard, of of allegiance and supremacy, to declare their disbelief in the which they took riotous possession. The Houses had not yet doctrine of transubstantiation, and to receive the sacrament met when the processionists arrived; there were not any police in the Church of England; and another law of the same to keep order, and the troops had not any instructions. king forbade any one to sit in Parliament or to vote for a Very soon the disposition of the assemblage was apparent. member until he had taken such oaths as no Romanist could Thousands had only availed themselves of the Protestants’ possibly take.

petition to indulge their natural instincts to commit robbery William and Mary (1688-1702) assented to a law granting and violence, and as soon as the members of either House of Protestant dissenters the right of meeting for public worship Parliament began to arrive, these persons commenced to be i the place of meeting were duly registered ; but the laws natural. Earl Mansfield, one of the most upright and able which gave this and certain other privileges to Protestants, Chief Justices England ever had, had agreed to preside over welded yet closer the rivets of intolerance on the unfortunate the House of Lords instead of Lord Chancellor Thurlow, who Catholics, who were still forbidden to meet, or to celebrate the was ill at Tunbridge. As soon as his carriage came into Mass Statutes of George I. (1714-1727) and George II. Palace Yard it was attacked, the windows were broken, the 0727-1760) confirmed the odious Test Act, and extended it. body was much damaged, and the venerable old man with Not only were all officers in the army and navy, and all persons difficulty escaped into the House, with torn robes and disordered ir public posts still compelled to desecrate the sacrament of wig. The Archbishop of York was subjected to like violence, the Lord's Supper, and to take startling oaths, but all eccle- and the Bishop of Lincoln, whose carriage was literally deBastical and collegiate persons, all preachers, teachers, school. molished, was taken fainting into a house, whence he escaped Dasters, lawyers, and high constables were compelled, under in disguise over the leads. The Duke of Northumberland was pain of deprivation, fine, and forfeiture, to take the oaths of pulled out of his carriage and robbed of purse and watch; the supremacy and allegiance, and to abjure the Pope and the Lord President of the Council and other peers were also so

roughly handled that they could hardly get into Westminster i in 1779, the year before the words at the beginning of this Hall. The Lords continued to arrive, and

business commenced; Article were spoken, an Act was passed relieving the Protestant but little progress had been made when Lord Montfort rushed

dusenters from almost all their disabilities, those created by the in to say that Lord Boston was in the hands of the mob, 1 Pet Act and Corporation Act excepted. But the people thus and

in imminent danger of his life. One who was present efranchised could not bear that a slight concession made the says :-—" At this instant it is hardly possible to conceive a before to Romanists, and allowing them to meet for worship more grotesque appearance than the House exhibited. Some ander certain restrictions, should remain unrepealed. It was not of their lordships with

their hair about their shoulders'; others nough that the Romanist should be shut out from every post smutted with dirt ; most of them as pale as the ghost in fery kind in the public service, that he should be precluded Hamlet;' and all of them standing up in their several places, ww. getting a living by instructing in any branch of knowledge, and speaking at the same instant. One lord proposing to ed that he should be unable to practise at the bar; the lately send for the Guards, another for the justices or civil magis ssscuted felt they could not enjoy their freedom if their trates, many crying out, “Adjourn, adjourn !' while the skies Low-sufferers by the law were also relieved, though only resounded with the huzzas, shoutings, or hootings in Palace part.

Yard." A number of organisations, calling themselves Protestant Lord Boston escaped from the crowd just as the House of Lasociations , had been formed in England and Scotland for the Lords were proposing to go out and rescue him; but

it being purpose of obtaining the removal of disabilities from Protestant impossible to go on with business, the House adjourned at

They chose Lord George Gordon for their chief, eight o'clock, and its members managed to get away unper. si had they searched the whole country over they could not ceived by sido ways and

passages. bere found a representative more thoroughly unsuited to guido Some 200 members of the House of Commons assembled,

but the noise of the Protestant rioters almost drowned their It Emancipation allowed

voices bestea Catholics to sit in Parliament , or to vote ant élections, to Work in petition, and moved that

the House should consider it in com the present reign that a full measure of freedom was meted out mittee forthwith. An amendment was moved that it should the professors of all religions

, including the Jewish religion, and not be considered till the 6th instant (four days on), but the Best the law both in principle and practice ceased to persecute. sense of the House could not be taken, because the rioters had

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altitudo, height, because it shows the height of the top or vertex corresponding to the number of degrees in a right angle. Straight of the triangle from its base. In Fig. 24 (page 209), c E is the alti- lines are then drawn from one extremity of the aro to each of tude of the triangle A B C, and D E the altitude of the triangle the points of division, and the length of each line in succession, A B D. If, then, we have to determine the altitude of an equilateral from that which is drawn to the point nearest to the extremity A

triangle already drawn, as in of the arc from which the lines are drawn, to that which is &G

the triangle A B C in the same drawn to the other extremity, is transferred to the scale. The
figure, it is manifest that we radius of any circle, whether large or small, is the chord of an
have only to draw a straight line angle of 60 degrees; but the
from the point c erpendicular learner must bear in mind
to the base A B; or, what is the that no chord of an angle of
same thing, bisect the base A B, 60 degrees, except that which
and join the point of bisection is marked on his scale, will

and the point c, which is the top, suffice for the length of the
Fig. 26.

vertex, or apex of the triangle. line A B, as the proportions But to proceed with the problem under consideration.

of the chords of the other Let the straight line a represent the altitude of the equi. angles of the scale have been lateral triangle required. Draw any straight line BC of indefinite determined by the aid of length, and from a point d, taken as nearly as possible in the the quadrant of a circle

Fig. 28. centre of the line, draw D E at right angles to BC. Then, along whose radius is equal to the the straight line D E set off D F equal to A, and from D as a chord of an angle of 60 degrees of the length laid down on centre with the distance D F, describe the semicircle u F G, the scale. cutting the straight line B c in the points g and 1. Then from To render this perfectly intelligible, in Fig. 28 B A C is a G as centre with the distance G D, describe the arc D I, cutting quadrant of a circle, and the angle B A c is an angle of 90 the semicircle # F G in L, and from 1 as centre with the distance degrees. As it would require an arc of considerable size to I D, describe the arc D K, cutting the semicircle I F G in M. divide it clearly into 90 portions of equal size, let us be Through F draw the straight line 1 K parallel to B C, or, what is satisfied with dividing the arc b c into six equal parts in the the same thing, touching the arcs D I, D K (see Problem X., points D, E, F, G, H. The straight lines drawn from A to each page 192), and through the points L and m, draw the straight of these points divide the angle B A c into six equal angles of lines D N, D O, meeting i k in n and o. The triangle D n o is 15 degrees each, and the angles B A D, B A E, B AF, B A G, an equilateral triangle, having its altitude D F equal to the given B A H, are respectively angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees. altitude A.

Draw the lines BD, B E, B F, B G, B H, BC, from the extremity If we join L F, the triangle D L F is an isosceles triangle, B of the arc BC through the points D, E, F, G, H, C. These having the side D L equal to the side DF, As the sides lines represent the chords of the angles B A D, B A E, B A F, DL, D F are equal, the angles which they subtend, namely, B AG, B A H, and B A C respectively, or chords of angles of 15, the angles D L F, D F L, are equal to one another. Now, the 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees, and by setting off the length of third angle, L D F, of the triangle D L F, is an angle of 30 each in due order along any straight line, we construct a scale degrees, and each of the angles DLF, D F L is therefore equal to of chords for angles having these openings, based on the quad. 180-30 divided by 2, or 150 ; 2=75 degrees.

rant of a circle whose radius is equal in extent to the length of Again, in the triangle L N F, the angle L NF is an angle of the chord of an angle of 60 degrees, as marked on the scale. 60 degrees; the angle FL n is equal to 180—75, or 105 degrees, To make an angle greater than 90 degrees by means of the since the angles F L N, F L D are together equal to two right scale of chords, it is only necessary to draw a semicircle instead angles, and of these the angle FL D has been shown to be an of a quadrant of a circle, and having set off 90 degrees on the angle of 75 degrees ; and the angle NFL is equal to 90 – 75, aro, to set off in addition the chord of the number of degrees or 15 degrees, since the angle N F D is a right angle, and L FD by which the given angle exceeds 90. Thus, in Fig. 28, to an angle of 75 degrees. Its value can also be found by sub- draw an angle of 120 degrees, first draw the semicircle B x, with tracting the value of the angles FNL, NLF from 180, thus: a radius equal to the chord of an angle of 60 degrees, as marked 180 – (60+105)=180 – 165=15 degrees.

on the scale. Open the compasses to the whole extent of the PROBLEM XÝ.—To draw an angle which shall contain a given scale, and setting one foot on B, with the other draw a small number of degrees.

arc, cutting the arc B x in c. Then reduce the opening of the Although it is plain, from the preceding problems, that it is compasses to the extent of the chord of an angle of 30 degrees

, possible to draw many angles containing a given number of and setting one foot on c, with the other cut the arc cx in K. degrees without the aid of any instruments, except a pair of Join A K; the angle B A K is an angle of 120 degrees, being compasses and a ruler, it is necessary to resort to the protractor formed by the angles B A C, C A K, or scale of chords in drawing the great majority of angles when the former of which is an angle of the extent of their opening is stated. The protractor has been 90 degrees, while the latter is one of described already (page 113). The scale of chords will be found 30 degrees. on any “Plane Scale” of boxwood or ivory, sold by mathe- A scale of chords can be readily matical instrument makers, and consists of a line graduated constructed without drawing lines

ivide in such a manner from one extremity of the arc of the as to show the opening of any quadrant to every point of section in angle from 1 degree to 90, in succession between the extremity from degrees only. The method of which the chords are drawn and the using the scale of chords is as other extremity. The method which follows:

we are now going to bring under the On any straight line, x y, set reader's notice has the advantage of

Fig. 29. off a portion, a equal to the simplicity; but in Fig. 28 the actual chords of the angles from opening of an angle of 60 de- 15 to 90 degrees are shown in succession, and the angles them.

grees, as marked on the scale of selves that the chords subtend are also shown by straight lines Fig. 27.

chords. From the point A as drawn from the point B to the different points of section of the

a centre, with A B as radius, arc. In Fig. 29, having drawn a quadrant of a circle, A B C, describe the arc B Z. Then, supposing it be required to draw as before, join a B, the chord of the right angle A C B, and divide an angle of 40 degrees, apply the compasses to the scale of the arc A B into nine (or ninety, if it be large enough) equal chords, and open the legs to the extent of 40 degrees, as marked parts in the points a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h. Then, setting one foot of on the scale. From B as a centre, with the radius thus ob- the compasses at a, draw arcs through the points a, b, c, etc., in tained, draw an arc, cutting the arc B’z in the point c. Join Ac; succession, cutting the straight line A B in the points numbered the angle BAC is an angle of 40 degrees.

10, 20, 30, etc. The distances along A B intercepted between the To construct a scale of chords, a quadrant of a circle is drawn, extremity A and each arc in succession are respectively chords and the arc of the quadrant is divided into ninety equal parts, of angles of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 degrees.

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students in chemistry, will have been struck with the number of

men whose sense of smell is imperfect and unreliable; and even THE ORGAN OF SMELL-(concluded).

those who think they have this sense unimpaired are often misled, To as the sensations of smell are far less vivid and reliable than from the fact that they are conscious of a sensation, not prothose of sight and hearing, or even those of touch and taste. 'duced by odour, but which is, in fact, only the general sense of This is shown by the fact, that the ideas which these sensations touch, common to the surface of the body, and only more acute leave behind them are less distinct: the memory retains them in the delicate lining membrane of the nose. Such students can


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WALL OF THE NASAL CANAL, LEFT SIDE. III. UNDER-SIDE OF HEAD OF SPOTTED DOG-FISH. IV. NASAL SAC OF STURGEON. Ref. to Nos. in Figs.-I. 1, 2, cavities of the skull; 3, septum between the lobes of the brain; 4, nasal passage ; 5, slit-like orifice; 6, folded

membrane; 7, upper end of air-passage, grasped by the sides of the nasal canal; 8, soft palate ; 9, hard palate ; 10, tongue; 11, valve. II. 1, cavity of the brain ; 2, 3, ethmo-turbinals; 4, lower turbinal; 5, nostril; 6, palate; 7, nasal canal ; 8, bulla of ear; 9, bristle running through Eustachian tube.

for a shorter time, and will not reproduce them at will. More- detect pungent gases like ammonia and chlorine, but cannot dis. over, these sensationis furnish but few starting-points for thought, tinguish between them, or between aromatic gases like alcohol or speculation, or reason to proceed from. We seldom employ the and chloroform. On the whole, we make such little use of our smell in investigation, unless it be upon objects which give no in- organ of smell, its acuteness being as often an inconvenience as dication whatever to any of the other senses; and when we do so, an advantage to us, that we endure the loss of this sense with We are not satisfied until we have other confirmatory evidence more patience and with less sense of privation than that of any as to the nature of those objects. The chemist in the laboratory other. The estimate we form from experience of the comparawill make use of this sense, as a rough-and-ready method of tively small value of this sense, is apt to make us misjudge its detecting gases which cannot be otherwise easily dealt with, but importance to the lower animals. But if we imagine that the he always confirms their presence by other tests if possible. impressions which this sense brings to animals are as dull

, inAny one who has presided over the practical experiments of distinct, and unreliable to their consciousness as to ours, a little

our error.


observation of the habits of animals will soon lead us to suspect the porpoise the brain has no olfactory lobe, and there are no

The sense seems to be the keenest in the carnivora, olfactory nerves; and therefore the nasal passages are made and man is so sensible of his inferiority to these in the sense of subservient to the supply of the lungs with air. A reference to smell, that he supplements his deficiency by their acuteness. the engraving will show how the canal from the slit-like opening The little terrier will inform his master, the rat-catcher, if the at the top of the head passes down past a valve, which closes it rat is at home, by his impatient scratching at the mouth of the against the water when the animal is submerged, and then hole. The huntsman sees a fox cross an alley in a wood; onward to the head of the windpipe, which here does not open Reynard has gone he knows not whither, and has left no trace on the floor of the wesophagus (or food-throat), but is continued which is available to his dull sense. But a hound comes in sight, up, and thrust into, the nasal canal, while the muscles of the and when motioned to the place he sniffs the ground in uncer- soft palate and food-throat grasp it firmly. If the animal tainty but for a moment, and then flings up his nose towards chooses, however, he can force the water from his mouthi past the sky, and with one long, melancholy howl calls his comrades this perforated plug, and make it issue in a stream from the of the pack, and, in almost less time than it takes to write it, blow-hole. Though the function of smelling seems to be thus they are all in full cry on the trail, making the echoes ring with entirely sacrificed to other uses, in the nose of the whale and their confident music. Who has not observed the pointer, as porpoise, it will be seen from the engraving that an orifice lead. he stops in the midst of his swift, business-like beat, motion- ing from the part of the canal external to the valve passes less, as if Medusa's head had turned him to stone? Yet, if into a chamber, upon whose folded sides a membrane is spread you mark him well, his whole frame is instinct with tremulous which has branches of the fifth pair of nerves distributed to it. emotion; his eyes glisten, and seem starting from his head; Through this organ, no doubt, the porpoise can test the purity his nostrils twitch, and his limbs quake with excitement. The of the water in which it is immersed. game lios hidden in deep cover; it is impossible for him to see it; The hog uses his disc-shaped snout to turn up the earth, and but as you look at him you feel certain that he is as vividly the tapir curls his flexible nose round the grass to tear it up; conscious of its presence, as if his eye saw, or his foot were but these slight differences from the usual development of the upon it.

organ sink into insignificance beside the enormously elongated We have seen, in writing of the other senses, that while beasts trunk of the elephant. In this beast, the two narrow tube: seem to have these in greater efficiency than men, this is into which the nasal chambers are continued forward, run to the because their attention is not abstracted from their indications, very end of the organ, where there is, on the upper side, a finger, and not because the organ is any more perfect or elaborate which seems to be as serviceable as any of our own. Strong in its structure ; but in the case of the smell, a corresponding bundles of muscles run along the trunk on all sides, and development and complication of structure accompanies a keener radiating ones pass between these, so that the beast can move

The great difference between the skull of man and that his trunk in any direction he pleases. of the beast consists in the fact, that in the latter the brain and In birds the sense of smell is by no means so efficient as in the brain-case—which it accurately fits-are much smaller; the mammals. This we may pronounce with certainty, because not jaws—and therefore the hollow of the mouth-are much larger only is the organ, and its accessory apparatus, less developed, and longer. Now, the nasal cavity which lies between these but the habits of birds indicate that they are but little guided partakes, in the beast, of the elongation of the jaws, and not of by the sense of smell. Raptorial birds, like flesh-eating animals

, the curtailment of the brain. The nose is almost always at the have better-developed olfactory organs than grain-feeding fowls. end of the muzzle, and the long chambers of the nose only pass The main nerve of smell of the vulture is five times the thickunder the brain at the posterior part of their course, where they ness of that of the turkey, although the carrion-feeding bird also begin to descend to enter the throat. Hence, instead of (first-named) does not exceed the other in weight; but it would comparing the face to a three-storeyed house, as we did in seem that this sense in the vulture and condor is only useful to speaking of the man, it should be compared to a two-storeyed them in selecting while at their meal, and does not guide them shed, with a lean-to behind for the accommodation of the brain. to the meal itself. A number of confined condors had some The turbinated bones are, therefore, not so much one above as one steaks of flesh, wrapped in paper, placed before them, but they behind the other, the front or inferior one being very much enlarged gave no sign of being aware of their presence; when, however, and contorted, or folded, so as to fill up the large chamber. This the paper was removed, they were seen tumbling over one bone is very differently shaped in the different animals. In the another in their eagerness to snatch the food. sheep it arises by a broad plate, which runs inward from the The general peculiarities of the organ of smell of birds are outer wall of the nose, and then divides into two plates, both of the following:--The nerve leaves the skull by one hole, and not which assume the form of scrolls, one curling upwards and the through many, as in beasts; the membrane to which the nerve other downwards; and the number of turns of these scrolls is so of smell goes is confined to the base of the beak, and the outer great, that if a transverse section of the nose be made, the edge nostrils are not at the end, but at its sides or base; and though of the bone looks like the capital of an Ionic column. In the these nostrils are sometimes protected by a scale (as in the hare and rabbit the bone has a different form, and consists of a pheasant), or a sheath (as in the stormy petrel), or a bunch of number of plates one above the other, which subdivide into stiff feathers (as in the raven), there are never any flexible other smaller horizontal plates or ridges, all of which are, so to cartilages moved by muscles. That singular wingless bird, speak, gathered together into one stem at each end. The seal thence called the apteryx, affords the only exception to the has a bone of the same structure, but much more subdivided above statements, for its nostrils are at the end of its bill, the and complicated; and the extraordinary development of the upper turbinated bones are of very large size, and many nerves organ in these swimming carnivora, would lead us to suppose pierce the skull, as in the mammalia. These peculiarities indithat they hunt by scent. It will be seen that the design of all cate greater acuteness in the sense of smell; and this is these structures, however different their form may be, is to thought to be associated with its habit of probing among loose increase the surface over which the pituitary membrane, as it is earth, to hunt for worms, by scenting them. called, can be spread. Now, in man, the meinbrane of the lower In the pelican there are no external nostrils whatever; and scroll-bone is not so specially the seat of the organ of smell as this is, no doubt, reasonably accounted for by the fact that this of a refined and acute sense of touch; for the nerve which bird fishes under water with its long bill, and detains its prey supplies it is not from the olfactory bulb, but from the fifth pair for inspoction in its capacious pouch. While in this position, of nerves. It is this nerve which is excited by the application the contents of the bill send off effluvia to the nose by the back of snuff: so that the snuff does not act as an odour, but as an way of the palate; and since the nostrils of the bird, if it had irritant, and the pleasure may be compared, by those who do not any, would be above the water, and its prey below it, they could appreciate it, to the pleasure of scratching in other parts of be of no service. the body. In beasts, however, the nasal branch from the fifth In the higher reptiles, the internal organ is very like that of pair of nerves would seem to be a nerve of special senso; and, birds ; but in some the nostrils are wide apart, and in others, as besides this, since the turbinated bones are not one above, but in all the crocodiles, they are united into one, which in the true one behind the other, the air passes successively over them all, crocodile of the Nile is shaped like a half-moon, and closed instead of below the ethmo, or upper turbinated bones, as in man. by a valve from behind; and in the gavial, or slender-snouted

Perhaps it is not out of place here to remark upon some crocodile of the Ganges, the skin round the nostril can be raised functions discharged by the nose, which are not olfactory. In so as to allow it to be just lifted above the surface, while the

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rest of the animal is concealed. In both cases the nostril is

VOCABULARY. placed at the tip of the snout, for reasons which those who have | Fahren, to drive, to Holz'hauer, m. wood. | Reiten, to ride (on read the lessons on the ear will understand. Space fails to ride (in a vehicle). cutter.

horseback). write of the organ in the serpent, the frog, and the siren; but, Frantjurt, n. Frank- Kalt, cold.

Reitpjerb, n. saddlein passing on to describe it as it occurs in the fish, it should fort.

Leben, to live.

horse. be remarked, that in all the foregoing animals there is a com. Früh, early.

Mäßig, temperate, Schlachter, to butcher, munication between this organ and the air-passage to the lungs. Gesunt', healthy. temperately.

kill, or slay. The position of these hind nostrils, as they are called, are, as Holz, n. wood, timber Meyger, m. butcher. Suchen, to seek. we have seen, very various. In some cases, they open just

of any kind.

Orʻrentlich, orderly. Zeit, f., time. behind the teeth, as in the toad; and in others, far back in the

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. alimentary canal. They are sometimes double, and sometimes single; but they are always present: and consequently these Da blühet eine Rose, und hier fällt There a rose blossoms, and here animals all breathe naturally through the nose: and for this cine ab.

one falls off. reason it has been difficult to discuss the function of smell Hier steht der Jüngling, und ta ter Here stands the youth, and without trenching on the function of respiration. In fish, on Grcie

there the aged man. the contrary, there are no langs; and therefore the hind outlet Morgen verläßt tas neue Dampfbeet To-morrow the new steamboat of the nose is not present, and the organ is solely an organ den Hafen

leaves the harbour. of smell.

Zu lange schon hast du gesiumt', tie Too long already hast thou Ite nsual form is that of a roundish sac, opening on the side verlor'ne Zeit cinózuholen.

delayed to redeem the lost of the muzzle by one or two external holes. The sac is either

time. pound, in which case a column of cartilage rises in the centre, and Jeßt muß ich meinen Brief schließen. I must now close my letter. radiating folds run from this to the circumference; or elongated, Heute fann er nicht froh sein, unt To-day he cannot be joyful, and when a bar of cartilage runs across it; and on each side of this

morgen nicht lachen. Sprichwort. to-morrow not laugh. Auage. plates pass off to the sides; and these secondary plates at their

EXERCISE 50. midila portion are elongated into flaps, which float freely in the water of the sac. An example of the first form is seen in the 1. Will der alte Soltat heute in den Wald gehen? 2. Gr will hins turgeon, and of the last in the ray and dog-fish. In the geben, aber heute fann er nicht, denn er hat viel z11 thun 3. Der Haus, drawing of the dog-fish, one sac is represented with a fore-and-fnedyt ist auf ten Markt gegangen, um Fleisch zu holen.

4. Um gefund zul aft fiap to the nostril, the fore-flap being pulled forward by bleiben, muß man ordentlich und mäßiz leben. 5. Der Holzhauer ist in den two threads, so as to disclose the interior; while, on the other Wald gegangen, um Hotz zu hauen. 6. Der Meßger geht von einein side, these flaps have been wholly removed, to expose the organ. Dorfe zum andern, um Ochsen zu faufen. 7. Er geht nus cinem Dorfe in These cartilaginous flaps are moved by proper muscles, so tas andere, fann aber feine Otsen Finten. 8. Was will er mit ten that the water in the sacs can be rapidly changed by their Ochsen? 9. Gr will sie schylachten ; wir müssen ja Fleisch haben. 10. action; hence these fish have been said not only to smell, but to Der Bauer hat zwei Pferte, welche der Brauer faufen will. 11. Ich gebie Hent their prey. In the lamprey, or nine-eyed eel, the nasal in die Statt, um einen Hut over eine Müße zu kaufen. 12. &r hat Baciyer se is single, and in the middle line above the head.

zu lesen und eine Aufgabe zu schreiben. 13. Wo will der Freund Ihres In the nautilus, Professor Owen has detected an organ Bruters hingehen? 14. Ér will nirgends hingehen, er will bei seinem of smell; and the pretty little organs which are thrust up Oheim bleiben. 15. Wollen fic auf den hohen Verz gehen? 16. Ich from the back of the naked sea-slug are considered to be will dahin gehen, aber nicht heute. 17. Können Sie morgen auf das Land of the same nature. We have already pointed out the organ geben?' 18. Ich fann bahin gehen, aber ich will nicht. 19. Wam will in the lobster; but where the sense resides in insects is yet Ihr Vater seine Pferte vieter haben? 20. Er muß fie morgen friile unknown.

haben, weil er morgen Abend nad, Frantsurt fahren will. 21. Warum Notwithstanding these difficulties and uncertainties, it is will er nicht tahin reiten? 22. Weil er fein gutes Reitpferd hat, und das koped that it has been shown that there is sufficient evidence of Wetter sehr falt ist. contrivance in the nasal organ in the animal kingdom, to make

EXERCISE 51. 13 exclaim with David, “How wonderful are thy thoughts!

1. It is too cold for him to-day to go over to Frankfort. 2. bow great is the sum of them!”

There runs the hare over the hill. 3. There drives your brother. 4. The confectioner is gone to the bakehouse in order to bake

bread. 5. The butcher goes to market in order to buy sheep. LESSONS IN GERMAN.—XVI.

6. Your coachmiin has driven me rapidly here. 7. Do you see SECTION XXIX.-POSITION OF THE VERB, ETC. that man upon tl'at horse which we saw yesterday? 8. The sol.

diers ride on beautiful horses. 9. They say one rides in those *HEN for the sake of emphasis a word (which is not the carriages comfortably. 10. We have ridden in your coach to subject) is placed at the beginning of a principal sentence, or if subordinate sentence precedes the principal sentence, the pay our visits. 11. Tread not beyond the law! 12. The nas Subject is placed after the finite verb (a present or imperfect), steamboat passes down the river to-day for the first time. 25:-Da geht Ihr Freund, there goes your friend. Vier steht sein SECTION XXX.-COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. Bruter here stands his brother. Zu lange schon haft Du geschferment too long already hast thou slumbered. Jeßt muß ich form of the positive, cr for the comparative, and est for the super

German adjectives are compared by suffixing to the simple Sca, now I must go.

Als ich gestern nach Hause fam, regnete es lative; thus, positive milo (mila), comparative mildver (milder), kie farb, when I returned home yesterday, it was raining very superlative mild-est (mildest). (See $$ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.) tard, Beute fann er nicht lesen, und morgen will er nicht, he cannot Pad to-day, and to-morrow he will not.

1. When the positive ends in cl, en, or er, the e of this termi.

nation is, in the comparative, omitted, as :- edel (noble), edler* 1. Jahren is both transitive and intransitive; when transitive, (nobler). ' It may be here remarke 1, that adjectives of this class it is conjugated with haben (§ 71. 1), and signifies to convey in a | add for the superlative it only; thus, etet, etter, etest. AdjecTehicle

, to drive, as :—Der Kutscher hat mich schnell gefahren, the tives, when compared, are commonly contracted when euphony coachman has driven me rapidly. Der Schiffer hat mich schnell

admits. gebten, the boatman has rowed me rapidly. When intransitive, it is conjugated with sein (71. 1), and signifies to ride in a the same rules of inilection as when in the positive degree.

Adjoctives in the comparative and superlative are subject to :-4 bin gefahren, I have ridden (in a carriage, boat, (§ 37. 1.) 2. Reiten is also used transitively and intransitively, and magnifier to ride, as on horseback, as: :- Der Araber reitet tas

* The disposition to contract two concurrent syllables finds a parallel fiert und kas sameel

, the Arabian rides the horse and the camel. in almost every language. Thus, in English, we have entrance for babe ein schnelle Pierd geritten, I have ridden a fleet horse. containing each two syllables, are pronounced as though consisting of

enterance ; wondrous for wonderous, etc. So hoped, prayed, etc., words When used intransitively (8 71. 1), it is conjugated with sein, but one. This is a serious difficulty in the way of foreigners learning 0:-Gr ist sehr schnell geritten, he has ridden (on horseback) very our language, but one which in the German, by a conformity of ortho

graphy to pronunciation, is entirely avoided.

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nebiele, as :-
of other vehicle).


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