Imágenes de páginas


INFLECTION OF THE ADJECTIVE IN THB COMPARATIVE AFTER Jungling, m. youth. | Plautern, to prattle. | Unrein, impure. THE OLD DECLENSION.

Klugheit, f. prudence. Schrift'steller,

Un'würdig, unworthy. Masc.

Fem. Neut. Plural for all genders. Landluft, f. country writer, author. Veränderung, f. alte. N. Edhönerer, schönere, schöneres, schönere, finer.


Sitte, f. manners, ration, change. G. Schöneren (§ 35), schönerer, schöneren, schönerer, of the finer. Luft, f. air, atmo. custom.

Verstand", m. under. D. Schönerem, schönerer, schönerem, schöneren, to the finer. sphere

Stamm, m. stock, standing. A. Scyeneren, schönere, chöneres, schönere, finer.

Muth, m. courage.


Virgil', m. Virgil.

Ovid', m. Ovid. Stern, m. star. Wohlthat, f. benefit. INFLECTION AFTER THE NEW DECLENSION.

Paris', 1. Paris. Ilm'geben, to asso. Würdig, worthy. Masculine. Feminine. Neuter.

ciate. Parma, n. Parma.

Zinn, n. tin. D?. Der schönere, die schönere, tas schönere, the finer.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. 3. Des (chineren, der schöneren, des Ichöneren, of the finer. D. Dem schöneren, der schöneren, dem schöneren, to the finer. Das Wetter ist heute Fälter, als The weather is colder to-day 2. Den schöneren, die schönere, das schönere, the finer. gestern.

tlan yesterday. Plural for all genders.

Der ertelste Mensch ist nicht immer The noblest man is not always

der glüdlichste, und der reichste the most fortunate, and the N. Die schöneren, the finer.

D. Den schöneren, to the finer.
nicht immer der wei'seste.

richest not always the wisest. G. Der (döneren, of the finer. A. Die schöneren, the finer.

Der Klūgste ist gewohn'lich am be. The wisest (man) is generally 2. Superlatives of the Old Declension are used only in ad

schei'rensten, der Dümmste am the most modest, the most dress, as :-liebster Bruter, dearest brother. Theuerste Mutter,


stupid most obtrusive. dearest mother. Liebste Freunde, dearest friends, etc. (37. 2.)

Gin guter Feldherr muß mehr flug. A good commander-in-chief als tapfer fein.


valiant. DECLENSION.

Dieses Tuch ist besser, als jene. This cloth is better than that. Masculine. Feminine.

Hunger ist der beste Roch.

(The) hunger is the best cook. N. Der schönste, die schönste, das schönste, the finest.

Die Tanne ist der höchste Baum. The pine is the highest tree. X. Des consten, der schönsten, des schönsten, of the finest.

Weisheit ist mehr zu schäßen, als Wisdom is more to be prized D. Dem schönsten, der schönsten, dem schönsten, to the finest.

Reichthum — aber am meisten than riches, but virtue and 1. Den schönsten, die schönste,

das schönste, the finest.
Tugend und Frömmigfeit.

devoutness the most. Plural for all genders.

EXERCISE 52. N. Die schönsten, the finest.

D. Den sdh nsten, to the finest. 1. Dieser Jäger hat einen schönen Hund, meiner ist schöner, unt tet G. Der schönsten, of the finest. A. Die schönsten, the finest. ourige ist der schönste ron allen. 2. Die Grte ist kleiner, als die Sonne,

und die Sterne sind entfernter, als der Mond. 3. Virgil ist ein angeneh 3. The Old form of the superlative is rarely used ; the article (as in English) always preceding it, as:-Mein Hut ist der schönste, als Paris

merer Schriftsteller, als Ovir. 4. Die Stadt Canton (§ 123. 6) ist größer, any hat is the finest. Instead of the regular form, the dative of 6. Man fintet viel mehr Kupfer als Silber, und mehr Eifen als Zinn. 7

5. Aleranter der Große hatte weniger Klugheit, als Mutb the New Declension, preceded by the particle am, contracted Dieses Mädchen plautert mehr, als sie (§ 134. 2) arbeitet

. 8. Die fut from au tem, is often used, as :-Mein Hut ist am schönsten. (See in den Städten ist unreiner, ale tie Lantluit. 9. Frankreich ist nicht io $. 38. 1, etc.) The adverb mehr, like its English equivalent (more), is likewise wie sein Bruter, aber er hat auch nicht so viel Eitelkeit. 11. Die Reje ift

fruchtbar, wie Deutschland. 10. Dieser Jüngling hat nicht so viel Beritant employed in the comparison of adjectives, as :- -Sie ist mehr eine der schönsten Blumen in der Welt. liebenswürtig, als schön, she is more amiable than beautiful. (See wenigsten stolz, beren Geist am gebildetsten ist.

12. Diejenigen sind gervibnlich am

13. Die Sitten derjeniger, $ 42. 1, etc.)

14. 4. Adjectives of al degrees of comparison may in the simple Die Debithaten, deren wir würtig find, sind uns angenehmer, als tie, teren

mit welchen wir umgeben, haben gewöhnlich Einfluß auf uns and absolute form be employed as adverbs; but when the super mir unwürdig sind. 15. Derjenige ist der reichste, dessen Kinder tusentbut sative is so used, the form produced by the union of am with int. 16. Der Herr hat feinen Gefallen an denjenigen Menschen, tie feine the dative is adopted, as :-Er schreibt schün, he writes beautifully. Liebe zu ihren Vrütcrn ħaben. 17. Der Alpfelbaum hat einen tiden Gr liest schneller, als ich, he roads more rapidly than I. Sie liest am *{onellsten, she reads the most rapidly. (106.)

Stamm, tie Wuche hat einen ridern Stamm, und die Eide hat den ticéiten

Stamm. 18. Je mehr er hat desto mehr will er. 19. Florenz ist itiner, 5. Participles, when used as adjectives, are compared in the

als Parma. like manner, as :-Gelehrt (learned), gelehrter (more learned),

EXERCISE 53. geschrtest (most learned); rührend (affecting), rührender (more affecting), rührenost (most affecting).

1. The more frequent our intercourse is with nations, the 6. Ie je or je desto, in phrases like the following, is answered more our commerce will be extended.

2. Are the palaces d in English by “the-the ;” thus, Je mehr, je munterer, the more the the kings of England as beautiful as those of the German merrier. Je mehr, besto desser, the more, the better. Je is some kings ? 3. England is not so fertile as Spain or Italy. 4. It times preceded by resto, as :-Ein Werk ist desto nüßlicher, je volltom is as easy to do good as to do evil.

Virtue is the greatest mener es ist, the more perfect a work is, the more useful it is. ornament of man. 7. Desto is likewise used without ie, as :-Er lief darauf desto he reflected on the immortality of the soul, the more important

6. A sage said (used to say), that the more sit neller, thereupon he ran the faster. Er hörte nun desto aufmert it appeared to him. 7. The Rhine presents the most beautiful famer 311, he listened now the more attentively,

view. 8. The country air was more beneficial in the recovery 8. The following adjectives are irregular in comparison (see of this youth than the treatment of the most efficient doctors $ 39) :

9. Ovid is a less agreeable writer than Virgil. 10. The spring Gut, good; besser, better;

best or am besten, best.
is more variable than the autumn.

11. This view is beautiful, body, high; þöher, higher; höchst or am höchsten, highest. but the view from that hill is more beautiful. 12. Angustus Nahe near. näber, nearer.

nächst, or am nächsten, nearest. was not, perhaps, a greater man than Antony, but he was moft Vich, much; mehr, more ;

meist or am meisten, most. fortunate than he. 13. Of all flowers the rose is the most beau, Wenig, little weniger, minter, less wenigst or mindest, least or tiful, if the violet is not still more beautiful. 14. The society of or few; or fewer ;


that youth is less agreeable than that of his brother. 15. Mont VOCABULARY.

Blanc is a high mountain, but Chimborazo is higher, and Mount

Everest the highest. 16. Virtue is more to be prized than riches Bume, f. flower. Ein'förmigkeit, f. uni- Gebil'tet, educated, 17. The soldiers are going to Vienna. udie, f. beech.


cultivated. cuts down the highest beech in the forest. 19. Florence is the Did thick, stout, cor- Eitelfcit, f. vanity. Ocial'len, m. pleasure. capital of Italy. 20. The stars in the heaven shine brightls. pulent.

Ontfernt', distant. Geist, m. spirit, mind. 21. She is more beautiful than amiable. 22. The louder the Gide, s. oak. Florenz', n, Florence. Gewohn'lich.

man called, the faster the boy ran. 23 The boatman moored Gin'fluß, influence. Fruchtbar, productive. monly,


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18. The woodcutter

rapidly across the river.


LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XVII. graved copy-slips, there must still be many of our readers who

do, and for their benefit examples for practice are given in Any intelligent self-teacher, who has carefully followed our Copy-slips Nos. 58, 59, and 60. After furnishing examples of instructions from the beginning, and has been able to find time the seven letters of the writing alphabet that yet remain to to write for at least an hour daily, will now find that he has be mentioned, we shall proceed to give a series of copy-clips acquired the proper position of the hand in writing, and the in the various kinds of writing generally taught in schools, right mode of holding the pen, while he has also gained sufficient from which the learner will be able to make himself acquainted control over the muscles of his hand and wrist to be able to with the forms of the capital letters. The instructions already make the movements necessary to form the letters that have given for tracing out the shapes of the small letters have, of already been brought under his notice, without the temporary necessity, been copious and ample, and to those of our readers inconvenience which a beginner invariably experiences from an who may be able to write, the explanations of the methods used apdue tension of the ball of the thumb and the muscles on the in forming each letter of the writing alphabet, may have apopposite side of the palm of the hand, caused by holding the peared minute and tedious. It must be remembered, however, pen too stiffily, and not permitting the fore-finger and thumb to that these elementary lessons in Penmanship are intended rather

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play freely on the joints by which, so to speak, they are hinged for learners who are trying to teach themselves to write, and together and connected with the wrist and arm. On the con- for those who are endeavouring to improve a faulty style of trary, through having gained sufficient confidence in his skill handwriting, than for those who have had the benefit of being and powers by daily practice, he begins to move the pen freely shown how to shape their letters by a writing master; and it is and rapidly over the paper, while the down-strokes of his letters, for the guidance of self-teachers, who have no one to show them which were at first crooked and unevenly formed, are now how each letter should be formed by writing it before them. regularly sloped and sharply and clearly defined at the edges. that our instructions have been made as elaborate and precise He begins to find, too, that he no longer requires so many exam- as they are. ples for practice in words composed solely of the small letters But even to those who know how to write, these minute direcof the writing alphabet to be placed before him by means of tions may be of the greatest importance. Many of our readers, engraved copy-slips, inasmuch as he can select words enough for we trust, are engaged in the good work of teaching adults in himself, in writing which he finds a useful exercise in testing his evening schools. To such as these our lessons will afford assistknowledge of the forms of the letters with which he is already ance in conveying in suitable terms the instructions they are acquainted, the way in which each is connected with letters by giving, and accompanying that instruction by accurately-formed which they are preceded or followed, and the relative propor. diagrams on the black-board, which will serve as examples to tion of the parts which extend above and below the lines all the members of a large class, and save the labour and loss of that contain the body or main part of the letters. But although time involved in writing separate copies for each individual of the majority of our self-taught students may not require en- which the class is composed.


aves, lirds,


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With and without the termination s. NOUNS WITH CONSONANTAL STEMS; IMPARISYLLABIC

For the most part feminines. (continued).


Singular. 2.- With the termination s.

N. avis, a bird. febris, a fever. navis, a ship. Consonantal stems with the sounds k (c), t, P.

G. avis, of a bird. febris, oj a fever. navis, of a ship.

D. avi, to a bird. febri, to a fever. navi, to a slup.

avem, a bird.

febrem (im), a fever.

navem (im), a ship. V.

avis, o bird! febris, O fever! navis, O ship! N. judex, a judge. comes, a companion. princeps, a chief or prince. Ab. ave or avi, by a bird, febri (e), by a fever. navi or nave, by a ship. G. judicis, of a judge. comitis, of a companion. principis, of a prince. D. judici, to a judge. comiti, to a companion, principi, to a prince.


Plural. Ac. judicom, a judge. comitem, a companion. priucipem, a prince.


febres, fevers,

naver, ships. V. judex, O judge ! comes, 0 companion !

G. princeps, O prince !

avium, of birds. febrium, of fevers. navium, oj ships. Ab. judico, by a judge. comite, by a companion. principe, by a prince.

D. avibus, to birds. febribus, to severs. navibus, to ships.

febres, forers. Cases.

aves, birds. Plural.

naves, ships V. aves, O birds !

febres, 0 fevers ! N. judices, judges. comites, companions. principes, chiefs or princes. Ab.

naves, O shipa!

avibus, by birds. febribus, by fevers. G. judicum, oj judges. comitum, of companions. principum, of princes.

navibus, by ships. D. judicibus, to judges. comitibus, to companions principibus, to princes.


Singular. Ac. judicos, judges, comites, companions. principes, chiefs or princes

N. nubes, a cloud. mare (neuter), the sea. rete (neuter), a rete, V. judicos, O judges ! comites, 0 companions! principes, 0 princes !

G. nubis, of a cloud. maris, of the sca. retis, of a net. Ab. judicibus, by judges. comitibus, by companions principibus, by princes.

D. nubi, to a cloud. mari, to the sea, reti, to a not.

Ac. nubem, a cloud. mare, the sea, Cases.

rete, a net. Singular.

V. nubes, 0 cloud!

mare, O sea!

rete, O net! N. rex, a king. lapis, a stone.

urbs (f), a city.

Ab. zube, by a cloud, mari, by the sea. reti, by a nets. G. regis, of a king. lapYdis, of a stone. urbis, of a city. D. regi, to a king. lapidi, to a stone, urbi, to a city.


Plural. Ac. regom, a king. lapidem, a stone. urbem, a city.

N. nubes, clouds. maria, seas.

retia, net. V. rex, O king! lapis, O stone!

urbs, 0 city!

G. nubium, of clouds. marium, of seas. retium, of nets. Ab. rege, by a king. lapide, by a stone. urbe, by a city.

D. nubibus, to clouds. maribus, to soas. retibus, to nets.

Ac. nubes, clouds. mario, seas. Cases.

retia, nets. Plural.

nubes, 0 clouds ! maria, O seas!

retia, 0 nets! N. reges, kings. lapides, stones.

urbes, cities.

Ab. nubibus, by clouds, maribus, by seas. retibus, by nets. G. regum, of kings. lapidum, of stones. urbium, of cities. D. regibus, to kings. lapidibus, to stones. urbibus, to cities.

VOCABULARY. Ac. roges, kings. lapides, stones.

urbes, cities.

Altáre, altāris, n., an Ignis, ignis, m., fire. Rupes, rupis, L. reges, 0 kings! lapides, 0 stones! urbes, 0 cities !


Navis, navis, f., a ship. rock, Ab. regibus, by kings. lapidibus, by stones. urbibus, by cities, Civis, civis, m., Orbis, orbis, m., Secūris, securis, 1., au A few words of explanation may here be desirable. The Latin


globe, the world.

Clades, c represents the Greek g (gamma), and for the most part was

cladis, f., Ovile, ovilis, n., Sedes,' sedis, ., * slaughter. sheepfold.

seat. pronounced like our k. Thus, the Romans pronounced Cicero, the name of their great orator, Kikero. Now the x in judex is

EXERCISE 31.-LATIN-ENGLISH. made up of these letters, thus, judecs—the c and s blending

1. Aves fallunt cælibes. 2. Matros occiduntur febribus.

3. Valde together to form x; hence, judec, judicis, judecs: in tho genitive, diligo mare. 4. Mare diligitur a nautis. 5. Agricolæ colunt sezetes, the laws of pronunciation convert the e of the nominative into 6. Nautæ sunt in navibus. 7. In orbe est ignis. 8. In ignibus sunt i; as it does in comes, comitis. From this example you see

fratres. 9. Altaria sunt deabus, 10. Nonne diis sunt altaria ? ll. that the variations which words undergo are not arbitrary.

Securi defendunt agricolæ ovilia. Those variations depend on the nature of the letters that come

EXERCISE 32.-ENGLISH-LATIN. together, and in their ultimate causes, on the structure of the 1. Sailors defend ships with (their) bodies. 2. Birds are on the organs of speech, as these organs are in each nation modified rocks. 3. Are rocks loved by sailors ? 4. Slaughter injures the by natural endowments, climate, culture, and a variety of other people. 5. Birds strike the clouds. 6. Axes defend the ships. 7. circumstances.

The birds of the citizens are injured. 8. The seat of the prince is The b in urbs may be considered as equivalent to p, for 8 praised. 9. We conquer the companions of the princes. and p being labials-that is, letters in pronouncing which the

General view of nouns of the third declension, according to their lips aro chiefly used-are, as letters of the same organ, inter- steins :changeable, or may be used the one for the other, under certain

Class I. conditions.

Nouns with consonantal stems, or imparisyllabic.

Ist division: Nouns without the termination s.
Ætas, ætātis, f., age. Grey, grégis, m.,

1st subdivision : Nouns in which the nominative and the stein are

Plebs, plebis, f., the Artiíux, artifícis, m.,

the same; the stems end in r and l. flock.

people (plebs has no an artist or artificer. Lex, légis, f., a law.

2nd subdivision : Nouns in which the nominative and the stem ane

plural). Celebs, cælibis, m., a

different; the stems end in n and r. Merces, mercedis, f., Seges, segětis, cornbachelor.

2nd division : Nouns with the termination s, with the sounds a reward.

land. Cervix, cervïcis, f., the Miles, miltis, m., a Stirps, stirpis, f., a

k, t, 1. neck. soldier.

Class II. race, stem, Eques, equitis, m., a Pollex, policis, m.,

Nouns with the vowel-stems, or parisyllabic. horseman or knight. the thumb,

With and without the terminatiou s.

Some peculiarities belonging to this declension must be

briefly indicated. The termination of the accusative singular is 1, Artificos debent pueros docere. 2. Pollicem movet rex. custodiunt leges.

4. Leges custodiuntur a regibus. 5. Filius polli properly m, which is connected with the consonantal stem bi cem mordet. 6. Equites vexantur.

In the vowel-stoms no interposing vowel

the interposition of e.

Artifices urbes. 8 Derces artificum nutriunt filios et filins.- 9. Celebs dormit. 410. Plebs is required, because there is a vowel in the stem. That rowe defenditur. 11. Stirps artificis laudatur. 12. Estne tibi seges ? 13.

is i. Vowel-stems, therefore, end in im in the accusative, and Cervix militis læditur, 14. Cæiibis ætas magna est.

in i in the ablative singular ; for the most part, however, they EXERCISE 30,-ENGLISH-LATIN.

in usage have e in both. However, in sitis, thirst, tussis, o 1. I defend artists. 2. Artists are defended by me. 3. Has he a

cough, and vis, strength, i only is used. Vis is a defective noull,

and is thus declined: singular, vis, vim, vi; plural, vires reward? 4. He has not a Rock. 5. I am pricked in the neck, corn-land of the horseman is yielded. "9. Why is the bachelor blamed and regular. In these nouns,-namely, febris, a fever; securiá

, Artists paint flocks. 7. The laws of the kings are dendly. 8. The virium, viribus, rires, vi.x, virious, the plural being complete 10. The poople blame bachelors. 11. Soldiers have rewards.


Age an axe; pelvis, a basin; turris, a tower; and restis, a cord, in teaches many things (multa).

is more usual than em; but less usual than em is it in classis,



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N. acre.

M. acres.










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x. suave.



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a ficet ; messis, a crop of corn; clavis, a key ; navis, a ship. The 6. The hinge is moved. 7. The becomingness of order delights ablative singular has for the most part i (perhaps from ie) in mothers. 8. There is a great dust of the ashes. 9. Peacocks are on

10. We have not songs. stead of e in parisyllabics with the vowel-stem in i. In' im- the shore,

11. There is a wound in (his)

breast. parisyllabics with consonantal stems, e is the usual ablative

12. The light of the region is great. 13. He has a great termination, but i is sometimes found, derived from tho usage

14. Pledges are not praised. in the vowel-stems.

EXERCISE 28.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Nouns which make the ablative singular ini, make the 1. Timesne carbonem? 2. Cur puerum ferit mater? 3. Decus genitive plural in ium instead of um ; and nouus neuter, which non est illis, 4. Vulnus est tibi, 5. Tuis patribus sunt vulnera. 6. in the ablative singular end in i, in the nominative, accusative, Vulnera terrent matres. 7. In regione florent poemata. 8. Tibi est

nomen magnum. and vocative plural end in io.

9. Mihi non est pignus. 10. Illis est occasio. 11. Adjectives of the third declension, in general, follow the Viro magua est occasio. declension laws of the nouns, only that in the ablative singular they prefer . Adjectives of the third declension are of two

LESSONS IN DRAWING.-IX. sorts : first, those that have three terminations, as, alăcer, m., The aim of all instruction in drawing ought to be, first, to alăcris, f., alăcre, n., lively, active; second, those that have two convey in as clear and simple a manner as possible the best terminations, as the comparative, vilior, m. and f., vilius, n.

means of judging of the relative proportions of objects, not only meoner ; under this second class may stand such as ferox, fierce, with regard to their individual component parts, but also with which in the nominative singular is m., f., and n. (accusative, reference to the proportions these objects bear to one another ; ferocem), but in the plural has for the neuter a separate form in and, secondly, to place before the pupil the most ready methods ia, as ferocia.

of representing these objects, subject as they are to an endless DECLENSION OY AN ADJECTIVE OF THREE TERMINATIONS. variety both of form and position. How is it that when EXAMPLE.-Acer, acris, acre, sharp, acute, pungent, energetic.

standing upon the side of a hill, and looking over a large extent

of country, if we raise the hand and hold it parallel to our eyes Singular.

Plural. Casa,

at arm's length, it will cover or prevent our seeing probably F.



many miles of landscape, including houses and villages ? G. acris. acris. acris. G. acríum, acrium.

Or, if we select a closer object--for instance, the house on the D. acri. acri. acri.

D. acribus. acribus. acribus. opposite side of the street-and place the hand as before, we Ac. acrem.

Ac. acres.

acria. find the result to be the same ? Simply because as objects V. acris. V.

retire, or are further from the eye, they occupy less space upon Ab. acri, acri. acri. Ab, acribus. acribus. acribus, the vision than when nearer. Here, then, we have practical DECLENSION OF AN ADJECTIVE OF TWO TERMINATIONS. evidence that to represent these objects correctly we must EXAMPLE.-Suavis, m. and f.; suave, n., sweet.

inquire for some means which will enable us to accomplish our Singular.


task, and satisfy our minds that we have given these objects Cazes, x. and F. Cases. M. and F.

their right proportions as they retire, and that each object, and N. suavis,

suavia, each part of an object, occupies its proper space upon the paper G. suavis. suavis,

G. suavium, suavium. as it does in the eyo; in short, giving them their true scale of D. suavi.

D. suavibus, suavibus.

representation according to their distances from ourselves and Ac, Ac.

from one another. The science of perspective enables us to V. suavis. V.

accomplislı this end, and although we do not attempt, in these Ab. suavi. suavi. Ab. sua vibus. suavibus.

lessons upon free-hand drawing, to go very deeply into geome. OTHER FORMS OF ADJECTIVES OF TWO TERMINATIONS. trical perspective, yet we find it absolutely necessary to make EXAMPLES.-Major, m. and f.; majus, n., greater ; audax, m., some use of it in order to render our explanations clearer ; for f. and n. (audacem in acc.); audácia, n. plural, bold.

by the assistance of rules, difficulties are lessened, especially Singular.


when we can classify many objects and the circumstances in F.

which they are placed under the same principles. major. majus, majores. majores. ajora. Wo said in a previous lesson that there were rules in perspec G majoris. majoris. majoris. majorum. majorum. majorum. tive for regulating the retiring horizontal distances of objects,

majori. majori. majoribus, majoribus. majoribus. as well as their heights; and we now propose to give such of Ac majorem. majorem. majus. majores. majores. majora.

these rules as are absolutely necessary for the pupil's guidance major. majus. majores. majores. majora.

in free-hand drawing. We must first remind the pupil of what majore. majore. majoribus, majoribus, majoribus. has been already said respecting the theory of planes or surfaces. Audax, m. and f.; audacia, n., bold.

A horizontal plane is a plane parallel with the earth ; a perpenSingular,


dicular plane is one perpendicular to the earth. The top of a y, and F. Cases. M. and F.

table and the ceiling of a room are horizontal planes ; the walls N. audax. audax.

N. audaces. audacia. G.

of the room are perpendicular planes. These are visible planes. audacis. audacis. G. audacium. audacium. D. audaci. audaci. D. audacibus.

We are sometimes, in practical perspective, compelled to use

audacibus. Ac. audacem. audax, Ac. audaces. audacia.

imaginary planes. These more properly belong to the practice V. audax. audax.

V. audaces. audacia. of geometrical perspective. It will be very necessary for the Ab. audaci. audaci. Ab. audacibus. audacibus. pupil, if he wishes thoroughly to understand the principles of

drawing objects at a given distance from him, especially KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.–VIII.

buildings, to go very attentively through future lessons on geo. EXERCISE 25.-LATIN-ENGLISH,

metrical perspective, given in the pages of the POPULAR

EDUCATOR, for this reason: no one ought to be satisfied with 1. I have great grief. 2. Hast thou not great grief? 3. Mothers have great griefs. 4. The colour of the cushion is beautiful.

the result of his work, even if it be correct, unless he knows

5. Is the colour of the cushion beautiful ? 6. He has (is under) a deadly the whole of the why and the wherefore which have brought out error. 7. Why has father (is under) deadly errors ?

8. I have a

the result. It is, unfortunately, a very common practice in 9. Brothers have great griefs. 10. Lightning frightens some books of instruction upon drawing, when the subject is a 11. Does not lightning frighten mothers ? 12. Lightning building, to mark a copy with letters—a, b, c, d, etc.--and carry

the instructions no further, but merely tell the pupil to draw EXERCISE 26,-- ENGLISH-LATIN.

from a to b, and from c to d, and to observe that d is a little 1. Est mihi calcar. 2. Estne tibi anser ? 3. Mis sunt anseres,

higher or a little lower c, as the case may be, without any 4. Estne tibi agger ? 5. Fulguris odor in pulvinari est. 6. Vectigalia mention whatever as to why d should be higher or lower. Now Lon Ciligo. 7. Molesti sunt rumores. 8. Pulvinar est ne illis ? 9. in this, and all similar cases, a little knowledge of perspective

10. Tibi sunt pater, frater, et mater ? 11. Illis would make the practice simpler and the result certain. Tho sunt dolores. 12. Tibi est maguum pulvinar.

pupil may make an exact imitation of his drawn corry, but that EXERCISE 27.- LATIN-ENGLISH.

is not enough; he must be able to do the same from the object; 1. I fear charcoal. 2. The boy strikes the peacocks. 3. The regions and how is this to be done correctly by such a system as that are beautiful. 4. Thou hast an opportunity. 5. We move the ashes. I which only enables a pupil, parrot-like, to reproduce a copy and

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nothing more? But we hope that very few of our readers will panying barns, stables, strawyards, etc. etc.—that we must like to stop there. To draw from nature and the real thing, we first make a measured plan of the whole, and go through trust, is the ambition of every one who makes up his mind to go the drawing geometrically, before we can hope to make a through these lessons, that he may make the art of drawing truthful picture. It would be as ridiculous to suppose that a useful and valuable auxiliary to his occupation as a means when we write a letter or an essay, we ought to repeat all of expressing himself, as well as a pleasing recreation for leisure the rules of syntax, so that the grammatical construction of the hours. Another reason why we recommend the pupil to study sentences may be correct. Every educated man knows that the our lessons in geometrical perspective is, as we have said before, right words fow naturally into their places in proper agree. when treating upon drawing a simple outline from the flat (a ment and sequence. The phrases harmonise without any effort term used by draughtsmen when copying from a drawing), that on his part, simply because he knows the rules, and experience the practice of geometrical perspective assists the eye to under- makes them easy to apply.

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stand and calculate more readily the proportions of retiring lines We will now give a geometric method of representing two and planes. As a practical illustration of this principle, we walls meeting at an angle, as an illustration of what we have meet with it repeatedly in the readiness with which an expe- stated. Let two lines, ab, a c (Fig. 65), forming an angle of rienced carpenter will tell you the length of board without 90 degrees, represent the plan of two walls meeting at the point taking the trouble to measure it. His eyo is so accustomed a, of which b a forms an angle of 40 degrees with the picture to the foot-rule, and the space a repeated number of measure- plane. PP is the picture plane, I L the line of sight, B P base ments will cover, that to him it is no difficulty to say within of the picture, sp the station point, and vel and vp2 are a very close approximation how long the board is. It is the the vanishing points for the corresponding numbered lines of repeated practice of geometrical perspective that enables a

the plan.

First draw the picture plane, and then the line ba, draughtsman to decide upon the proportional length of a line placing it at an angle of 40 degrees with the PP; then from a or plane as it retires, and to draw either correctly on his paper. draw ac at an angle of 90 degrees—that is, a right angle-with If we did

not consider it in this way with regard to free-hand ab; this will be the plan of the walls as they are placed before drawing, it would be of very little use in the practice of drawing our vision. Then mark sp to represent the supposed distance from nature. It would be absurd to expect, when we are seated we are from the angle of the walls. Find the vanishing points before a subject-say a picturesque farmhouse, with the accom. for the two lines of the plane. We have already given the role

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