Imágenes de páginas


for finding the vanishing point (see page 137); VP 2 is the extremities of each wall come closer together on the plane of Fanishing point of a c, and vpl is the vanishing point of ab; representation—that is, the picture plane—and therefore we do v R and v R are visual rays—that is, they are imaginary direct not see the whole extent of the wall as we should do if we stood lines—passing from the extremities of the object through the PP parallel to it. We will carry out the subject, and show the walls to the eye. These lines will indicate where the points a, b, as they would naturally appear. To do this we must make a and c would be depicted on the picture plane-viz., at e, f, and g. | fresh diagram, because, to prevent confusion, we do not wish to

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These visual rays must always be drawn from the extremities, add any more lines to that a ready given. We recommend the of lines, or any especial point which is to be represented in pupil to repeat the perspective view of the plan in Fig. 65, ag the picture, in the direction of the station point, or eye, but given in Fig. 66. In this figure PC and PC 2 represent the stopping at the picture plane (see Fig. 65); afterwards, from points of contact of the line a c—that is, supposing the line were enf, and g, they are drawn perpendicularly. For the reason why brought to the picture—in other words, to touch it. Then, in they are drawn perpendicularly, we refer the pupil to future this case, it would be represented in the picture its natural size, lessons on geometrical perspective. Then produce or draw out therefore we call the perpendicular line drawn from pc to PC2 one of the lines of the plan, say a c, to meet the picture plane. the line of contact, marked Lc. Upon this line we always measure The point of meeting is called the point of contact, PC. Draw and set off heights of objects. Suppose, then, the height of the wall a perpendicular line from the PC to the base of the picture. to be marked at r, draw a line from r to v P2; s to t will be the We will call that PC 2, meaning the point of contact brought top of the wall ac; draw a line from s to v Pl; sm will be the down. Join the PC 2 to v P 2, and somewhere on this last line top of the wall a b. Now if we wish to draw the courses of the will be the picture of the object a c represented in the plan. bricks, we must set them off also upon the line of contact as we This is determined by the visual rays being perpendicularly did to represent the top of the walls, and draw them to their drawn to ao and c?, therefore between a2 and is the picture respective vanishing points ; also, the perpendicular joints of of the line a c; so, for the other line a b, draw a line from aż to the bricks must be marked in the plan, and brought down by VP1, and the visual rays, as before, brought down, will deter-visual rays in the same way as the ends of the walls were mine the perspective length of a b-viz., a? V?. Perhaps some found. We have represented a few of the bricks, leaving the

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reader may ask why we do not draw the line from PC 2 to v p1, pupil to complete the drawing; the plan of the door is shown at instead of v p 2. Our answer is, because pc is the point of no, its height at p. (We will observe, by way of parenthesis, contact for ac and not ab; if ab had been produced to the that all heights of objects are marked or set off on the line of Pp for a point of contact, then it would have been right to contact ; all horizontal lengths and breadths are shown in the draw a line from PC 2 in the direction of v pl.

ground-plan, and brought down by visual rays.) We will give All that we have now done in this perspective diagram is, one other method of showing the horizontal perspective length of that we have shown the horizontal retiring length of the base a line or plane, and then leave the pupil to think over and praeof the wall each way-viz., a c on one side, and a? 62 on tise all that we have been trying to teach him. Let a b (Fig. 67) the other.

To have drawn these lines equal to the length represent the length of a line to be shown in perspective at of the walls themselves—that is, those of the plan-would have a given angle with our position or with the picture plane. Let been a very great mistake, because as they retire the further Ps represent the point of sight, sp the station point, u L the

67-676767 .....

horizontal line or height of the eye, B P base of picture. Let the period, and as many ciphers as there are figures in the nonna be the point where the line commences, and from which recurring part. ij retires ; and, to simplify the matter, let po also be the v P. 25. It will be seen from the above detailed explanation of the (The pupil will remember that all retiring lines vanishing at the method by which the equivalent vulgar fraction may be deterpoint of sight, are lines going off at a right angle with our mined, that an analogous method would apply to any circulating position, or with the picture plane. We advise him to turn decimal whatsoever. to page 72, and read the perspective rules and axioms again.) Hence we get the following Make the distance from Ps to D equal to PSS P. Draw a line Rule for reducing a Circulating Decimal to a Vulgar Fraction. from a' to Ps, and on B P make the distance a2 b2 equal to the Subtract the number formed by the figures of the non-recurgiven line ab; draw a lino from 12 to D, which will cut off the ring part from the number formed by the figures taken to the space arc; ac is then the perspective length of ab. The end of the first period, and set down this difference as a numelengths of the retiring sides of planes are determined by the rator. Take as many nines as there are figures in the period, same rule. Let it be required to draw a series of retiring and, annexing to them as many ciphers as there are figures in square slabs (Fig. 68). On the base of the picture B P, beginning the non-recurring part, set down the number so formed as a at a, set off any required number of divisions to represent the denominator. length of the side of each slab; from these points, a, b, c, etc., 26. We have proved the rule in the case of a mixed circulatdraw lines to Ps. Find the distance point, D, as in the last ing decimal. The case of a pure circulating decimal is included case; draw lines from b, c, d, etc., to D, cutting a Ps in ghi. in it; for in a pure circulating decimal there is no non-recurring From g, h, i draw lines parallel to the base of the picture, which part, and therefore nothing to be subtracted, and the denominawill complete the squaros required; for as ab of the first square tor will consist wholly of nines, their number being equal to the is parallel with our position, and touching the picture plane, number of figures in the period. its true length is therefore shown, whilst ag is its retiring or

Thus 67 = %, 053 = perspective length.

27. For the sake of clearness, however, we will perform the Having now shown, as we promised, how the retiring horizontal distances of objects may be faithfully represented process for a pure circulating decimal. Take •67, for instance. on paper, we will give some examples as subjects for exercises.

Let, as before,

= 676767 . ...; Fig. 69 is an example of a retiring row of posts, their distances

Then, 100 s being purposely shown by the geometric method of the last two and therefore subtracting, as in the previous case, problems. It is almost needless to direct the attention of the

99 f = 67, pupil to the diminishing retiring spaces between the posts ;

Or, j =

= $I; however, he will see, as we have previously endeavoured to and it is evident, from the way in which they arise, that the make clear to him, that those retiring distances can be satis- number of nines in the denominator is equal to the number of factorily proved. Fig. 70 is given as an exercise, including figures in the period. many of the principles we have before explained---viz., angular 28. Of course, if there is an integral part in the original perspective, horizontal retiring lines, inclined lines of the roofs, decimal, that will remain unaltered, and the required answer and horizontal retiring distances, all of which the pupil, wo

will be a mixed number, which may be reduced to an improper trust, will now be able to arrange for himself, and to find his fraction if necessary. vaeishing points.


Taking the decimal part separately, '1415 = 1950 14 LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XVII.

Hence 3.1415 = 3/3!1 = expressed as an improper fraction DECIMALS (continued).

Or it may be expressed as an improper fraction at once :

3:14i5 = US711 09. 24. To reduce a given Circulating Decimal to a Vulgar Fraction.

The truth of this latter method may be established exactly in Take the decimal 31567.

the same way as the two cases we have already explained. Denote the true value of the equivalent fraction by t. Then 29. The learner is recommended at first, in reducing circulatf = 34567567567 . the period 567 being supposed con- ing decimals to vulgar fractions, to perform the operation in the tinued ad infinitum.

way we have indicated in the examples already given-i.e., by If we multiply f by 100000, and also the decimal by 100000, multiplying by the requisite powers of 10, subtracting, etc. He the results will still be equal.

will thus better appreciate the truth of the rule which he will Hence 100000 s 34567-567567567 .....

afterwards employ. It is evident that the equivalent fractions

found by the rule will often not be in their lowest terms. The decimal place being moved five places to the right, and the period 567 being still continued ad infinitum on the right of the

EXERCISE 35. decimal print as before.

Reduce to their equivalent vulgar fractions the following

decimals : Similarly, 100 j = 34.567567507

1. •3.

9. 275238. 13. 062100. Now the difference of 100000 f and 100 f-i.e., 99900 f-must

6. •42623.

10, 21.000008. be equal to the difference of the decimals to which they are

14, 18103211s. respectively equal. Now this difference is 34567 – 34, because

7. 3-1416.
11. 52-314159.

15. 0000519. the infinite recurrence of the period •567 on the right of the

8. 357.003129. 12. 3.010103.

16. 6125:12327, decimal point is the same in each decimal, and therefore vanishes 30. Approximation. Decimals correct to a given number of when the subtraction is performed.

places, etc. Hence 99900 f 31567 – 31;

We have already remarked, that if we take only a limited and s, the fraction required,

number of the figures of a decimal, we approach nearer and nearer

to the true result as we continue to take in more figures. Now observe carefully how each part of this fraction has We give an example, taken from De Morgan's “ Arithmetic," arisen. The numerator is obtained by writing down the figures which shows this clearly. of the decimal as far as the end of the first period without the

} = 142857 a circulating decimal. decimal point, and then subtracting from the number so obtained the figures which occar before the period, or, as we may call it,

Now taking successively one, two, three, etc., figures of the

decimal, we have-
the non-recurring part. The denominator 99900 arises from
subtracting 100 (i.e., 10 raised to the same power as the number

is less than 1 by which is less than ;'.

중 Too of figures in the non-recurring part) from 100000 (i.e., 10 raised

} Too to the same power as there are figures in the non-recurring part and period together).


Tobo This subtraction will necessarily produce a number 99900,

» Toulous

Thaises containing, that is to say, as many nines as there are figures in

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We thus see that the difference between the decimal and the 4. Subtract the greater from the less in the following sets of true value of the fraction continually diminishes. In the case of decimals : a terminating decimal this difference becomes zero when we have taken all the figures in. In the case of a circulating decimal,

1.85:62 - 13.76432. 4, 45.123 – 41-3. 7. 1419.8 – 1200.9 it never actually becomes zero, but we can make it as small as

2. 476.32

5. 801•6 – 400-75. 8. • S1352 – 021. we please by taking a sufficient number of decimal places.

3. 3.8564 - •0382. 6. 4-7821 - 87. 9.8482 121 - 6031.035. 31. When a result is required correct only to a certain number of decimal places, it is better, as we have already explained

5. Multiply together the following decimals :(Art. 14), to find one figure more of the result than is actually 1, 37.23 x 20.

| 4. 24.6 x 15-7.

7. 3.973 x 8. required, so as to ascertain whether this figure is greater or less 2. •123 x 6. 5, 48-23 16.18.

8. 49640:54 -70503. than 5. If it is greater, we increase the figure in the last place

3. .215 x 7.3. which is required in the result by 1.

6. 8574.3 x 87.5. 9. 7.72 x 297. The following is an example of a decimal continually approxi. 6. Work the following cxamples in division of recurring mated to in this way, by taking successive figures, and increas- decimals :ing, where necessary, the last figure by unity :

1. 319.28007112 + 5. 750730-513 8. 24.081 4 385. Let 4'89169 be the decimal. The successive approximations would be5, 4:9, 4:89, 4.892, 4 8917, 4:89169,



9. 36 = 25. Here 5 is nearer to the true value than 4 would be.

2. 18:56 = 3. 6. 51 = .15.

10. 928:4375 = 26.87. 4.3 4.892

3. 6 = .123. 7. 10-5169533 1 4.891

11. 4376-32 • 0382. 4.8917


4. 2.297 • 297. 4.297. 12. 15.379 7.28705. 32. Operations in which circulating decimals occur are better conducted by reducing the circulating decimals to their equivalent vulgar fractions, if absolute accuracy is required. If an LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-I X. approximate result is desired true to a certain number of decimal piaces, then, in additions and subtractions, it will be sufficient

DERIVATION: PREFIXES (continued). to take in two or three figures of the period beyond the number BEFORE proceeding further with these prefixes, we may now of places required, and then add or subtract. For instance, in expose a common error. It is generally thought that words adding 4567 to 312468) correctly to 9 decimal places, we

have several disconnected significations. Several significations should write the decimals as follows:

many words have, but these significations are all allied one with 45675675675

another, and they are allied one with another in such a way

that a genealogical connection runs through them all. I mean 312 16894689

that the second ensues from the first, and conducts to the third. *769225703

The meanings of words flow from a common source, like the In all cases, however, where circulating decimals are involved waters of a brook. That common source, or parent-signification, as multipliers or divisors, it will be best to reduce them to their is, in all cases, one that denotes some object of sense, for objects equivalent vulgar fractions before performing the multiplications of sense were named before other objects. Our first duty, then, is or divisions, and then afterwards to reduce the resulting frac. to ascertain the primary meaning of a word. From that mean. tions to decimals.

ing the other meanings flow, as by natural derivation. Those EXERCISE 36.

secondary or derivative significations, then, can scarcely be 1. Write down the decimals containing respectively one, two, termed meanings; they are not so much meanings as modificathree, four, five, and six decimal places which are the nearest tions of the primary import of the root. Certainly they are not approximation to the decimals •67819473, '203781947.

independent significations. Thus viewed, words have not two or 2. Find the value correctly to seven decimal places of the more senses, but in the several cases the one sense is varied and following expressions :

modified. Even in instances in which opposite meanings aro 1. 2-0127 + 80-3897 + .00370i. 4. 7-28705 – .378 + 10-34567.

connected with the same word, the filiation may be traced, as 2. 15-379 + 2.13159 + 18 + 70-2178 5. 85.6 = 7.5.

both Jacob and Esau sprang from the same stock. I will take

an example in the word prevent. Prevent means both to guide + 5.34567.

2 + 5.123 – 2:315. 6.

and to hinder, to lead to, and to debar from. The opposition 3. 27-459 – 3-876430.

31 - 2:39 + 3-28.

is sufficiently decided. Yet these two opposed meanings are

only modifications of the root-sense of the word. First I will EXERCISE 37.

exhibit the diversity, and then explain it. 1. Reduce the following decimals to vulgar fractions :

Prevent, signifying to guide, aid forward :1. 3.

11. •16.
16. •583.

“ Prevent us, O Lord, by thy grace."—"Book of Common Prayer."
7. *09
12. -8567923.
17. .0227.

“— Love celestial, whose prevenient aid
13. •138,
18. 4745.

Forbids approaching ill.”—Mallet.
4. 123.
9. •142857.

19. •5925.

Prevent, signifying to hinder, obstruct:5. •297. | 10. •076923.

15. •5925.
20. .008497133.

“Where our prevention ends, danger begins."-Carew. 2. Change the following sets of decimals to similar and con.

“ Which, though it be a natural preventive to some evils, yet without terminous periods :

either stop or moderation, must needs exhaust his spirits."-Reliq.

Woitonianæ. 1. 6.811, 3-28, and .083.

3. •27, 3, and "015.

“Physick is either curative or preventive; preventive we call that 2. 16.102, 5.26, 73-123, 436, and 12.5. 4. 4.321, 6-4263, and 6.

which preventeth sickness in the healthy."-Brown, " Vulgar Errors." 3. Add together the following sets of decimals:

“Prevent us, O Lord, by thy grace," means “aid us forward." 1. 24•132 + 2.23 + 85.24 + 67.6.

“Preventive of sickness," signifies that which causes sickness

not to come. 2. 328-123 + 81-23 + 5.621 + 61-6.

There is the contrariety. Now for the explana

tion. Prevent is made up of two Latin words, namely-præ, 3. 31.42 +- 7.824 + 8.392 + 027.

before, and venio, I come or go. Now, you may go before a 4. 162 34 + 60-92 + 71•104 + .35.

person for two opposite purposes. You may go before him in 5. 60-25 + 31 + 6.435 + .45 + 45-21.

order to guide, aid, and conduct him onward ; or

you may go

before him to bar up his way, to hold him back, to prevent his 6. 9.811 + 1:5 + 87•26 + 0.83 + 124 09.

advance. And as either of these two purposes is prominent in 7. 3.6 + 78-3178 + 735-3 + 375 + .97 + 187•.

the mind of the speaker, so the word is used by him to signify 8. 5391-357 + 72.35 + 187-21 + 4.2965 + 217.8496 + 42:178 + •523 to guide or to hinder. The proper meaning, then, of prevent is, 58 300-18.

to come before: hence, 1, to guide, or, as a natural consequence,

2, to aid; or again, 1, to obstruct, and, as a natural consequence, 9. ież + 134.09 + 2.93 + 97•28 + 3.769230 + 99.083 + 1.5 + 1814. 2, to stop, etc. And how the moral and spiritual imports come

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out of the physical, is also seen in the diverse application of the

Not unto such as could him feast againe, word ; for, as we have just read of preventive medicine, so in

And double quite for that he on them spent; divinity you may read of "prevenient grace.”

But such as want of harbour did constraine, These remarks, illustrations of which occur in what has just

Those, for God's sake, his dewty was to entertaine." preceded, and will occur in what is about to follow, may serve to

Spenser, Faèrie Queene." show you that language must be studied genealogically. Indeed, Epi, a prefix of Greek origin, from emi (ep'-i), signifying upon, every word has a history; and in the dictionaries, every account as epidemic, upon or over (widely spread over) a people. En. given of a word ought to be a complete history of the word; a demic declares that a disease is in-born, native to the soil; history of its origin, uses, and application, the one traced from epidemic that it is very prevalent. Epi is found in epigram (epi the other logically, or according to the laws of thought, and and the Greek ypaupa, pronounced gram'-ma, a writing, from the philologically, or agreeably to the laws of language. Very verb ypaqw (graph'-o], I write), epilepsy (epi and Anya, prodifferent, and very inferior, is the character of most dictionaries. nounced leap'-si-a, a taking), epiphany (epi and Greek ouvw, But to return to the subject of English prefixes.

pronounced phai'-no or fi'-no, I appear), epistle (epi and otellw, E, of Latin, or rather Greek origin, in the forms e, ef, er, pronounced stel'-lo, to send), etc. etc. denotes out of, as in egress (e and gradior, Lat. I walk), a walking

“ He that would write an epitaph for thee, out; excess (ex and cedo, Lat. I go), a going beyond—that is, too

And do it well, must first begin to be far; effect (ef and facio, Lat. I do), a thing made out, produced;

Such as thou wert; for none can truly know a result,

Thy worth, thy life, but he that hath lived so."-Donne. E. “ All occasions must be taken of sending forth pious heavenly Equi, of Latin origin (æquus, equal), denoting equality, forms ejaculations to God."-Bishop Hal.

part of several words, as equipoise (equi and peser, Fr. to weigh; Ex. “The ecclesiastical courts possessed the power of pronouncing pendēre, Lat. to hang), equity; equivocal (equi and vox, Lat. a ercommunication; and that sentence, besides the spiritual conse

voice). quences supposed to follow from it, was attended with immediate effects of the most important nature. The person excommunicated “Faith! here's an equivocator that could swear in both the scales was shunned by every one as profane and impious; and his whole against either scale; who committed treason enough in God's sake, estate, during his lifetime, and all his movables, for ever were forfeited yet could not equivocate to heaven; oh, come in, equivocator."--Shako. to the crown."—Hume, History of England."


“ Macbeth." Ef. "Two white sparry incrustations, with efflorescences in form of shrubs, formed by the trickling of water."-Woodward, “ On Fossils.

Es, of French origin (Lat. e, ex), is in English found in words

borrowed from the French, as in escalade (es and scala, Lat. a En is a prefix found in the English, the French, and the Greek ladder), a scaling (of a city), escape (Fr. échapper, to get away), languages. Into the English it appears to have come from the escheat (old Fr. escheoir, to fall due), a forfeit, eschew (old Fr. Latin, through the French. Many words of Latin origin have eschever, to shun), escutcheon (es and scutum, Lat. a shield). passed through the French into the English. En is the form in Greek. In Latin, en becomes in.

“Hence without blushing (say whate'er we can) In French, both en and in

We more regard the escutcheon than the man; are used. The same is the case with the English. Though en

Yet, true to nature and her instincts, prize and in are the same particle, it may be advisable to handle them

The hound or spaniel as his talent lies."-Cawthorn, separately, in order that their respective usages may kecome apparent.

Eu, of Greek origin (ev, pronounced you), signifying well, En is found in the forms en, em. The prefix signifies in or

occurs in euphony (eu and the Greek pwrn, pronounced pho'ne, into, e.g. :

a sound), euthanasia (eu and the Greek Bavaros, pronounced "He (Samson) rises and carries away the gates wherein they thought the word ; 'eunuch being from the Greek evvn, pronounced n’-ne,

than'-a-tos, death), a happy death; the eu in eunuch is a part of to have encaged him.”—Bishop Hall.

a bed, and exw, ek'-o, to have, or have charge of ; eunuchs were So in encamp, encase, enchain, enchant, enclose (or inclose), en.

chamberlains. Men were made eunuchs by the jealousy of demic (en and demos, Gr. a' people), peculiar to a district. En Eastern despots. They were also made so in order to give them sometimes has an intensive or augmentive effect on the verb of a contralto voice. The latter fact is well alluded to in this which it forms a part; as in encourage, enfeeble, enkindle quotation :(candle), encrease_(increase), encumber (incumber, from the “Our present writers, for the most part, seem to lay the whole French encombre, Lat. cumulus, a heap).

stress in their endeavours upon the harmony of words ; but then, like “ Encumbered soon with many a painful wound,

eunuchs, they sacrifice their manhood for a voice, and reduce our Tardy and stiff he treads the hostile round;

poetry to be like echo, nothing but a sound."-Lansdown, “ Peleus and

Gloomy and fierce his eyes the crowd survey,
Mark where to fix and single out the prey."

Ever, of Saxon origin, signifying always, is seen in everlasting,
Rowe, Pharsalia."

evermore; evermore appears in the older writers as evermo. En has also, though seldom, the force of a negative; as in “I shall readily grant that the words for ever and ever-lasting do enemy. Enemy is from the Latin inimicus, where the English not always, in Scripture, signify an endless duration.” —

- Barrow, en represents the Latin in. Inimicus is made up of in, not;

“ Sermons." and amicus, a friend.

Extra, of Latin origin, with the meaning out of, appears in En, for the sake of euphony, becomes em before b and p; em- extraneous, out of (not belonging to) the subject; extraordinary bitter, emblem, embosom, embroil, emprison (imprison), employ, (extra and ordo, Lat. order), out of the usual order. empoverish (impoverish).

“Some lands, either because they were in the hands of irreligious “At eve within yon studious nook,

and careless owners, or were situate in forests and desert places, or I ope my brass-embosséd book,

for other now unsearchable reasons, were never united to any parish, Pourtrayed with many a holy deed,

and therefore continue to this day extra-parochial."-Blackstone, "Corrie Of martyrs crowned with heavenly meed."-Warton.

mentaries,” There is a tendency to substitute i for e in many words. This For, of Saxon origin, whose original is probably found in the tendency deserves encouragement, if only for the sake of German ver, which denies and reverses the action expressed in uniformity.

the verb, occurs in forbid (not to bid; that is, to bid not). Enter, coming from the Latin (intra, within) through the

Rather how hast thou yielded to transgress, French (entre, between, among), is found in enterprise (enter and

The strict forbiddance, how violate Fr. prendre, Lat. prehendere, to take, to take hold of), an under

The sacred fruit forbidd'n."-Milton, “Paradise Lost," taking; also in enterment (in and terra, Lat. the earth), now more common as interment. It is found also in entertain (Fr.

For is found also in forbear, not to bear or take; to abstain. entretenir, Lat. inter and tenere, to hold).

"Phidias, when he had made the statue of Minerva, could not for.

bear to engrave his own name, as author of the piece."-Dryden. "His office was to give entertainment And lodging unto all that came and went,

Fore, a different word from the preceding, of Saxon origin (vor, RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.


upon it.


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Germ., in advance; vorwarts, Germ., forwards), appears in fore- Then how shall we observe our friend and study his comfort tell, forecast, forefathers, forehead.

also ? Get a piece of clean window-glass, and place the snail "The foreknower is not the cause of all that are foreknown.”—

He will hold firmly to the glass with his broad, Hammond.

expanded, sucker-like foot. Then, by looking at the gentleman In forgive (Germ. vergeben), the idea seems to be that of through the glass, as he moves along, the reader will be able to

note the mode in which such animals walk, mark the wave-like giving away, giving without a return, giving freely, and hence to motions of the foot on the glass, and remember that all softpardon (Fr. pardonner, in low Lat. perdonare).

bodied animals with a foot like the snail's, are named Gastero. “Not soon provoked, however stung and teased,

pois, a word which means “having the feet and belly joined,” And if perhaps made angry, soon appeased ;

and 'which is derived from the Greek yastnp (gas-teer'), the She rather waves, than will dispute her right,

belly, and movs (pous), a foot. And injured makes forgiveness her delight."-Couper,

Having noticed the sucker-like foot, and tested the force with Hept, of Greek origin (etta, pronounced hep'-ta, seven), forms which it clings to the glass, let us look at the head of our the first syllable of heptagon (Greek yovia, pronounced gon'-i-a, snail. The first noticeable objects are what children call the an angle), that which has seven angles, and consequently seven horns or feelers. Look closely at them. What is that black sides; and heptarchy (Greek apxn, pronounced ar'ke, government), shining speck on the top of each feeler ? The eye of the snail, a sevenfold government.

according to the judgment of most naturalists. Strange sort of "Seven independent thrones, the Saxon heptarchy, were founded by eye, which can thus be lifted up above the body, when its owner the conquerors.”—Gibbon,

wants to take a survey of the world. If we want to obtain a wider view, we get on an elevation; the snail manages matters

in another manner, he lifts up the eye itself. As the snail con. RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.-I. templates one of us through those black specks, the question

rises, is he not terribly frightened at a being having an eye as

large as his whole body? However, unfortunately, in the It is to be feared that there are not many among us who are present state of snail education, it is impossible to impart his disposed to regard the little animals that may be classed among views to us, so we will let that topic pass. the "common objects" of our fields, gardens, and even houses, Touch the tip of his feeler; see how ingeniously he tucks with the same attention and curiosity as we examine the form the whole machine into its case, just as the top of the finger of and inquire into the habits of a lion, elephant, or gorilla, fresh a glove is turned in sometimes, when the glove is drawn off. from the deserts of Africa or the jungles of Asia, or a walrus Now wait awhile ; see, the tube is pushed out again, and the lately brought from northern climes. And yet the beasts that eye is slowly rolled out from its remarkable hiding-place. find a hiding-place in our woods and thickets, the birds that fill Have you a pair of scissors in your hand? Would you like to the air with melody at the approach of spring, and the insects cut off those feelers, eyes and all ? No, some will say, respect that often destroy our best and choicest fruits and blossoms, even a snail's feelings. Others may answer yes, cut them off, are as "fearfully and wonderfully made" as the larger animals if we shall get any knowledge by so doing ; we do not believe of foreign lands—ay, even as ourselves, for whose use, or such creatures feel pain. Well

, you cannot prove they do not feel pleasure, or perchance correction, they were created. Each has when thus treated, that's certain ; and it shows a better heart to been called into being for some wise end by the Maker of us all, believe they suffer when injured. Those who believe in Shakeeven though our limited knowledge may fail to discover its speare will probably take this view. They will remember his ntility, and the purpose which it serves in the economy of remark that a worm when crushed feels as much pain as when Nature. The structure and habits of each beast or bird or a giant dies. However, let us suppose one of us determines insect, however small, however unattractive in appearance, to be rather cruel for once only; that we do violence to our claim our consideration as much as the graceful figure of the tender feelings, and, disregarding the snail, cut off both of antelope or giraffe, or the instinct and docility of the horse or his feelers. Now we have killed him, have we not ? At dog; and as a lesson may be learnt from each and all, more least we have blinded him for life ? Indignant the snail is cerpotent in its teaching than the precepts of the best of all books tainly; see how he goes back into the innermost part of his save one, we invite the attention of our readers to our studies house. He may well retire from a world which treats him thus. in Natural History, which may be termed recreative in two Now what will be the result? If the snail be in good health, senses—first, as they will do much to relieve the strain that our and the operation be not performed too late in the year, that lessons in languages, mathematics, and science may exert on poor despicable-looking creature will begin to form a new pair the mind of the student; and secondly, in the first and truest of eyes and feelers in about twenty-five days. This operation meaning of the word, as by a thoughtful inspection of some of was often performed on a great number of snails by Spallanzani, God's lesser works, we may renew from time to time and build a celebrated Italian naturalist of the last century. Such a reup again what we may have lost of our reverential love of Him production of organs proves the possession of singular vital without whom not even a sparrow falls to the ground unnoticed powers in so lowly a creature. But Spallanzani and others or uncared for.

have gone beyond this. They repeatedly cut off the heads of In such a spirit, then, we introduce to the notice of our snails, and those heads, with all their organs, have been in a readers the snail, an animal that finds small favour, generally few months reproduced! That is a power which some men speaking, with those who love their gardens.

might have envied. Even the little finger of a human being when cut off is gone for life; no power of making a fresh one grow on the old place belongs to the greatest philosopher on the earth. Yet here we have a poor despised creature often able to recover its lost head, eyes, feelers, and mouth. The snail beats us all on such a work, beyond doubt.

Let us not forget the mouth of the snail. It is an instrument capable of doing no light work, as those know to whose gardens the animal pays its unwelcome visits. The two lips are formed

of a horny substance, which acts in the manner of a file on We will imagine that while strolling round your garden or in vegetables. The tough leaves of the white lily are often rasped the fields you have just picked up a snail. Hold him tenderly, off in a few nights by this cutting machine. If any one should and not long in your hand, or you may make him very wretched. be desirous of examining minutely the structure of the snail's How 80 ? Remember his body is cold, your hand is hot, almost mouth, he will find some fine specimens in the Physiological like a furnace to him, and the temperature must be enough to Gallery of the Hunterian Museum in the College of Surgeons, make him faint. In truth, while on a human hand the snail Lincoln's Inn Fields. must feel about as comfortable as St. Lawrence on his gridiron. Of the snail's brain we may just make this remark, that the Besides, St. Lawrence gained honour and applause for his complete nervous system of the creature's first cousin, the slug, suffering, but no such reward awaits the snail; so, out of a is to be seen in the same museum, and Professor Owen has kindly feeling, do not keep him long in the hot hand.

given a learned description of the whole. Both snails and


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