Imágenes de páginas


slugs may therefore know, as well as human beings, what it is

LESSONS IN FRENCH.--XVII. to suffer from nervous attacks. Would any one like to see the heart of a snail ? The keeper

SECTION 1.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued). of the above-mentioned museum will gratify the wish. It is a

VIII. LIQUIDS. hard matter to look into the human heart, but readers may

80. L and LL.-Whenever I and ll are preceded by ai, zi, there inspect the inner part of a snail's heart, which is generally oui, and sometimes by i only, they receive a sound very different placed near the middle of the animal's back.

from that which they have when initial. In the former case, The snail must, of course, breathe. How does the air enter they become liquid, and are so called from their peculiar sound. his system? The snail's nose, if we may use the expression, is Yet it is a sound with which foreigners are well acquainted. on the back, or right side of the neck--that is, the hole through The only difficulty is, in expressing or illustrating the sound by which the air enters is there placed. Can the snail smell? means of English analogous sounds. Philosophers are not agreed upon the point. There is not, how.

It is the same sound which is given to the letters Ui in the ever, the least doubt that they soon find out vegetables for which correct pronunciation of the English words collier, billiard, brilthey have a liking, as many an indignant gardener will admit.

liant, and William. If you pronounce any one of these words very Snails exhibit in spring and early summer a strange pecu- carefully, observing at the same time the peculiar sound of the liarity. Their bodies are then covered with little spikes or letters ili, you will have the correct liquid sound which is illusdarts of a horny substance, about a quarter of an inch long. trated by the peculiar sound of gl in the word seraglio. Some of the older books have engravings representing these darts flying as if shot off from the bodies of the snails. They ing general rules, namely :

In French words containing liquid sounds, observe the followare, however, a puzzle to the snail philosophers up to the Rule 1.-Pronounce the letter a before il and ill as a in the present time.

English word ah. Let us now look at the shell. In what light shall we regard

Rule 2.-Pronounce the letter e before it and ill as a in the this? Is it the snail's house, or the snail's skeleton ? Either English word day. notion may be held. If we deem it the house, then we may

In the illustrated pronunciation of the following examples of weil envy the animal for his power, not only of making his own liquid sounds, the last syllable ye of many of them is scarcely house, but of repairing damages which may happen to walls or sounded. Let it be but the mere faint echo of the voice. roofs. He is not only his own mason, builder, and architect,

Name, gli sound, like gl in the English word seraglio. but provides his own quarry. We nced not say, perhaps, that


ENGLISH. the lime of the shell is produced from the pores of the animal's


Reception. body. When he grows too large for his first house he enlarges


To brighten. it, and thus inhabitant and mansion are always accommodated


Contention. each to the other. As his family never live with him, he has Dépouille


Spoil. but his own good-will and pleasure to consult in the building. Enorgueillir Ahn-or-guhl-yeer To be proud of. Two things deserve special notice. Readers must have observed Famille


Family. great differences in the coloured markings of snails' shells. Feuillo


Paper, or a sheet of paper, Now each snail has his own colour manufactory. A series of



To wet. glands, like so many chemical workshops, produce the colours


Or-ayl which give the various tints to the shell. It is a singular fact


Straw. that even the baby snail begins its work of builder before it is


To abuse. hatched. Even when yet in the egg, the little creatures are Réveil


Alarm-clock, found to have formed a thin shell. This is something like Sillon


Puryone, infant precocity. One thing, however, seems beyond these Soleil


Sun. babies; they cannot form tho colouring matter of the shell; the Tailleur


Tailor. house is built first and ornamented after.


Toor-beel-yonh Whirlwind.
We must now call attention to the snail's winter house.


Labour. When food begins to fail, and tho autumn nights get cool, the But there is another very different and common method of creature becomes drowsy, and makes up his mind to a long prononncing the liquid sound illustrated in the preceding sleep. Some bury themselves in the ground, others crowd into examples. Its chief merit is, the ease with which it may be sheltered corners. But note the preparation for the winter. acquired. It cannot be stigmatised as absolutely vicious, though Some species retire deeply into the shell, building up four or it be, at least in our opinion, inelegant. five thin walls of lime at the entrance, so that the animal is The following examples will be used to illustrate the kind of completely blocked up and scparated from the outside world. pronunciation just spoken of, viz. :Having performed this building feat, tho snail bids good-bye to


ENGLISH, all care and sorrow, dropping into a comfortable sleep for the


Needle. whole winter. Some of these are indeed rudely roused from Bouilli


Boiled Beef. slumber by hungry birds, which, discovering the shells, drive Bouteille


Bottle. their beaks through the thin walls, and tearing out the luckless Cuiller


Spoon. snail, devour him before he has time to awake.


Are snails of any use at all ? Readers who wish for variety



Wall. of food may make wholesome soup of their bodies. Start not at the proposal; one species of snail was eaten in England in Speaking of these different methods of pronouncing the the time of Elizabeth, and “ a snail feast” is said to be still liquids, the following opinion is taken from Bolmar's “Lovizac's celebrated on special days by some trades in the North of French Grammar," namely :England. A modern cookery book describes no less than “This last pronunciation being the easiest of the two, hes twelve modes of preparing the animals for food. Is any been adopted by so many people in France, that it is no longer reader anxious to try a dish ? Then take our recipe: Get a considered a fault, except by grammarians. However, I recom. sufficient quantity, according to appetite, of the edible snail mend the former, not only on account of its correctness, but (Helax pomatia is the learned name), boil them in spring water, also on account of its being a sound very common to the Spanish. then strew pepper and salt over—and dine. The Emperor Nero Italian, and Portuguese languages, in which languages this sound is said to have preferred them fried; any reader who pleases does not admit of any variation. It is represented in the Spanish can, of course, try them that way.

by 11, in the Italian by gli, and in the Portuguese by lh." Our friends will bear in mind that we purposely avoid in 81. GN.- This liquid is much used in the French language. these articles technical descriptions of species and genera, deep Its correct sound is peculiar, and by no means difficult to physiological discussion, and anatomical details. Our main attain. It is the sound of the letters gn in the English word: object is to call attention to the richly varied facts which are to bagnio, mismonette, and vignette. be seen in every field and garden throughout the year. There Pronounce the word mignonette correctly and carefully, observ. is much to excite wonder, and remind us of our infinite Creator ing, at the same time, the peculiar sound of the letters qui, in the meanest creatures of the waters, land, or air.

which will be the correct sound of this liquid.



Les fleurs sont l'ornement des jar. Flowers are the ornament of gardens


Les fleurs desjardins de ce château. The flowers of the gardens of this


Avez-vous l'intention de visiter la Do you intond visiting France ? Dignitaire Dee-gnee-tair


France ?

J'ai l'intention de visiter l'Italie. I intend visiting Italy.

Le Capitaine Dumont est-il ici ? Is Captain Dumont hero?
To earn,

Le Major Guillaume est chez lui. Major William is at home.

Voyez-vous Madame votre mère ? Do you see your mother?

Je vois Monsieur votre frère. I see your brother.

Mon frère n'aime pas les louanges. My brother is not fond of praises.
To attend to.


Framboise,f.,raspberry. The exceptions to this method of pronouncing the letters Aim-er, 1, to be fond of, Cerise, f., cherry.


Demeur-er, 1, to direl, Légume, m., vegetable. in occur only in these words, in which they belong to different Apport-er, 1, to bring. lire.

Loin, far. syllables; that is to say, in dividing those words into syllables, Bois, m., wood, forest. Eturli-er, 1, in study. Lundi, m., Monday. it would be found that g belonged to one syllable, and n belonged Capitaine, m., captain. Fleur, f., Aower. Pêche, f., peach. to the next suoceeding syllable, viz. :

Caporal, m., corporal, | Fraise, f., strauberry. Prune, f., plum. FEEXCH, PRONUNCIATION.

Indian potato.

1. Aimez-vous le pain ou la viande ? 2. J'aime le in, la

viande et le fruit. 3. Avons-nous des pêches dans notre jarIgnicole Ig-nee-kol Fire-worshipper.

din ? 4. Nous y avons des pêches, des fraises, des framboises Ignition Ig-nee-seonh Ignition.

et des cerises. 5. Monsieur votre frère aime-t-il les cerises ? Ignivome Ig-nee-vom Fire-romiting.

6. Il n'aime guère les cerises, il préfère les prunes. 7. AvezIgnivore Ig-nee-vor

Magnificat Mag-nee-fee-kat Name of a sacred lynn.

vous des légumes ? 8. Je n'aime point les légumes. 9. Nous
A native.

n'avons ni légumes ni fruits. (Sect. VI. 3, 4.) 10. Nous n'ai. Stagnant Stag-nanh Stagnant.

mons ni les légumes ni les fruits. 11. Allez-vous tous les jours Stagnation Stag-nah-seonh Stagnation.

dans le bois de Monsieur votre frère ? 12. Je n'y vais pas tous les To the above may be added a few proper names.

jours. 13. Votre sour apporte-t-elle les fleurs ? 14. Elle les

apporte. 15. Madame votre mère apporte-t-elle des fleurs ? SECTION XXVIII.-USE OF THE ARTICLE [$ 77]. 16. Elle en apporte tous les Lundis. 17. Voyez-vous le Général 1. The article le, la, les, as already stated, is used in French Bertrand ? 18. Je ne le vois pas, je vois le Caporal Duchêne. before nouns taken in a general sense.

19. Mesdemoiselles vos seurs sont-elles fatiguées ? 20. Mes

sæurs sont fatiguées d'étudier. Les jardins sont les ornements des Gardens are the ornaments of villages villages et des campagnes, and of rural districts.

EXERCISE 52. 2. The article is also used in French, as in English, before and my brother is fond of books. 3. Is he wrong to like books?

1. Does your sister like flowers ? 2. My sister likes Aowers, nouns taken in a particular sense.

4. No, Sir, he is right to like books and flowers. 5. Have you Les jardins de ce village sont su. The gardens of this village are si

many flowers in your garden? 6. We have many flowers and perbes,


much fruit. 7. Is your cousin fond of raspberries ? 8. My 3. It is also used before abstract nouns, before verbs and cousin is fond of raspberries and* strawberries. 9. Is the capadjectives used substantively.

tain fond of praises ? 10. He is not fond of praises. 11. Has La paresse est odieuse, Idlences is odious.

the gardener brought you vegetables? 12. He has brought me La jeunesse n'est pas toujours Youth is not always tractable.

vegetables and fruit.* 13. Is he ashamed to bring you vegedocile,

tables? 14. He is neither ashamed nor afraid to sell vegetables. Le boire et le manger sont néces- Eating and drinking are necessary to 15. Is your mother tired ? 16. My mother is not tired ? 17. saires à la vie,


Is your brother at Colonel D.'s ? 18. He lives at Colonel D.'s, 4. The article is used before the names of countries, provinces, but he is not at home at present (à présent). 19. How many rivers, winds, and mountains (S 77 (3) (4)].

peaches have you ? 20. I have not many peaches, but I have

many plums. 21. Does Captain B. like peaches ? 22. He likes La France est plus grande que

France is larger than Italy. l'Italie,

peaches, * plums, raspberries, and strawberries.

23. Are you la Normandie est très-fertile. Normandy is very fertile.

going into (dans) your brother's wood ? 24. I go there every

morning. 25. Is General L. here? 26. No, Sir, he is not here, 5. The article is used before titles.

he is at your cousin's. Le Général Caraignac,

General Cavaignac.
Le Maréchal Ney,
Marshal Ney.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-IX. 6. In respectful address or discourse, the words Monsieur,

DISCOVERIES OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. Madame, Mademoiselle are placed before titles and designations The Russian Admiral Krusenstern, in 1804-5, made an ex: of relationship.

ploratory voyage in Occania, which enlarged our hydrographical Monsieur le Président,

(M7.) President. Madame la Comtesse,

knowledge of the Pacific Ocean. In 1819, Bellinghausen (Madam) Countess, Mademoiselle votre sæur, (Miss) your sister.

re-visited a part of Polynesia, and made additions to some of the groups.

About the same period, Freycinet discovered Rose 7. The plural of Monsieur, Madame, and Mademoiselle, is Island, and solved some interesting questions relating to those Messieurs, Mesdames, and Mesdemoiselles.

distant seas. In 1823 and 1824, Captain Duperró made somo 8. The student should be careful to distinguish a noun taken additional discoveries in Polynesia, and re-explored the Papuan in a general or in a particular sense from one taken in a parti- group and New Zealand. Captain Lütke, of the Imperial tive sense [$ 78).

Russian Marine, who navigated the seas of Oceania, discovered JESTRAL OR PARTICULAR SENSE.


some new islands in the Caroline group, and Olimarau, between Hong aimons les livres, Nous avons des livres,

them and the Ladrone Islands. In 1831-32, Captain Laplace, We like books.

We have books, i.e., some books. Sons avons les livres,

of the French sloop of war La Favorite, visited the coasts of Vous avez écrit des lettres, We have the books.

Arabia and other countries washed by the Indian Occan and You have written letters, i.e., somo

China Sea; while about the same time Captain Du Petit-Thouars, letters,

of the Venus, made surveys along the shores of Kamtchatka, CaliRÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

fornia, and Australia. The Russian Admiral, Krusenstern, also La modestie est aimable.

Modesty is amiable. Le courage est indispensable au courago is indispensable to the * The student must not forget that the article is repeated before général. general.

every youn.

made additions to the geography of the Kurile Isles, the coasts islands, stretching from the island of Saghalien on the north to of Japan, and the Sea of Okhotsk. Captain Maxwell, of the the south-eastern extremity of the peninsula of Corea, that suite of Lord Amherst, our ambassador to China, extended our form the Empire of Japan. Of this island empire, the most knowledge of these Asiatic regions. The squadron under reliable account that we possessed, until Lieutenant Silver's his command made several important discoveries in the Yellow recently published work, was one written by Engelbert Kæmpfer, Sea, particularly Sir James Hall's Islands, This expedition in 1690. Several attempts have been made by the Portuguese ascertained that the western coast of the peninsula of Corea and Dutch, since the commencement of the sixteenth century, had been placed on our maps greatly to the westward of its true to establish commercial relations with Japan; but trade with position; and made known to the world a vast archipelago this country has always been attended with great difficulty and which no European had previously visited. Captain Maxwell danger, owing to the repugnance of the inhabitants to hold also visited the Loo-Choo Islands, where he was only welcomed intercourse with foreigners. In 1853, however, the Japanese by feigning shipwreck, and seeking the assistance of the in- government entered into a commercial treaty with the United habitants.

States, and in the following year another was concluded with The northern coasts of Asia having been previously im. Great Britain. Since that time several ports have been opened perfectly known, M. Gedenchtrom was commissioned to explore to British commerce, while embassies have been sent from Japan them in 1808 ; but his efforts were limited. Lieutenant (after. to visit Europe and America, the Japanese showing a disposition wards Admiral) Wrangell was charged to complete the explora- to abandon many of the customs, and even the costume to which tion of these coasts, and to fill up the blanks which then existed they have adhered without change for many hundreds of years, in the maps of Siberia, by re-visiting the most northern latitudes according to their own account, and to adopt in a great measure of these dreary regions. The object of this expedition was to the usages of the most civilised portions of the world. Much of examine the whole of the coast from Cape Chelagsk to Cape an efficient and thorough survey of the Japanese waters has North, discovered by Cook to the west of Behring Strait, and recently (1865-8) been carried out by Commander Bullock, of to determine whether there existed in the vicinity of these the Royal navy. capes an isthmus uniting Asia and America. This dangerous Expeditions into the interior of Asia have, from time to time, expedition occupied from 1820 to 1824. Beyond Cape Chelagsk, thrown great light on the geography of this part of the Old he discovered Cape Baranoff, and surveyed the coast from this world. We owe much of our knowledge of China to the Jesuit cape to the mouth of the river Kolyma. He discovered that missionaries who laboured in that country; of the northern the hypothesis of the existence of land in this vicinity was un- frontiers of this empire, to Klaproth, Timkowsky, De Humboldt, founded ; and he rectified and completed the geography of this and Pierre de Tohihatcheff; of Thibet, to Turner; of the part of the continent of Asia. In 1843, M. Middendorff suc. Himalaya chain of mountains and the adjacent countries, to cessfully explored, in the midst of innumerable dangers, the Lieutenant Webb, Captain Raper, Moorcraft, Colonel Crawford, coasts of the Frozen Ocean between Turukansk, the sources of M. Frazer, Victor Jacquemont, and Major Rennell. Sir H. the Khatounga, and Cape Taimoura. Traversing Siberia from Pottinger made us acquainted with Beloochistan and Scinde; north-west to south-west, he visited the coasts of the Sea of Elphinstone and Burnes with Afghanistan ; Burnes with BokOkhotsk, and part of Tartary.

hara; and Mouravief with Turcomania and Khiva. Persia has, In the quarter of a century that has clapsed since this time, at different periods, been visited by a number of able travellers, our knowledge of Central Asia has been greatly extended, by to whom we owe a knowledge of this country; as, Tavernier, the advance of the outposts of the Russian empire towards the Chardin, A. Jubert, Moorcraft, Morier, Frazer, Kerr Porter, south into the heart of Independent Tartary, and to the north Alexander, and Messrs. Coste and Flaudin. Of Arabia, we bank of the River Amur, or Amoor, in the east, which now have gained information from Niebuhr, Burckhardt, and Rüppel; forms the greater part of the northern frontier of Manchooria, but of late years a great deal of additional light has been that part of Central Asia, nominally tributary to China, which thrown on the western districts of this enormous peninsula, lies to the east of the great sandy desert of Gobi. Commencing and the condition of its inhabitants, by Captain Richard F. at the Caspian Sea, on the western side of the continent, the Burton, who visited Mecca and Medina in 1853, and travelled acquisition by Russia of the Kirghiz Steppes, and the great through that part of the country which borders on the Red Sea, plains round the Sea of Aral, that are traversed by the Syr by a route hitherto untrodden by Europeans. A considerable Daria or Jaxartes, and the Amoo Daria or Oxus, has led to the part of Captain Burton's adventurous journey was performed in thorough exploration of these regions, of which comparatively the disguise of a pilgrim to the cities sacred to Mahometans as little or nothing was previously known with any degree of cer- the birth-place and burial-place of Mahomet, the founder of tainty. In 1825 an expedition was sent to the Sea of Aral by their religion, as it would be impossible for a European to pass the Russian Government, under the command of General, now through that country in quest of information, otherwise than Count de Berg, who was commissioned to make an accurate in the garb of the inhabitants of some Mahometan country. exploration of the Russian frontier ; and in 1818 an eminent Captain Burton's researches were further supplemented and Russian sailor, Admiral Alexis Boutakoff, cut out and fitted augmented by Mr. William Gifford Palgrave, who travelled from together ships at Orenburg, and carried them in pieces across the Dead Sea to the Persian Gulf, through Central and Eastern the steppes to the shores of the Sea of Aral, where they were Arabia, in 1862-3. This gentleman also made his way through built and launched. These ships were the pioneers of the the country in disguise, and found, contrary to his own expecta: establishment of regular steam navigation on the Sea of Aral, tion and the general belief, that interior of Arabia, instead and up the great rivers Oxus and Jaxartes, which discharge of being a trackless waste, resembling the Sahara in its chatheir waters into it on the south and west, establishing along racter, and peopled only by a few wandering Bedouin Arabs, is the coast of the last-named stream a line of water communica: inhabited by tribes who live in towns and villages, under sheikhs tion through the centre of Turkistan, by which an active com- and native princes, actively engaged in trading with each other merce is and will be carried on between the Celestial Empire and the countries bordering on the coast. Mr. Palgrave's dis. and Russia. For this achievement, the Founder's Gold Medal coveries, indeed, were of so important a nature, as to give quite of the Royal Geographical Society was awarded to Admiral a new character to the map of Arabia, the interior of which, Boutakoff in 1867. Our knowledge of the scenery and the previous to his visit, has been represented as being little botter manners and customs of the inhabitants of Khiva, Bokhara, than a sterile uninhabited desert. Thibet, and other parts of West Central Asia, has been increased Of recent discoveries in Asia little remains to be said, but by M. Arminius Vámbéry, an enterprising Hungarian, who has that the acquisition of territory recently made by the French travelled through these regions, visiting many places hitherto in the south of Cambodia and Cochin China, has led to an unseen by Europeans, in the disguise of a dervish, at the risk of extended knowledge of this part of India beyond the Ganges, or his life and liberty.

the Indo-Chinese Peninsula; while our wars with China, and Passing eastward along the line of the Jaxartes, through the the spirit of enterprise shown by such men as the “ English sandy wastes of the desert of Gobi, down the wooded slopes of Tai-ping,” and other adventurers in the service of the Impe. the mountains that divide Manchooria from Mongolia, and over rialists, and the so-called Tai-pings who are seeking to overthrow the rich plains that are watered by the Songari and its tribu- the present dynasty in that country, have secured a more taries, we stand at last on the shores of the Japan Sea, and elaborate survey of the Chinese coast, and much information make our way across its waters to the crescent-formed chain of , respecting the interior of that wonderful country.

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expression. You, however, are a long way from that position, The learner must be careful not to let his thoughts be confused until you have established in your mind and ear a sensof time.

and should carefully practise yourself with this instrument by the different uses of the word “time” in ordinary musical

It is not an easy thing for an unpractised singer to keep language. You will meet with the phrases “common time,”

an equal rate of movement throughout a tune without aid, but * triple time," etc. The word “ time," then, refers to the he must learn to do it, and we are persuaded that a careful and orderly recurrence of acoents—the measure. In the phrases "quick time," " slow time," etc., it means rate of movement, the frequent use of the pendulum is the best means hitherto pro

posed for the attainment of this power; but it is customary to speed with which the accents recur. And when we are re recommend the practice of " beating time.” To those who may quested to keep the time,” it is commonly meant that (though wish to adopt this plan, the diagrams below-explaining the we may have been correct in the rate of movement, and accurate method of " beating time" for the different measures-may be in the recurrence of accents) we have not given the exact propor- of use. tionate length of each note. It is known that the swings of the keep in mind that the object to be gained is—first a mental per

But to many persons this is oniy a hindrance. Let us same pendulum are of equal length in time, whether they are

ception of equal movement, or the regular recurrence of the long or short in respect of the distance traversed ; and that the pulses ; and secondly, a mental command, by which the muscles longer the pendulum, the slower its movement; and the shorter of the larynx are made to obey the conceptions of the mind, the pendulum, the quicker its movement. This gives us the Both these may be gained by careful practice, discipline, and means of regulating the “ rate of movement” in music as well effort on the part of the pupil. If a regular movement of the as in clockwork. There is an instrument called a “metronome" muscles of the arm is easier to him than a regular movement of measure-ruler, the pendulum of which can be lengthened or of the muscles of the larynx, then let him use the first as a shortened according to a graduated scale, so as to swing any guide to the second—not otherwise. It is, however, frequently required number of times in a minute. Let each swing of the necessary, when many sing together, that the leader of the metronome correspond with an aliquot or “pulse of the

band should beat time, either with a wand, or by the movement measure, or in the quick senary measure, with the loud and of his own hands. The senary measure may be beaten in the medium accents. Then, if the number at which the weight is

same way as the binary.
set, on the graduated scale of the metronome, be given in the
signature or title of the tune, it will indicate to others the rate
at which that tune should be sung. Thus, “M. 66," placed at
the head of a tune, signifies that, while this tune is sung, the
metronome should swing at the rate of sixty-six swings a
minute; and that each aliquot of the measure should keep pace
with a swing of the metronome. The larger metronome, which
is kept in motion by clockwork and "tick3 ” to every accent of
the measure, costs thirty shillings and upward—that which
strikes a bell on the recurrence of each stronger accent being
much more expensive. The smaller metronomes, which simply
oscillate without noise, are sold at four shillings and upward,
and there are even cheaper instruments than these which
are sold at sixpence or eightpence. Each teacher, however,
and scholar too may make his string pendulum, which will
answer the end very fairly. For this purpose fasten a penny or

Down (!) Up (:) Down (!) Right (:) | Down (!) Left (:) Right (:)
Up (:)

Up (:)
some such weight at the end of a piece of string. Then, at four
inches and five-eighths from the weight, tie a double knot.
Hold the string by this knot, and the weight will swing at the

“To enable a number of performers," says Dr. Bryce, " to rate of 160 swings a minute, and make your pendulum corre. keep time, it is usual for a leader to guide them by a precon

This is called beating time. spond with M. 160. At 61 inches tie a 'single knot, and that certed movement of his hand. length of pendulum will correspond with M. 138. The double

. . Though it is most essential that every learner should be kmots may mark the distances most used, and the single knots made to keep time—that is, follow his leader—it is by no means those used occasionally between them. The rest of the pen necessary that he should at first be able to beat time, that is, dalum may be constructed to the following table-S. standing when singing alone. This is true. But if his mental conception

act as leader. It may be said that he requires to keep time or single, and D. for double knot. 1st D. at 4 inches from weight

of time cannot guide him to a correct and regular movement of

M, 160. 1st S. at 6} in.

M, 138.

the muscles of the larynx, neither will it guide him to a correct 2nd D, at 9 in.

On the con. M. 112,

and regular movement of the muscles of the arm. 2nd S. at 1 foot 1 in.

M. 96.

trary, by making him first to regulate the motion of the arm by 3rd D, at 1 foot 7 in.

his mental feeling of time, and then to regulate the motions of 3rd S, at 2 feet 6% in.

= M. 66.

his organ of sound by that of his arm, we give him two things 4th D. at 3 feet 10, in.

M. 50.

to do instead of one, and therefore double the chance of going A silk tape with the metronome figures marked at the proper wrong by the very measures we take to keep him right. There distances would be preferable to the string. A lath of wood can, therefore, be no greater practical blunder in teaching than might be gradnated in a similar manner, with holes punctured the premature attempt to teach the beating of time to those who for the points of suspension, but it would require different dis- are yet struggling with the difficulties of the scale ; and, instead tances according to its own weight.

of being any assistance to them in keeping time, it is the most The “string pendulum” which is here recommended for its effective hindrance." Dr. Burney, in his “Dissertation on the convenience of measurement by a common carpenter's rule, is Music of the Ancients," prefixed to his “. General History of slightly inaccurate, though quite near enough to the truth for Music," seems to have proved satisfactorily that one of the all practical purposes. Some such instrument should be used greatest improvements of modern music is, that we have learned by every pupil

. Though it need not be always used for the to keep time with less external Aourishing and hammering than excuines, it could be constantiy referred to as a standard, and was necessary in ruder ages, whose music was little more than strict attention should be given to it in the earlier lessons. an exaggerated way of marking the feet of the poetry to which When you have learnt to sing the notes of a tune correctly, then it was sung. He concludes his account of the operations of the eet your metronome swinging, and practise singing the tune at ancient Coryphæus, or leader of a choir, in the following words : the proper rate, or “ in the right time.” After considerable " It was not only with the feet that the ancients beat the practice has taught you to keep the accents at regular and time, but with all the fingers of the right hand upon the hollow equal distances, you will only need your pendulum to give you a of the left; and he who marked the time or rhythm in this correct idea of the “rate of movement,” before you commence manner was called “Manu-ductor. For this purpose they used

a tupe. An accomplished solo singer, or instru. oyster-shells and the shells of other fish, as well as the bones of mentalist, need not confine himself to strict clock-time, but animals, in beating time, as we do castanets, tabors, etc. Both should vary the rate of movement according to the emotional Hesychius and the Scholiast of Aristophanes furnish passages


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to confirm this assertion. What a noisy and barbarous music; Or thus :all rhythm and no sound ! . . It would afford us no very

| d :-.f | m :d Id : f l m :d. favourable idea of the abilities of modern musicians if they required so much parade and noise in keeping together. The NOTATION OF SLURS, REPEATS, AND EXPRESSION. more time is beaten,' says M. Rousseau, the less it is kept.' a. When two or more notes are sung to the same syllable, Rousseau's opinion is, perhaps, too strongly expressed; but we they are said to be slurred. The slur is indicated by a stroke think no person of good taste can doubt that it is, in the main, beneath the notes. well founded. The practice of making a whole class beat time b. In some tunes it is required to repeat certain parts of the while they sing, is a return to barbarism. The proper mode of strain. The manner in which this is done is indicated by the teaching this part of practical music would be to make the following signs :members of the class act as leaders in turn; or, if the class be large, one or two at once might be taken out, placed in front of

D. C. abbreviated from the Italian Da Capo, means "Rea

turn to the beginning." the others, and employed to beat the time-first with the assist

D. 8. abbreviated from Dal Segno, means " Return, and sing ance of the teacher, and afterwards by themselves. See Dr. from the sign." Bryce's " Rational Introduction to Music.”

8. is used for the sign, and The peculiarities of the old notation on the staff of five lines

F. abbreviated from Fine, shows where such repetitions end. will be explained as we come to them, and at the proper period of his course our pupil will be more systematically introduced

R. placed over a note shows that a repetition of words com

mences there. to them. He is already acquainted with most of the points relating to our “interpreting notation.” They are, however,

c. Greater "expression” is sometimes given to music by repeated below for the sake of distinctness. Observe that the regulating the degree of force with which certain parts of the notation of "slurs, repeats, and expression,” applies alike to strain are to be delivered. This is done by means of the followboth notations.

ing signs placed over the notes :NOTATION OF THE RELATIVE LENGTH OF NOTES.-As the

f. abbreviated from forte, signifies loud. accents recur at equal intervals of time throughout a tune, p. from piano, signifies soft. marking aliquot parts of the measure, the relative length of

ff. very loud. notes can be clearly indicated by showing what proportion of

pp. very soft. the measure each note occupies. This is done by first placing

d. Sometimes it is needful to indicate the manner in which the accent marks at equal distances along the page, thus

that force is to be thrown in. For this purpose the following | 1 :

marks are used :Or thus ::|: :|: :,:

> denotes a swell, the voice commencing softly, becoming Or thus:

louder, and then closing softly. 1:

< denotes increasing force.

> denotes diminishing force. And then observing the following rules

I or over a note shows that it should be sung abruptly a. A note placed alone immediately after an accent mark is

and with accent. supposed to occupy the time from that accent to the next. Thus:

e. The same piece of music often requires to be sung with Id :d :d | d :d :d | d

different expression, according to the different words with which Or thus :

it may be used. In that case the marks of expression should I d :d

be placed on the words. It is proposed that b. A stroke indicates the continuance of the previous note

CAPITAL LETTERS, in printing, or double lines under the through another aliquot (or pulse), thus :

word in writing, should distinguish words to be sung Id :d | d :

louder than others; that Or thus :

Italic letters, in printing, or a single line under the word in :d | d :d d | d

:d i a

writing, should indicate softness; that c. A dot divides an aliquot into equal parts, and shows that

The acute accent' should denote special abruptness and the note before it fills half the time from one accent to the neri,

decision of voice; that leaving only half an aliquot to the note or notes which follow,

A stroke above the words, in printing, a succession of thus :

little strokes over or a stroke through the word in I d : d.d |

writing, should show a heary movement; the accents :d | :d.d i Or:

being dragged along, and the lighter ones little distin. I a

guished from the stronger; and that
: m.r. 1 d.
:m.r / d - | 1, :d

The grave accent 'placed on the words which fall to the :m | mir : d.t, I d

strong accent of the music, should indicato a spirited d. The dot after a mark of continuance shows that the pre- movement, with marked attention to accent. vious note is to be continued through half that aliquot, thus :

A slower or quicker movement may be expressed by the words | d.r : m.f | m:did :-.f | m

slowly or quickly. The “ heavy movement” mentioned above e. A comma signifies that the note before it fills a quarter of necessarily tends to slacken, as the “spirited movement” does the time from one accent to the next. The last note in an to quicken the pace of the singer. aliquot does not require a mark after it, as the proportion left An analysis of the markings used in the Tonic Sol-fa System to it is sufficiently evident. Thus:

has elicited the following principles, which may be of use to the 1 d : d.d,d a :d

student :-Passages should be marked to be sung softly in which

(1) any peculiarly solemn or awe-inspiring thought is expressed ; 1 d t, .d,r, d :d

(2) a change from praise to reflection, or (3) from reflection to $. The dot and comma together show that the noto before prayer.

Passages should be marked to be sung loudly which them fills three-quarters of the time from one accent to the next, express (1) joyful praise, (2) strong desire, (3) ardent gratitude, thus :

(4) high resolve, or (5) some inspiring thonght. For a much I d.,I : m.,f | m., I :d

fuller development of this subject of expression (verbal and 9. This mark , indicates that the note before it fills one-third musical) see the “Standard Course” of Tonic “Sol-fa Lessons," of the time from one accent to the next, thus :

and the “ Tonic Sol-fa Reporter," Vol. VIII.

THE STANDARD SCALE.-A certain note “about midway dis:1,8f | m:r I a

between the highest and the lowest that can be perceived by k. An aliquot or any part of an aliquot left unfilled indicates the ear" is fixed on by musicians as the standard of PITCH, and & pause of the voice, thus :

the notes arranged upon it, according to the order of the Id: '1:1 m :

:t, Id:

:r 1 m:

common mode or scale already described, are called the hark! hark! bark! while infant voices sing. standard scale. This note is called c. The second note of the


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