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scue is called D, the third E, the fourth F, the fifth e, the nasals, and liquids. Analogous English sounds have constituted sixth A, the seventh B, and the replicate or octave c again. the agents of the foregoing illustrations of French sounds. A note something less than half a tone higher than any one Generally, this has had reference to separate words only. But of these notes is said to be that note sharpened, as “Glet it be remembered that, to give the correct sound of a French

sharp." A note something less than half word as it stanus alone, is a very different thing from giving that

a tone lower than any one of these notes samo French word its correct sound when it is used with other C is said to be that note flattened, as “B flat.” words in the formation of a sentence in reading, or a phrase in

M. Fetis (a well-known French writer) truly conversation.

observes that “a sound cannot be altered or In this respect, the French language is like our own, as used A

subotituted for another without ceasing to in common conversation. The system of word-connections, in
exist. Don (or c) sharp is no longer DOH sentences and phrases in both languages, is nearly identical.
(or c). It is a mere orror so to call it, and it For the purpose of illustration we will begin by giving specimens
is one of those errors which have tended to of word.connections in the English language, viz. :-
render music obscure." But so it is called, My hat was on the table, is pronounced as if printed my hat
and we must be content with this warning Woz-zon the table.
against the dangers of obscurity. The parti. I jumped upon the ground, is pronounced as if printed I
cular pitch assigned to this note c, and conse- jumpt-tup-pon the ground.
quently to the other notes of its scale, is called Not at all, is pronounced as if printed not-tat-tall.
“ concert pitch.” The moderns generally fix I assert a dogma, another denies it, is pronounced as if
the sound of c as that which would be pro- printed I assert-ta dogma, another deniez-zit, etc.
duced by 256 vibrations of a sonorous body. These and similar word-connections occur in almost every

The accepted concert pitch" has been gra- sentence and phrase in the Erglish language, where the condnally rising even beyond this standard within the last few tinuity of sound is not broken by punctuation marks, without years, so that Handel's music (unless we lower the key) is sung our being sensible of it. It is unavoidable. We are, and have Dearly a tone higher than he meant it to be.

been, so constantly used to it, that we notice it only when The pitch of the key-note may be given in the heading or attention is called to it. It will be observed that the foregoing title of a tune, thus "key A,” “key G,” “key B flat," etc. In word-connections in the English language occur when a word * pitching a tune" it is usual to take the upper cl of the ending with a consonant is immediately followed by another standard scale from the tuning-fork or the pitch-pipe to descend word commencing with a vowel. And the same exists when, in to the pitch-note required, and then give its sound to the syllable common conversation, the word following the one with a final DOH. Dor, thus fixed, establishes the relative position of all consonant begins with a silent h, viz. :the other notes of a tune. Suppose the “pitch-note” required I was out about an hour, is pronounced as if printed I was. is D. Then you would take c from the tuning-fork, and run zout-tabout-tan-nour, etc. down till you come to D, which you would “gwell out" a little, Word-connections in the French language also ocour under and then sing the same sound to Doh, taking the “chord" circumstances exactly similar ; i.e., when a word ending with a afterwards. Thus:

consonant imljediately precedes another word comiencing with 10:-|B: AG:FE:D

a vowel or silent h. | DOH :

This feature, therefore, of the pronunciation of French, both DOH : ME | sou :

in ordinary reading and common conversation, will present no If you find any difficulty in singing your A B C backwards, great difficulty to the student. The following rules, thoroughly remember that after sounding the c you have only to spell the understood and committed to memory, will place the student words Bag and FED. To pitch B flat, sing the cl to the syllable beyond doubt and hesitation concerning these word-connections, BOH, and striking FAH, which will be B flat, call it doh. The and other matters pertaining to the correct, intelligible use of upper ch is used in pitching because the higher sounds are found the French language, both in reading and conversation. to be more distinctly and correctly appreciablo by the ear. I.-Pay no attention whatever to the apostrophe. Tuning-forks can now be obtained for a shilling or eighteen- II.-Pronounce the pronoun elle like the English l. pence. The wholesale price is ten shillings 'a dozen. We men- III.-The final letters ent of verbs, with which the pronouns tion this to stimulate our friends to the purchase of these useful ils and elles do or can agree, are always silent. instruments. With a small-sized one in his pocket the good IV.-In reading poetry, ia, ie, ie, io, ion, ier, and sometimes sol-faist is ready to take up a tune-book, and make out a tune ien, are pronounced as two syllables. without the need of any other instrument. After a time he will V.-The letters es final are pronounced like the letters ay in become, with a little practice to that end, quite independent the English word day, except when s forms the plural of words Even of the tuning-fork. He will soon learn to recall the pitch ending in e, in which latter case es are not pronounced. 20to c at will. Those who are studying the old notation will VI.—Pronounce cur, a, a, like e mute or unaccented. like to see the standard scale represented on the staff. It VII.- Pronounce ch and ech, generally, like the letters sh in stands thus :

the English word fish, except the letters ch in the word yacht.

VIII.--The letters st final, in the words Christ and antichrist, are sounded, but they are silent in Jésus Christ.

IX.--All final consonants after po are silent, except in the

words Mars and ours, a bear. CP B A G F E D

X.-In the word Messieurs, the final letters rs are only sounded But a man's voice, taking the c from the tuning fork, would when preceding a word beginning with a vowel. sing the scale an octave lower, thus :

XI.- Whenever a word ending with a consonant immediately precedes a word beginning with a vowel or silent h, the sound of the final consonant of the former word is carried to the first

syllable of the latter, or to the word itself, if it be a monosyl. CB, A,

lable, just as if the latter word commenced with that consonant. G F


This is most particularly the case if the two words are intimately

connected in sense. LESSONS IN FRENCH.--XVIII.

The above rule owes its existence entirely to euphony, to subSECTION 1.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (concluded).

serve which almost everything else is sacrificed in the French

language. Still the student must not observe it too rigidly, GENCRAL RULES FOR PRONOUNCING AND READING

except in poetry. Neither in prose nor conversation does this FRENCH.

rule hold good in the following cases, viz. :82. Tule preceding portions of this section on French pronunciation 1. When a harsh sound would be the consequence. have been devoted exclusively to the illustration of every known 2. Whenever any punctuation mark is placed between the two French sound, whether occurring singly, or the result of com- words in question. binations of vowels, consonants, compound vowels, diphthongs, XII.—The letier t, in the words et (a conjunction meaning

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as sees.

and) and cent (meaning a hundred) is never carried to the 6. Connaître means to be acquainted with ; savoir, i havet, is following word in pronunciation.

said only of things. - XIII. -The letter a in the word Août, the month August (pro- Connaissez-vous ce Français, cet Do you know that Frenciuman, that nounced oo, and not al-00), is not sounded.

Anglais, cet Allemand, et cet Englishman, tiat Ceinät, und XIV.-In the compound word est-il, and a few others, the t is Espagnol ?

that Spaniari? carried to the second syllable in pronunciation.

Savez-vous le français, l'anglais, Do you kinor French, English, Cer. XV.-Whenever a word ending with a silent e is immediately l'aliemand et l'espazuol ?

man, and Spanisl? followed by another word beginning with a vowel or h mute,

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. the consonant preceding the silent e of the first word is carried to the next word in pronunciation; as :

Le Capitaine G. sait-il le français ? Does Captain G. know French ? La France entière, as if printed la Fran-centière, and pro

Il ne le sait pas, mais il l'apprend. He does not know it, but he is aimn.

ing it. nounced la franh-sach-tea.

Connaissez-vous le Docteur L. ? Do


Inow Dr. L. ? Honnête homme, as if printed honne-tomme, and pronounced Je ne le connais pas, mais je sais I am not acquainted with him, but 64-Tay-tom.

où il demeure.

I know where he lives. XVI.— With the words ah, eh, oh, ouest (one of the points of Ce monsieur est-il peintre ? Is that gentleman a painter ? the compass), ouf, oui, onze, onzième, phò, unième, yacht, yatogan, Non, il est architecte.

No, he is an architect. yole, and yucca, no final consonant of a preceding word is con- Ce monsieur est un architecte dis. That gentleman is a distinguished nected in pronunciation. Neither is any elision of the article


architect. made before any of these words.

Ce Français parle grec et arabe. That Frenchman speaks Greek and

Arabic. XVII.-In the phrase vers les une heure, the s final of the second word, les, is not carried to the following word, une, in

Il parle le grec, l'arabe et l'italien. He speaks the Greek, Arabic, and

Italian languages. pronunciation.

Avez-vous vu Charles Dix, frère de Have you seen Charles the Tenth, XVIII.--The word cinq is pronounced sanh whenever it comes Louis Dix-huit?

brother of Louis the Eighteenth? before a consonant or an aspirated h. But before a vowel or h

VOCABULARY. mate it is pronounced sanhk.

XIX.—The letters ue have the sound of u, when they are not Allemand, •e, German. Grec, -que, Greek. | Quatorze, fourteen. silent, after g and q.

Ancien, -ne, ancient. Hongrois, -e, Hunga. Quatre, four.

rian. XX.-The word dix, ten, before a consonant, is pronounced

Anglais, -e, English.

Russe, Russian.

Suédois, -e, Swedish, dee; before a vowel or h mute, deez; and at the end of a clause, Bibliothèque, f., book- Langue, t., language.

case, library.
Moderne, modern.

Suede. as deess.

Chinois, -e, Chinese. Polonais, -e, Polish, Tapissier, m.,

uphol. XXI.-The word six, six, before a consonant, is pronounced Danois, -e, Danish,Dane. Polo.

sterer. bee; before a vowel or h mute, seez; and the end a clause,

EXERCISE 53. XXII. - The word huit, eight, before a consonant, is pro- 1. Connaissez-vous ce monsieur ? 2. Oui, Madame, je le nounced vee, or nearly wee; before a vowel or h mute, as ueet, connais fort bien. 3. Savez-vous de quel pays il est ? 4. !! or nearly weet.

est hongrois. 5. Parle-t-il allemand ? 6. Il parle allemand, XXIII.—The letters er final are usually pronounced like the polonais, russe, suédois et danois. 7. N'est-il pas médecin ? letters ay in the English word day. The following words, how. 8. Non, Monsieur, avant la révolution il était capitaine. 9. ever, constitute an exception to the above rule. In them the Avez-vous envie d'apprendre le russe ? 10. J'ai envie d'apletters er are pronounced like air in English.

prendre le russe et le grec moderne. 11. Conħaissez-vous les Alger Cher Fier Hier Magister Sadder messieurs qui parlent à votre sæur? 12. Je ne les connais pas. Amer Cuiller Frater Hiver Mer Stathouder 13. Savez-vous où ils demeurent? 14. Ils demeurent chez le Belvéder Enfer Gaster Jupiter Niger


tapissier de votre frère. 15. N'avez-vous pas l'histoire de Louis Cancer Fer Gessner Lucifer Pater Ver.

Quatorze dans votre bibliothèque ? 16. Je n'ai ni celle de XXIV.—Divide each word naturally into syllables, as you Louis Quatorze, ni celle de Henri Quatre. 17. Avez-vous tort would in the English language.

d'apprendre le chinois ? 18. Je n'ai pas tort d'apprendre le

chinois. SECTION XXIX.-USE OF THE ARTICLE (continued).

19. Vos compagnons apprennent-ils les langues an.

ciennes ? 20. Ils savent plusieurs langues anciennes et modernes. 1. Adjectives of nationality will, according to Rule 4 of the 21. Parlez-vous anglais + 22. Je sais l'anglais et je le parle. last lesson, be preceded by the article.

23. Connaissez-vous l'Anglais que nous voyons ? 24. Je ne le I apprend le français, l'anglais, He learns French, English, German, connais pas. 25. Il ne me connait pas et je ne le connais pas. l'allemand et l'italien, and Italian,

EXERCISE 54. 2. After the verb parler, the article may be omitted before an adjective of nationality, taken substantively.

1. Does our physician know French ? 2. He knows French, Notre frère parle espagnol et por. Your brother speaks Spanish and English, and German. 3. Does he know the French physician ? tugais,


4. He knows him very well. 5. Are you acquainted with that 3. The article is not used in French before the number which

? 6. I am not acquainted with her. 7. Is she a German follows the name of a sovereign. This number (unless it be

or a Swede? 8. She is neither a German nor a Swede, she is a first and second), must be the cardinal, and not the ordinal Russian. 9. Do you intend to speak to her ? 10. I intend to [$ 26 (3)].

speak to her in (en) English. 11. Does she know English ? Vous avez l'histoire de Henri You have the history of Henry the 12. She knows several languages; she speaks English, Danish, Quatre,


Swedish, and Hungarian. 13. Is your brother a colonel ? 14. 4. A noun placed in apposition with a noun or pronoun is not No, Sir, he is a captain. 15. Is your upholsterer a Dane? 16. in French preceded by un, une, a or an, unless it be qualified by He is not a Dane, he is a Swede. 17. Are you a Frenchman? an adjective or determined by the following part of the sentence.

18. No, Sir, I am a Hungarian. 19. Do you know Chinese ? Votre ami est médecin,

20. I know Chinese, Russian, and modern Greek. 21. Are you Your friend is a physician. Notre frère est avocat, Our brother is a barrister.

wrong to learn languages ? 22. I am not wrong to learn lanVotre ami est un bon médecin, Your friend is a good physician.

guages. 23. Do you know the Englishman who lives at your Notre frère est un avocat célèbre, Our brother is a celebrated advocate.

brother's ? 24. I am acquainted with himn. 25. I am not 5. PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF THE IRREGULAR VERES. acquainted with him. 26. Do you like books ? 27. I am fond

of books. 28. Have you a desire to learn Russian ? 29. I APPRENDRE, to learn. CONNAÎTRE, to known. SAVOIR, to know.

have no desire to learn Russian. 30. Have yor no time? 31. J'apprends, I learn, do Je counnis, I know, or Je sais, I know, or do

I have but little time. 32. What do you learn ?

33. We learn learn, or an learning. do knou.

Tu apprends.
Tu connais.

Latin, Greek, French, and German.
Tu sais.

34. Do you not learn
I apprend.
Il connait.
Il sait.

Spanish? 35. We do not learn it. 36. Have you fine flowers Nous apprenons. Nous connaissons Nous savons.

in your garden? 37. We have very fine flowers; we are fond Vous apprenez, Vous connaissez. Vous savez

of flowers. 38. Do you give them to hiin? 39. I give them to Ils apprennent. | Ils connaissent. Ils savento


40. Give us some. 41. Do not give us any.

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XVIII. the looped form of termination is useful when the next letter

happens to be e, as by making the finishing-turn larger, we are In the copy-slips that are given on this page, a new elementary the better able to carry it into the fine up-stroke commencing at form is brought under the reader's notice the first of the four cc, which forms the loop of this letter. In Copy-slip No. 61, as elementary strokes entering into the composition of the seven our readers will perceive, the stroke that we have been describ. letters of the writing alphabet that yet remain to be considered. ing is given with the top-and-bottom turn, to which elementary This strcke, which is shown separately in Copy-slips Nos. 61 stroke it is added in order to form the letter v, the simplest of and 63, enters into the formation of v, w, and b. When exhi. the three letters into whose composition it enters. Copy-slip bited by itself, it may be described as a fine bottom-tumn or No. 63, the bottom-turn is given, to which, twice repeated, this hooked-stroke, consisting of a hair-line commenced at the line i new elementary form is added to form the letter w, while with

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cc, and brought downwards, like the lower half of the ordinary | the modification of the bottom-turn, known as the letter 1, which bottom-turn, as far as the line bb, where it is turned to the right stands third in order in Copy-slip No. 63, it forms the letter b. and carried upwards, with a slight inclination to the left after The three letters V, W, and b, are given separately in Copy. it has crossed the line cc, until it reaches the line a a. The slips Nos. 62, 64, and 65. It will be noticed that although in pen is then bronght down the line again to a point about mid. exhibiting the stroke by itself it has been commenced at the way between a a and cc, to thicken it, and then turned abruptly line cc, and carried downwards and then upwards with a bottomto the right, making a small curved stroke, which completes the turn, practically it is nothing more than the extension of the elementary form. The short thickened stroke which is made fine up-stroke of the bottom-turn as far as the line a a, where by the downward course of the pen along the hair-line already it is finished in the manner already described. It should be carried up to the line a a, must have its broadest part at this remarked that the letter w is frequently made by adding this line, and taper gradually downwards until the point is reached termination to the fine up-stroke of the bottom-turn of the letter at which the curved line completing the stroke is turned to the n. The form, however, that we would recommend our readers right. Sometimes this stroke is finished with a small loop at the to adopt is given in Copy-slips Nos. 64 and 66, whero w is top resembling the loop of the letter e. The method, however, formed by the addition of this termination to the fine up-stroke: adopted in our copy-slips is neater and more compact, although of the second octtou-turn of the letter u.


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fled before the fight was done, and galloped off in hope of ulti. mately reaching the Hampshire coast, but after skulking about

for several days in various disguises, they were captured, and THERE are some historical events of which we gladly cherish Monmouth, who had been already condemned by Act of Parliathe memory, bocause of the lustre they spread around our ment, was brought to London and executed. national character, or because of the intrinsic worth of the Perhaps it cannot be said, on a calm review of the facts, that events themselves. Such are the great victories of the nation, the Duke of Monmouth received anything but what he deserved. abroad and at home, the enforcers of our foreign and colonial He was “the head and front of the offending,” and in his person policy against external foes, the winners of steps onward in the it might be said that the law fairly claimed its due. Not much path of constitutional freedom, in opposition to the tactics of could have been said on the score of strict justice if the other absolutists and tyrants. Other events there are over which we leaders in the rebellion had shared his fate, but the proceedings would gladly draw a veil, if it were permitted us to do so, events of Judge Jeffreys on the circuit, well called the "Bloody 80 sad and disgraceful, not only to our national character, but Assize," were of such a kind as to make one doubt whether to humanity itself, that we would fain not look at them. But even the guilty were not unwarrantably condemned. Imme. we cannot afford to lose sight of them, much as the contem- diately after the battle of Sedgemoor thirteen of the prisoners plation may disgust us; we are bound in our own interests, and were hanged without trial, by order of Colonel Kirk, 2 brutal in the interests of those who are to come after us, not to "let commander of brutal soldiers, who were called by the satirical oblivion damn" the record in which these ugly histories are nickname of “Kirk's Lambs." Further military executions written. There is, seemingly, a natural tendency in politics to would, no doubt, have taken place; but the king decided to ropeat themselves, and in principles to re-assert themselves: and have the rebels tried according to the law of the land, a

according to this rule, we may look for a re-appearance of decision which would have been recorded to his advantage, had past glories, so we must look also for a fresli advent of past he not chosen the man he did choose to put the law in motion. evils. They may not come in the same shapo-indeed, the The prisons in the western counties, except Cornwall, which chancos are strongly against their doing so—but come they had remained loyal, were crowded with prisoners. On account will, and it behoves us to watch very diligently against the evils of the disturbed state of the country there had not been any lest they take us by surprise, and furnish for posterity a chapter summer assize on the western circuit, so that the ordinary of horrors, a counterpart of those old chapters which we are prisoners remained for trial, but the people who crowded the bound freshly to remember. To use the emphatic language of gaols to overflowing were the captives taken at and after SedgeLord Erskine, with reference to some irregular proceedings in moor. For the trial of these a special commission was issued, the law courts, presided over by the subject of this sketch with Jeffreys, Lord Chief Justice of England, at its head. A (Judge Jeffreys), which were taken off the file and burnt, “to second commission was given to Jeffreys alone, appointing him the intent that the same might no longer be visible to after temporarily commander-in-chief of the troops in the west, with ages :"-"It was a sin against posterity; it was a treason the rank of lieutenant-general. against society; for, instead of being burnt, they should have Now Jeffreys was a man who had risen at the bar by brate beon directed to be blazoned in large letters upon the walls of force exhibited through his mind. Was there any dirty, disgustour courts of justice, that, like the characters deciphered by the ing case to be taken in hand, any utter scoundrel to be defended, prophet of God to the Eastern tyrant, they might enlarge and any honest man to be hunted down, Jeffreys was the counsel blacken in your sight to terrify you from acts of injustice.” employed. His knowledge of law was small, but the amount of

It is a sketch of one of those subjects which, for the above his brazen hardihood was enormous, and by dint of this quesreason, should never be forgotten, that it is proposed now to tionable quality he acquired a large practice of the baser sort. bring under the notice of our readers.

When the Crown, during the life of Charles II., wanted such The Duke of Monmouth, the illegitimate son of Charles II. talents for the purpose of prosecuting its enemies to death, and Lucy Waters, having been engaged in many intrigues to Jeffreys came forthwith to the front. He was rapidly promoted procure his own elevation to the throne instead of the Duke of to the highest official dignity at the bar, and when Lord William York (James II.), had got into trouble during his father's life. Russell and Colonel Algernon Sydney were to be tried for comtim but when Charles died in 1685, and his brother, James II., plicity in the Rye House Plot-a plot to waylay and assassinate succeeded him, the Duke of Monmouth renewed more energeti- the king and Duke of York on their return from Newmarketcally his intrigues, and succeeded in fastening to his cause a with which neither of the accused had any real connection, it very considerable following. There were said to exist proofs of was recognised as a necessity that Jeffreys should be promoted Charles II. having been married to Lucy Waters, and though to the office of their judge. The selection was thoroughly justithey did not actually exist, many believed they did, and on that fied by the result. In defiance of the rules of evidence, even ground alone, apart from their dislike to James, regarded him as such as they were in those days, with brutal browbeating and their lawful king. Finding his party, as he fancied, sufficiently cross-examining of witnesses from the bench, the prisoners all strong, he determined, in the spring of 1685, a few weeks after the while being undefended by counsel, Jeffreys, the judge, the king's accession, to try his hand at an invasion. With a helped the Crown lawyers to procure a verdict of guilty; and slender force he landed on the 11th of June, at Lyme, in Dorset- having succeeded, he had the indecency to mock the prisoners shire, where many of the country people joined him. Shortly after having sentenced them to death. afterwards he proclaimed himself king, denonnced James as a The public of that day, not over-squeamish, were scandalised ugurper, and all his adherents as traitors. In a lengthy decla- at his proceedings, and many about the court made no secret of ration, Monmouth asserted the reasons why James ought to be their disgust for him; but the man was necessary to such a deposed, and stated the measures which he intended to introduce government as then existed, and the king distinguished him if the people would put him in possession of the throne.

with favour. When James II. succeeded his brother, the chief Four days after landing ho left Lyme at the head of over justice found favour in the sight of the new king, to whom he 3,000 men, raw levies for the most part, badly officered, and was as necessary as he had been to Charles. When Monmouth's without the countenance or help of any of the country gentlemen. rebellion had filled the West-country gaols with prisoners, there At Taunton, where the Duke was received with open arms, some was no fitter man than Jeffreys to clear them in the only way addition was made to the number, but hardly to the quality of the Crown meant them to be cleared. his army. At Bridport, where a detachment of his men first With an escort of soldiers Jeffreys opened his commission at came in contact with the royal forces, he experienced a check, Winchester, when the only trial connected with Monmouth's and nowhere did he gain anything by force of arms. Wells, rebellion was that of Alice, Lady Lisle, the widow of one of the Bridgewater, and Exeter received him; but Bath and Bristol judges of Charles I. This lady had given shelter to two refugees shut their gates on him, and refused him supplies. At Sedge from the rebel army after the battle of Sedgemoor, and had denied moor, about five miles to the south-east of Bridgewater, in them, when Colonel Penruddock, one of the king's officers, came Somersetshire, he was compelled to fight on the 6th of July, by to search her house. The men were found concealed on the the king's general, Lord Feversham; and after a combat of some premises (the event furnishes a subject for one of the beautiful hours' duration, in which the royal troops lost about 300 men, frescoes on the walls of the entrance to the House of Commons, nnd the rebels 800, besides three times that number of prisoners, she was arrested for having harboured known traitors, and was he was completely defcated. The duke, with two companions, indicted as a participator in their guilt. Her case was, that she

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did not know the men had been concerned in the rebellion; that sickening iteration, and then Jeffreys went on to Bristol, abe understood one of them, a minister, was merely persecuted where, however, he had but three victims. Two men of the for non-conformity; and she made this capital point herself — same family having been convicted in Somersetshire, one of for no legal assistance was in those days allowed to prisoners on them was condemned to death, and the other procured a pardon; trial for treason that it was unreasonable to try her for com- but before his release, the other man escaping, Jeffreys orderea plicity in treason, when the person implicated as the traitor had execution to be done on the pardoned one, because “his family not been proved one, seeing that he had not been tried at all, owed a life!” and that "peradventure he might afterwards be acquitted as A large sum of money was made by the judge in the sale of innocent after she had been condemned for harbouring him.” pardons, notwithstanding the quantity of blood actually shed. This very reasonable objection was overruled by the judge, who As much as £15,000 was given in one case, £3,000 was refused himself examined adversely to the prisoner the witnesses for the in another, and by the time the circuit was over, Lord Jeffreys prosecution, and then summed up in violent language against found himself rich enough to support the dignity of lord-chanher. Some accounts, written at the time, report that the jury cellor, a post which was the reward of his zealous services in three times refused to find a verdict, and that it was only in the west. consequence of the threats of the judge that they length Neither king nor judge profited in the end. The former lost found her guilty. It is but right to say that the account given his throne, which has been ever since barred against the return in the State Trials says nothing about this, though it gives of any of his dynasty, and the spirits disembodied on the Bloody enough to show the disgraceful bias of the judge against the Assize sat heavily on the soul of the judge, and pressed it down prisoner, and the unjudicial part, and that a violent one, which to death. As soon as it was found that King James had filed he played. He expressed the greatest surprise that the jury on the approach of the Prince of Orange, in 1688, the people should have hesitated so long about their verdict, adding, "If I demanded with loud voices that his ill advisers should not had beon among you, and she had been my own mother, I should escape. The chief one for whose punishment they thirsted have found her guilty.” He then passed sentence, the sentence was Jeffreys, and search was made high and low for him. of the law be it observed, not of the judge, “That you be con- Almost he escaped. Steps to ensure his departure from Eng. veyed hence to the place from whence you came, and from thence land had been "secretly taken, and, disguised as a seaman, his you are to be drawn on a hurdle to the place of execution, where eyebrows shaven off, the better to conceal his features, he had your body is to be burnt alive till you be dead. And the Lord arrived on board the collier which was to take him to Hamburg, have mercy on your soul."

when he took it into his head to go on shore. At an alehouse This horrible sentence to death by fire was changed by the in Wapping he was recognised by one to whom he had, as judge, royal clemency-save the mark—to death by beheading, the behaved brutally; a mob surrounded the house, and would have utmost King James could be induced to grant to a woman. torn the fugitive to pieces, had not some soldiers rescued him When James himself was sent into exile, an Act of Parlia- and taken him to the Lord Mayor. By order of the temporary ment reversed the attainder of Lady Lisle, on the ground that Government he was sent to the Tower, where he died miserably, "the verdict was injuriously extorted by the menaces and before he could be brought to trial on a charge of high treason.” violence, and other illegal practices of George, Lord Jeffreys, In the West of England the man's memory is still preserved Baron of Wem, the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench.” as that of an incarnate fiend, the true representative of perfect

At Salisbury, the next town on the circuit, various punish- injustice, the fit sign of brutal cruelty and oppression. Proments, including flogging and imprisonment, were passed on rebel | bably some inventions to his disadvantage have been made by sympathisers who had wished "the cause" good speed; but there the fertile brains of angry foes, and possibly some traits of were not any actual rebels for trial till the judge came to Dor- goodness may have been forgotten amidst the universal execrachester, where the real campaign began. He charged the grand tion which has been his historical epitaph ; but there are few jury to the effect, that he would punish with the extreme rigour even now-a-days who think the epithet "bloody," which is of the law, not only principals, but all aiders and abettors, all usually prefixed to Jeffreys' name, too strong for the man who who had encouraged traitors, whether by word or deed, and all presided over the special commission after Monmouth's rebellion, who had helped any of them to escape. Several hundreds of and who, in his capacity of judge, "played such fantastic tricks " true bills” were found, when the meshes of the net wer before high Heaven, as made the angels weep." declared to be so ample, and Jeffreys, alarmed for his own convenience if so many prisoners were tried singly, announced SYNOPSIS OF THE LIFE AND REIGN OF JAMES II. that those who would plead guilty "should find him to be a James II. was the third son of Charles I. by his Queen merciful judge; but that those who put themselves on their trial, Henrietta Maria of France. He was the twenty-seventh sove

found guilty, would have very little time to live; and, there reign of England after the Norman Conquest, and the fourth of fore, that such as were conscious they had no defence, had better the Stuart dynasty. spare him the trouble of trying them.” To show that he was in Born at St. James's, Oct. 14, 1633 Test Act Suspended earnest, he ordered thirteen out of twenty-nine of those first Began to reign Feb. 6, 1685 The King goes to Mass. convicted to be hanged in thirty-six hours after sentence, and Rising in Scotland in favour The Universities compelled the remainder the next morning. To one man who objected to of the Duke of Monmouth 1685 to admit Papists

1687 the competency of a witness, he exclaimed, “Villain! rebel! Monmouth lands at Lyme, Trial of the Seven Bisbops, mothinks I see thee already with a halter about thy neck;" and

June 11, 1685

June 29, 1688 this poor man he ordered specially to be hanged first. Two, Battle of Sedgemoor, July 6, 1685 Birth of the "Old Proten.

Execution Monmouth,


June 10, 1688 gundred and ninety-two were condemned to death at this town,

July 15, 1685 Wiliam of Orange lands at and seventy-four of them were actually hanged; the others were

The "Bloody Assize"


Nov.5, 1688 sold as slaves, and sent to the plantations in the West Indies.

Revocation of the Edict of Abdication of James, Dec. 11, 1688 Cruel floggings took place, in addition to these severities, on Nantes, in France, Oct. 12, 1685 Died at St. Germains, Ang. 6, 1701 those who had taken smaller part in the rebellion; one poor SOVEREIGNS CONTEMPORARY WITH JAMES II. wretch was sentenced to be whipped through every market town

Denmark, King of. Portugal, King of. Turkey, Sultans of. in the county for seven years, that is to say, once a fortnight for

Christian V.. 1670

Peter II. (previa soven years.

Mahomet IV. 1619

France, King of. ously Regent). 1683
At Exeter, the first man convicted was sent to instant execa.

Solyman III.
Louis XIV.

Rome, Pope of. tion. Thirty-seven more suffered death at the same place, and Germany, Emperor of.

Innocent XI. 1676 United Provinces of the 206 were condemned to whipping, slavery in the West Indies, Leopold I. 1658

Russia, Czans of. Netherlands, Stadt or imprisonment. At Taunton 500 prisoners awaited their trial, Poland, King of.


holders of kad Jeffreys observed, in his address to the grand jury, that "it John Sobieski 1674

Peter I. (the would not be his fault if he did not purify the place.”. One

[This monarch was

William Henry the

Grent) independent

(afterwards hundred and forty-three were ordered for execution, 284 were to

не king of Poland.


William be sent to the plantations, and, in order that the rebellious county defeated the Turks in


Spain, King of. of England) 1672 might be dnly warned for tho future, Jeffreys ordered some of many battles, and com

Charles II.

[This prince married the condemned men to be executed in the surrounding villages. pelled them to raize the Steden, King of. Mary, the daughter of At Wells, the scenes enacted at Taunton were repeated with siege of Vienna, in 1683. Charles VI, 1660 ) James II.)

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