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at the other side ; observe the tone, and consequently the our admiration is excited by the correctness and beauty of the amount of pressure required for the cast shadow.
form which the line alone determines : now this feeling must be There is a very useful little instrument for shading, called a carried on, when introducing the shadows and the infinite num. stump, it is made either of leather or paper, rolled up to about ber of minor tones, by preserving all that the line intended to the length and thickness of the finger, and pointed at each end. give, whilst our attention is engrossed upon the shadows. In When used, black chalk or lead is ground to a powder, the point Fig. 73 there are several points of importance which must not of the stump is dipped into it, and then rubbed over the part to be passed over : the pupil will notice that the wall to the left be shaded until an even tint is produced. We merely mention has the upper edges of each stone left untouched, because these the stump here and explain its use, but at present we will put edges, as they “round off” to the horizontal surface, meeting the it aside, and keep to the line method until the pupil has tho mortar, catch the light more forcibly than the faces of the stones roughly mastered it; afterwards we will draw his attention to which are in a perpendicular position. In old stone walls of the use of the stump, as capable of producing a ground for sha- ruins these effects are continually to be seen, and must not be dows to be lined over afterwards. The great art of shading a disregarded. The depth or intensity of shadows may not only drawing well is to make use of the shadows, half tints, and i be increased or diminished according to the pressure of the pencil
minor (or lighter) tones, as a means of distinguishing the form employed, but also by the distance the lines are drawn apartof the object, whether as to its general effect, or to the most closer together when depth is required, and wider when the minute and delicate details. We know that, in nature, objects shadows are to be lighter. The lines which produce the cast are not represented to us by lines drawn about their edges ; they shadow of the wall on the horizontal surface of the steps must be are distinguishable from each other only by light and shade and drawn towards the vanishing point of the steps, and the edge of colour: therefore, as it is necessary in the first instance to deter- the shadow is determined by the following rule :—Let A (Fig. 74) mine by an outline the boundary or form of the object, with all be the wall causing the shadow on the steps; let the dotted lines its various changes of surface, so we must as we proceed with a b c d e f, etc., represent the inclination of the sun's rays (at the picture, by adding light, and shade, and colour, gradually an angle with the horizon, but parallel with the picture plane). lose the drawn line in the work, so as to avoid harshness, and As the end of the wall rises perpendicularly from the end of the that appearance
which would strike us as if it had been cut out step at k, therefore the shadow of the upper edge a will be at b, with a penknife. Of course we cannot altogether do without and the shadow of a c will be bg, directed towards the vanishing the line of the form, nor is it desirable that we should; and since point of the wall; and because the sun's rays are parallel with our intention is to give as intelligible a representation of the the picture plane, and the wall at right angles with the picture object as we can, lines may be judiciously left without offending plane, therefore its shadow will be the same, and consequently
by any unseemly harshness of expression. A line only both the edge of the wall and its shadow have the same vanishdetermines the boundary of an object, that is, it gives
the form; ing point, which in this case is the ps (point of sight). Thus it and in simple outline only, where no light and shade are added, I will be seen that the edge of the shadow on the front of the
steps is according to the inclination of the sun's rays, whilst the EXAMPLES.—Audax vir, m., a bold man; audax femina, f., a edge on the top or tread of the steps is directed towards the bold woman ; audax animal, 11., a bold aniinal. ps; therefore the upper edge of the wall casts its shadow on the Cases,
Singular. line bg dh fim n. In Fig. 75 the pupil will find a useful n. audāx vir.
audax fémina. audax animal. example for practice in shading. In copying this he must G. audacis viri.
audacis feminæ. audacis animālis. dotermine the extent of the shadows and the depth of their D. audaci viro.
audaci feminæ. audaci animali, tints by the directions that have been given above.
Ac. audacem virum. audacem feminam. audax animal.
audax femina. audax animal.
audaci femina. audaci animali, LESSONS IN LATIN.-X.
N. audaces viri.
audaces feminæ. audacia animalia.
G. audacium virorum. audacium feminarum audacium animalium. ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION
audacibus viris. audacibus feminis. audacibus animalibus DECLINED TOGETHER.
Ac. audaces viros. audaces feminas. audacia animalia, ('uses, Singular.
anduces feminæ. audacia animalia.
Ab. audacibus viris. audacibus feminis, audacibus animalibus. N. acer odor, m., a pungent smell. dulcis mater, f., a sweet mother.
acris odoris, of a pungent smell. dulcis matris, of a sweet another. According to these paradigms or examples form the fol. D. acri odori, to a pungent smell. dulci matri, to a sweet mother. lowing :Ao. acrem odorem, a pungent smell. dulcem matrem, a sweet mother,
N. vir major, m., a great man. silva magna, f., a great wood. V. acris odor, 0 pungent smell ! dulcis mater, O sweet mother!
G. viri majoris, of a greator man, etc. silvæ magnæ, of a great rood, etc. Ab, acri odore, by a pungent smell. dulci matre, by a sweet mother.
N. mulier major, f., a greater woman. leæna ferox, f., a fierce lioness. Caucs, Plural.
G. mulieris majoris, of a greater leænæ ferocis, of a fierce lioness, N. acres odores, pungent smells. dulces matres, svest mothers.
N. audax agmen, n., a daring band, Julius Cæsar, m., Julius Cæsar.
Julii Cæsăris, etc.
N. Cicero disertus, m., eloquent Cicero.
G. Ciceronis diserti, etc.
Avis, -is, f., a bird. Incumbo, 3 (with in Mores, in the plural, Ac. majus opus, a greater work. rudem militem, an untrained soldier. Consto, 1, I consist of. and the ac.), I apply denotes morals, cha. V. majus opus, Ogreater work ! rudis miles, 0 untrained soldier ! Facile, adv., casily.
racter. Ab.majore opère, by a greater work. rudi milite, by an untrained soldier. Fortis, -e, brave.
Litera, in the singular, Mortālis, -e, mortal.
Fundamentum, i, n.,
signifies a letter of Mos, moris, m., a cus-
tom. N. majora opěra, greater works. rudes milites, untrained soldiers.
heavy, Litěræ, -arum, f., let. Omnis, -e, every one ; G. majorum opěrum, of greater works. rudium militum, of untrained soldiers.
ters, literature, know- in the plural, all. D. majoribus opcribus, to greater rudibus militibus, to
untrained Habeo, 2, I have.
Pietas, -átis, f., piety. vorles.
Hostis, -is, m., Literæ, in the plural, Tuus, tua, tuum, Ac. majora opěra, greater vrorks. rudes milites, untrained soldiers.
means also a letter, thine. V. majora opěra, O greater works! rudes milites, 0 untrained soldiers.
Immortalis, -e, im- that is, an epistle Virtus, -utis, f., vir Ab.majoribus operibus, by greater rudibus militibus, by untrained
tue (originally 14works.
Industria, -æ, f., dili.
lour). FORMS OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST, SECOND,
Vox, vācis, f., a voice. AND THIRD DECLENSIONS.
EXERCISE 33,-LATIN-ENGLISH. EXAMPLE.—Bonus puer, m., a good boy; bona soror, f., a good
1. Miles forti animo pugnare debet. 2. Homines corpora mortalia, sister ; bonum nomen, n., a good name.
animos immortales habent. 3. Nonne sunt hominibus mortalia corCases. Singular.
pora ? 4. Suavi voce avium delector. 5. Suavine avium voce bonus påěr. bona soror. bonum nomen,
delectaris ? 6. Pueri in literas incumbere debent alăcri animo. 7. Cur G. boni pueri. bons soröris. boni nominis.
non in literas incumbitis, pueri, alăcri animo ? 8. Discipulorum laus D.
constat bonis moribus et acri (severe) industria. 9. Acri industria Ac. bonum puerum. bonam sororem. bopum nomen.
pater meus incumbit in literas. 10. Pietas omnium virtutum est V.
fundamentum. 11. Tuæ virtutes, o mater, me delectant. Ab.
fortes non vincuntur doloribus gravibus. 13. Non cedimus hostibus
audacibus. 14. Vox omnis bene auditur a matre tua. 15. Tuw voces, Cases, Plural.
soror, mihi sunt dulces. boni pueri. bonæ sorores. bona nomina.
EXERCISE 34.- ENGLISH-LATIN. G.
bonorum puerorum. bonarum sororum. bonorum nominum, D. bonis pueris. bonis sororibus. bonis nominibus.
1. Brave men yield not to enemies. 2. A bold band is not easily Ac. bonos pueros. bonas sorores. bona nomina.
conquered. 3. My son studies with an active (alacri) mind. 4. Do V. boni pueri. bonge sorores. bona nomina.
thy sisters love knowledge ? 5. They are delighted by the voices of Ab. bonis pueris. bonis sororibus. bonis nominibus.
the birds. 6. The birds of the enemny have sweet voices. 7. My
scholars apply well to knowledge. 8. The bold band is conquered by EXAMPLES.—Campus viridis, m., a green field; herba viridis, Julius Caesar. 9. The bodies of men are mortal, the souls immortal f., a green herb; gramen viride, n., green grass.
bone puer. bono puero.
10. The piety of the mother delights the son. 11. The daughter is Cases. Singular.
delighted by the virtue of the father. 12. The virtue of boys consiste N.
13. My mother's letter (the letter of herba viridis. campus viridis,
in industry and good character.
grämen viride. G. campi viridis. herbæ viridis. graminis viridis,
my mother) is heard by all. D. campo viridi.
herbæ viridi. gramini viridi. Ac. campum viridem. herbam viridem, gramen viride.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-IX. V. campe viridis. herba viridis. gramen viride.
1. Artificers ought to teach boys. 2. The king moves (his) thumb. Cases. Plural.
3. Kings guard the laws. 4. Laws are guarded by kings. 3. The son N. campi virides. herbæ virides. gramina viridia. bites (his) thumb. 6. The horsemen are harassed (grieved). 7. Artists G.
camporum viridium, herbarum viridium. graminum viridium. adorn cities. 8. The wages of artificers support (their) sons and D.
campis viridibus. herbis viridibus. graminibus viridibus. daughters. 9. The bachelor sleeps. 10. The people are defended. 11. Ac.
campos virides. herbas virides. gramina viridia. The race of the artificer is praised. 12. Hast thou corn-land? 13. V. campi virides. herbæ virides. grainina viridia, The neck of the soldier is injured. 14. The age of the bachelor is Ab,
campis viridibus. herbis viridibus. graminibus viridibus. great.
people, use words of Saxon origin. But if you would be well 1. Artifices defendo. 2. Artifices a me defenduntur. 3. Estne illi acquainted with the English language, study its Latin, and merces ? 4. Pecus non est illi. 5. In cervice pubgor.
6. Artifices generally its foreign elements, as these are they with which you pingunt pecora.
7. Funestæ sunt regum leges. 8. Seges equitis do not become familiar in the nursery, and which consequently oeditur9. Cur vituperatur cælels? 10. Cælives vituperat plebs. present difficulties, and obstruct the pathway to knowledge 11. Sunt militibus mercedes. 12. Multa docet ætas.
These remarks suggest reasons why we are entering so fully
into the composition of English words. EXERCISE 31.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
Hyper, of Greek origin (úrep, pronounced hu'-per, upon, over, 1. Birds deceive bachelors. 2. Mothers are slain by fevers. 3. I too much), found in hypercritic; that is, one who is too critical, greatly like the sea. 4. The sea is liked by sailors. 5. Husbandmen
unjustifiably critical. cultivate corn-fields. 6. There are sailors in the ships. 7. There is fire in the globe. 8. The brothers are in the fires (flames). 9. The
"The hypercriticall controuller of poets, Julius Scaliger, doth so goddesses have altars. 10. Have not the gods altars ? 11. The severely ceusure nations, that he seemeth to sit in the chaire of the husbandmen defend the sheepfolds with a hatchet.
scornfull." --Camden, “Remaines," EXERCISE 32.- ENGLISH-LATIN.
Hypo, of Greek origin (umo, pronounced hu-po), with the import
of under, appears in hypocrisy, acting under a mask, acting an 1. Corporibus naves defendunt nautæ. 2. In rupibus sunt aves. 3. A nautis rupes ne amantur? 4. Nocet plebi cædes.
5. Aves assumed character, involving both simulation or pretending to feriunt nubes. 6. Secures defendunt naves.
7. Civium ares nocentur. something you are not, and dissimulation or concealing what 8. Principis sedile laudatur. 9. Vincimus principum comites,
Hypo appears also in hypotenuse (Greek, TEIVELV, pronounced ti-nine, to stretch).
“The square of the hypoten use in a right-angled triangle is equal to LESSONS IN ENGLISH,-X.
the squares of the two other sides."'--Locke, “Human Understanding." DERIVATION.-PREFIXES (continued).
Hypo appears also in hypothesis (Greek, anois, pronounced
the-sis, a placing), which by its derivation signifies a placing In the prefixes and quotations given in former lessons, we may under, as is intimated in the Latin supposition (sub, under; and find a species of indirect history. The facts set forth in connec
ponere, tion with them, show us how much ours is a composite language, thing put under certain phenomena or appearances in order
to place). An hypothesis, then, is a supposition-somea language that is like the composite order of architecture, made
to explain their cause or immediate origin. up of elements derived from different sources. The facts also inforın us that the English nation has been closely connected
“Any hypothesis which possesses a sufficient degree of plausibility with the French, and so is much indebted to the ancient Latins.
to account for a number of facts, helps us to digest these facts in To the corrupt Latin of the Middle Ages we are also obviously crucis (that is, decisive tests) for the sake of future inquiries."
proper order, to bring new ones to light, and to make experimenta indebted; and from the Greek tongue we have derived words
Hartley, "On Man." and parts of words. Nor have Italy and Spain failed to contribute to the enrichment of our language. In historical or
In, of Latin origin, signifying in, into, and upon, having also genealogical relations, we Englishmen of this day are connected a negative force, appears in these forms, namely, ig, il, im, in, with the Norman baron as well as the Saxon churl; with the ir, is. monk and the schoolmen, no less than with the conquerors of
Ig, as in the Latin word unoramus, denoting one who knows the world; and may fancy the line of our relationship to stretch nothing. Here yy makes the statement in the verb equivalent from the Thames to the Rhine, and from the Rhine even to the to a negative proposition. Ignoramus properly signifies we are Indus and the Ganges. If every sentence that has been written ignorant. An ignoramus once in a letter to me spoke of ignoto convey to the world a history of England had totally perished, rami, fancying, with a smattering of Latin, that the plural of still scholars, out of the fossil remains of the nation discover.
mus was mi. If ignoramus is used in the plural, it must stand able in its words, would, after the manner of the geologists, be as ignoramuses; but Beaumont uses ignoramus itself as a able to reproduce the great outlines of our English life. Even plural. single words are full of the elements of history. Those ele.
" Give blockheads beere, ments are often beneath the surface; at least they are not
And silly ignoranus, such as think obvious to the common eye. I give you, however, an instance,
There's powder-treason in all Spanish drink." the historical value of which is clear to all. When, in the early Ignoramus is used also as an adjective ; e.g., part of the reign of Charles I., the Puritan party began to rise against the royal authority, the more demure members of the
“Let ignoramus juries find no traitors;
And ignoramus poets scribble satires." party wore their hair cropped so close and short, as, in contrast with the full and flowing locks of the courtiers, to give their I, as in illegal, not legal ; illegitimate, not legitimate , the heads the appearance of so many bowls. Queen Henrietta root of both being lex, legis, Latin, a law. In illustrate (Latin, Maria, the spouse of Charles, observing this marked peculiarity, lux, light), the il denotes upon ; illustrate is to throw light upon graphically as well as wittily termed them roundheads. The a subject. In illusory (Latin, ludo, I play, cheat), deceptive, the particular occasion was the following:
:-“ Samuel Barnadiston, el seems to be little more than intensive. a noted republican, was, in his youth, the leader of a deputation Im, into, as imbibe (Latin, bibo, I drink), imbody (embody). of London apprentices, for the purpose of communicating to
“ The soul grows clotted by contagion, Parliament their notions regarding civil and religious govern
Imbodies and imbrutes, till she quite lose ment. The queen, who saw this posse arrive at Whitehail, then
The divine property of her first being."- Milton. first noticed the extraordinary roundness of their closely-clipped heads, and saw at the same time that Samuel was a personable
In imbitter, the im (or em) is intensive or augmentive. In apprentice; upon which she exclaimed, 'La! what a handsome immature (Latin, maturus, ripe), the im is negative-immature soang roundhead! The exactness of the descriptive appella- mindjul); immemorial usage is usage time out of mind.
means unripe ; im is negative also in immemorial (Latin, memor, tion fixed it at once as a party name ; rounilheads they were called from that moment, and roundheads they will remain “And though some impious wits do questions move, while history endures."'* You thus see that the term “Round
And doubt if souls immortal be or no, head ” contains a history. It also paints a picture. In the
That doubt their immortality doth prove, ford "roundhead" we possess an historical picture; and the
Because they seem immortal things to know." picture which it paints all can appreciate. Why? Because the The root of immortal is the Latin mors (mortis in the genitive), word consists of Saxon terms, nursery terms. Translate the death; whence mortal. Saxon " roundhead” into Latin, rotundum caput, and so far from In, in, 3.8 in inclose (Latin, clando, I close), to shut in; in, painting a picture, the term does not convey any meaning to the into, as income; in means also not, as incognito (abridged into mero English scholar. If, then, you would be understood by the incog.), a word coming to us from the Latin incognitus, unknown,
through the Spanish incognito Inconvenient is made up of in, • “Lives of the Queens of England," by Agnes Strickland, not, cum, with, and venio, I come; incouvenient, therefore
, ig that which does not come with you, does not agree with your
vol, viii., p. 99.
condition, position, or wishes. In indigent (Latin, indigeo, I
“I have heard want, from in and egeo), needy, the in is augmentive.
That guilty creatures sitting at a play,
Have, by the very cunning of the scene, “ Themistocles, the great Athenian general, being asked whether he
Been struck so to the soul, that presently would choose to marry his daughter to an indigent man of merit, or to
They have proclaim'd their malefactions." a worthless man of an estate, replied, that he should prefer a man
Shakespeare, “Hamlet." without an estate, to an estate without a man."-Spectator. Ir, not, as in irreparable (from the Latin through the French; disorder, presents itself in melancholy, literally, black bile (from
Melan, of Greek origin (uelas, pronounced mel-as, black), to Latin, reparare, to get again), not to be got again, not to be re
the Greek pelas, black, and xoan, pronounced kol-e, bile), gained or restored.
whence it was thought came habitual sadness. “Nor does she this irreparable woe
“But hail, thou goddess, sage and holy,
Hail, divinest melancholy!
Whose saintly visage is too bright
To hit the sense of human sight;
And therefore to our weaker view
O'erlaid with black, staid Wisdom's hue." the opposite of irruption, a breaking into, is eruption, a breaking
Millon, “ N Penseroso." out of. Compare corruption, a breaking together, a breaking up, Meta, of Greek origin (ueta, pronounced met-ta), signifying a crumbling.
after, and denoting change, transference, is found in metaphor In passes into the form is in isolated (Latin, insula, an island), (from the Greek pepw, pronounced fer'-ro, I bear), a figure of derived immediately from the French isolé; isolated, or rather speech in which there is a transference of the literal meaning of insulated, means standing alone, like an island in the sea. The the word. Words originally represented objects of sense. It is French form gains prevalence, and has given rise to the verb only by accommodation or transferer.ce that the word which set isolate and the noun isolation.
forth some sensible objects has come to denote a state of mind Inter, of Latin origin (compare enter as above), signifying be. or feeling. Thus acute, which now describes a shrewd, clever tween, among; as intermarry, said of families, members of mind, properly signifies sharp, piercing-from the Latin acu, a which marry one another; inter is found also in interpolate, to needle. In this view, all words now applied to mental or moral introduce. This is a word which has given trouble to the etymo- phenomena, contain metaphors. Instances may be given in relogists. Both Richardson and Du Cange connect it with polire, flect (Latin, re, back, and flecto, I bend), abstract (Latin, ab, to polish. This view makes interpolation a sort of amendment, from ; and traho, I draw), conceive (Latin, cum, with, and capio, whereas the word carries with it the idea of corruption and de- I take), and of course their corresponding nouns ; also, in hard privation. Interpolation seems to me a low Latin word, whose (hard heart), open (open disposition), light (light-hearted). The root is the classical Latin pello (pulsus), I drive, so that inter- term metaphor, however, is specially given to more marked and polation is something thrust in, something foisted on. This is striking, not to say artificial instances of transference, on the the sense in which the word is generally used, denoting the un- ground of some real or supposed resemblance between the justifiable additions and insertions made to manuscripts by later material and the mental objects. Thus, the sun is termed the hands than those by which they were originally composed. king of day, and the moon the queen of night.
"The very distances of places, as well as numbers of the books, “An horn is the hieroglyphick of authority, power, and dignity, and demonstrate that there could be no collusion, no altering nor inter in this metaphor is often used in Scripture."--Brown, “Vulgar Errors." polating one copy by another, nor all by any of them."-Bentley, "On Freethinking."
Meta forms the two first syllables of metaphysics (in Greek, “The larger epistles of Ignatius are generally supposed to be inter- Meta Ta Puoika, pronounced met'-ta tar fu’-se-ka, after the polated."-Jortin, " Ecclesiastical History."
physics or natural sciences). The force of the word will be learnt
in these quotations :Inter-minable is thus printed in “Richardson's Dictionary,” as though the word was from the Latin inter, and minor, I threaten; "The one part which is physic (physics, relating to matter) in. whereas it is made up of in, not, and terminus, a limit, or
quireth and handleth the material and efficient causes; and the other, boundary, and so is equivalent to unlimited, or unbounded; which is metaphysic (metaphysics, the plural is now generally used),
handleth the formal and final as in
causes."-Bacon,'" Adrancement of “ Plains immense
“From this part of Aristotle's logic there is an easy transition to And vast savannahs, where the wandering eye,
what has been called his metaphysics; a name unknown to the author Unfixt, is in a verdant ocean lost."
himself, and given to his most abstract philosophical works by his
editors, from an opinion that these books ought to be studied imme. Thomson, “Summer."
diately after his physics, or treatises on natural philosophy."-Gillies, Intra, of Latin origin, signifying within, occurs in the forms
“ Analysis of Aristotle's Works." intra and intro, e.g., as in the recent word intramural (Latin, Meta also enters into the Greek word metempsychosis (em, in, murus, the wall of a city), entramural interments, and introduce and yuxn, pronounced su'-ke, the soul), the passage of the soul (Latin, duco, I lead), to lead within; also intromit (Latin, mitto, from one body to another. I send), to send or let in.
“The souls of usurers, after their death, Lucan affirms to be metem. “So that I (Guido Reni) was forced to make an introspection into psychosed, or translated into the bodies of anges, and there remain cermine own mind, and into that idea of beauty which I have formed in tain years, for poor men to take their pennyworth out of their bones." my own imagination."-Dryden, “Parallel."
EXERCISE. Mag, of Latin origin magnus, great), in the forms magna and magni, enters into the composition of the following words:
1. Parse the following sentences :magnanimity (Latin, animus, mind), greatness of mind ; magnify July is a very hot month. In July the grass and flowers are burnt. (Latin, facio, I make), to make great, extol; magniloquenco Why do you not water your garden? The children go under the (Latin, loquor, I speak), great talk. Magnify is connected with bushes. A bee is on the honeysuckle. The bee will carry the honey the words magnificence, magnificent, magnifier. From magnus,
to the hive. Look at puss! She pricks up her ears.
She smells the
mice. great, comes also magnitude.
Puss wants to get into the closet. The mice have nibbled the biscuits. February is a cold month.
2. Form sentences having in them these words :-
Signification; prevent; incrustation ; excommunicate ; effloresInnumerous."
Dyer. cence; encamp ; survey; office; entertainment; epitaph; equivocaMal, or male, of Latin origin (malum, evil), forms a set of tion; despot ; forbid; pardon; hieroglyphics. words the opposites of words containing bene ; as malevolence, 3. Write a theme on each of the following subjects :benevolence; malediction, benediction. Male is found in mal.
1. Joseph and his brethren. 2. A May morning. 3. The Invincible administration and maltreat; malefactions (Latin, facio, I do), Armada. 4. The Solar System. 5. The chief river in the neighbourare misdeeds.
hood where you live, and any objects of interest on or near its banks.
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.—XIX. No. 70. An inspection of these elementary strokes will show
that the letter r is formed of the top-turn, with the addition of IN Copy-slips Nos. 67 and 68 the learner will see how the letters a fine hair-stroke brought upwards along the right-hand side v, w, and b are joined to letters that precede and follow them, of the thick down-stroke of the top-turn as far as the line cc, and in these be will also find examples of the method of bringing when it is carried out to the right, in a graceful curve, as far the final curve to the right, which terminates the letters that as the line a a. The pen is then brought downwards, and the have just been named, in a downward direction, in order to letter is terminated by a curved or hooked stroke, resembling ir carry it with greater facility into the line that forms the loop | a great measure a small bottom-turn. When the letter r is
of the letter e, which would be greatly curtailed in size and followed by e, the finishing turn, as in the case of the final robbed of its proper proportions if the final curve of the v, b, curve terminating the letters V, W, and b, is made larger in or W that precedes it were carried to the right midway between order to carry it into the fine ap-stroke commencing at cc, the lines a a, cc, in the ordinary way, instead of being brought which forms the loop of the letter e. downwards as far as the line cc and then turned into the loop An example of the letter r, in conjunction with letters pre
ceding and following it, will be found in Copy-slip No. 71, in The four remaining letters of the writing alphabet-namely, the word roller. The elementary looped stroke, turned at the T, f, k, and 2-each exhibit a peculiarity of form that is top, which generally forms the upper part of the letter f, is not to be found in any other letter. The elementary strokes given in Copy-slip No. 72. It resembles the loop-stroke, turned which are combined to form the letter r are shown in Copy-slip at the bottom, which enters into the composition of the letters No. 69, and the letter r itself in a complete form in Copy-slipj, g, and y, in a revorsed position
of the letter e.