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Ar no period in the history of our country has it been less in the history of his country, and to place at the command necessary to offer an apology for reproducing a National of the student for the Civil Service or University ExaminaWork on Education than at the present time. So keen is tions all the branches of education necessary for his adthe competitive spirit of the age, that the advantage of vancement, no effort will be found to have been wanting. knowledge in the struggle for advancement is apparent Our ambition has been to place in every English Home an to all
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The great aim and object of this work is to enable the But more than twenty years have elapsed since the people to educate themselves. We have only to ask them POPULAR EDUCATOR was first issued from the press, and to realise the magnitude and grandeur of the work in during that period considerable advances have been made which they will be engaged, if they determine to do so. in many of the departments of knowledge. In succeeding Obstacles will be overcome by united resolution. Every editions we have therefore found it necessary to introduce difficulty surmounted will be additional strength for many new subjects, and to re-model many of our old further victories. A good education is the best legacy lessons, and no expense has been spared in making these we can leave to our children. It is the best investment changes as complete as possible. To amuse, to instruct, we can make for ourselves. The educated man in every to elevate, has been our constant endeavour. To render walk of life carries with him his own capital—a capital the workman more perfect in his vocation, the soldier and unaffected by monetary crises—an investment whose sailor better fitted for the higher positions of his profession, interest is not regulated by the success of speculationthe naturalist more conversant with the beauties of Nature, a legacy which none can dispute, and of which none can the politician further acquainted with the important events | deprive him.
The following ten combinations of three successive vovels are LESSONS IN FRENCH.-I.
also called diphthongs, namely :In commencing these Lessons in French, instead of beginning
oui uai uei with a long chapter exclusively devoted to the pronunciation of
uie words, and the variations which are caused in the sounds of vowels and consonants by changes in their relative position, we
These diphthongs are thus divided into syllables :have thought it best to enter at once into the construction
ou-i t-ai of the language, and endeavour, without unnecessary delay, in
u-ie as plain a manner as possible, to make our readers familiar with its various idioms and peculiarities. The Section on French
They must, however, be pronounced quickly, and as one syllable. pronunciation will be divided into several portions, one of
Sometimes, also, we find four successive vowels in the same which will be given at the commencement of each lesson in word, namely:French, until the subject is exhausted.
jou-eur, PART I.--SECTION I.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION.
bou-ée. I. THE FRENCH ALPHABET.
The first example-ouai, is composed of two compound vowels, 1. A tolerable pronunciation of any spoken language may be viz.: ou and ai. acquired by imitating the sounds of that language, as uttered by The second example-ouen, is also composed of two compound a living teacher. But the reading and writing of any language vowels, viz.: ou and eu. cannot thus be learnt. The pupil must bring into requisi- In the last exampleouée, the final e is silent, and the three tion something else besides his imitative powers, if he would vowels are thus divided, viz. : ou and é. thoroughly comprehend any language. The alphabet of the 13. THE VOWEL Y.-The vowel y is frequently found comlanguage to be learnt must be exhibited and examined, and bined with other vowels, but in such combinations it is never then mastered.
used as a diphthong. Its use in combination is peculiar, and 2. An alphabet is a collection of different characters called will be fully explained hereafter. letters, each of which represents its own peculiar sound. These 14. THE NASAL VOWEL SOUNDS.-There are certain sounds letters differ from each other in name, form, size, and sound. called nasal vowel sounds, produced by the combination of the Used as vehicles of thought, they must not only be familiar vowels with the consonants m and n, namely:to the eye, but their use, both singly and combined, must be
yn. 3. Two objects are to be before the student whilst perusing These sounds will be explained hereafter. these preliminary lessons on French pronunciation, namely :First. The acquisition of the correct pronunciation of the certain sounds called nasal diphthongal sounds, produced by
15. THE NASAL DIPHTHONGAL SOUNDS.—There are also various sounds of the letters of the French alphabet.
Second.—To learn how to combine and use these sounds, the combination of nasal vowel sounds with a vowel, not nasal, in order to read the French language easily, intelligibly, and
before them, namely:profitably.
ouin. 4. The first object will be accomplished by the aid of analogous These sounds will also be explained hereafter. English sounds; that is, every sound represented by a letter or combination of letters of the French alphabet, will be unfolded, sonants are called liquids, namely:
16. THE LIQUIDS.—The following combinations of the conanalysed, and defined, as far as possible, by means of analogous sounds of a letter or combination of letters of the English alphabet.
The sounds of these liquids are very common in the French 5. The second object will be accomplished by learning a few language, and will be explained hereafter. brief and simple rules, illustrated and enforced by appropriate examples.
SECTION II.--THE ARTICLE. 6. Diligent attention, patient labour, and a determination to succeed, will enable the learner to overcome every obstacle, and
1. In French the article [§ 13 (2)]* has, in the singular, a thus make him master of a language, not only exceedingly distinct form for each gender, as :difficult for foreigners to acquire, but beautiful in itself, and
Le fils, the son.
La fille, the daughter, the girl. co-existent with the triumphs of civilisation.
Le frère, the brother. La scur, the sister, 7. The student's attention is next directed to the French 2. Before a word commencing with a vowel or an h mute, the alphabet. While the English alphabet contains twenty-six final e or a of the article le or la is cut off, and replaced by an letters, in the French alphabet there are only twenty-five. It apostrophe, leaving the article apparently the same for both has no letter which corresponds to the English w, though it is genders (S 13 (7)], as :occasionally found in French books. It is used only in foreign
L'aïeul ['(c) aioul], the grandfather, words, and then pronounced like the English v.
L'aïeule (l(a) alevle), the grandmothor. 8. The French alphabet is divided into vowels and consonants.
L'hôte [(e) hôte], the landlord. 9. THE VOWELS.-The vowels are six in number, namely:
L'hôtesse ((a) hôtesse), the landlady.
3. There are in French only two genders, the masculine and 10. THE CONSONANTS.—The remaining letters of the alpha or inanimate object, belongs to one of these two genders.
the feminine ($ 4]. Every noun, whether denoting an animate bet, nineteen in number, are called consonants, namely:
Masc. L'homme, the man.
FEM. La femme, the woman.
La table, the table.
La plume, the pen. 11. THE COMPOUND VOWELS.—There are seven compound
Le lion, the lion.
La lionne, the lioness. vowels, namely :
4. AVOIR, TO HAVE, IN THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE. ai oi
Affirmatively. They are thus called because, being united together, each SING. J'ai,
I have. PLUR. Nous avons, We have. vowel loses its own simple sound, and helps to form another
Tu as (8 33 (1) (2)]Thou hast,
Il a, new sound. They form but one syllable, and are consequently
Ils ont, m.,
Thoy have. She has.
Elles ont, f., They have. pronounced by one emission of the voice. 12. THE DIPHTHONGS.--There are six diphthongs, namely:ia io
* References thus [$ 13 (2)] refer to Sections in Part II, of these
Lessons (Vol. IV., p. 74), but by references in Roman numerals, thus, They are thus called because, though pronounced as one (Sect. I., 30] the learner is directed to Sections in Part I., the portion syllable, the sound of both vowels is distinctly heard.
of our " Lessons in French " which we are now commencing.
4. The name of the material of which an object is composed SESG. Ai-je ?
Havo I? PLUR, Avons-nous ? Have we? always follows the name of the object; the two words being As-tu ? Hast thou ?
Have you? connected by the preposition de ($ 76' (11)], as :-
Ont-ils? m. Have they?
L'habit de drap,
The cloth coat.
The sille dress. 3. The e of the pronoun je is elided, when that pronoun comes
La montre d'or,
The gold watch. before a vowel or an h mute, and replaced by an apostrophe, as
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. J'ai J(e)ai], I have, as above [$ 146],
6. In interrogative sentences, when the third person singular of Le tailleur a l'habit de drap du The tailor has the physician's cloth a Ferb ends with a vowel, and is immediately followed by a pro
You have the baker's sister's letter nonn, the letter t, called euphonic (Sect. I. 30), must be placed be- Vous avez la lettre de la sæur du
boulanger. tween the verb and the pronoun, and joined by two hyphens, as :
(the letter of the sister of the baker). A-t-il le livre de la dame ?
Has he the lady's book ?
Argent, m., silver, Couteau, m., knife. Porte-crayon, m., Le père a la viande, vous avez 19 The father has the meat, you have the
pencil-case. café, et j'ai l'eau.
coffee, and I have the water.
Robe, f., dress. L'homme a le pain, l'enfant a le The man has the bread, the child has
Bois, m., wood.
Satin, m., satin. sel, et nous avons le poivre. the salt, and we have the pepper. Chapeau, m., hat. Foin, m., hay.
Sæur, f., sister.
Soie, f., silk.
Soulier, m., shoc. Avoine, f., oats. Madame, Madam.
Cordonnier, m., shoe- Médecin,m., physician. Table, f., table.
tailor. Boucher, m., butcher. Meunier, m., miller. Seulement, only.
Coton, m., cotton. Or, m., gold.
Viande, f., meat.
To be translated into English. Farine, 1., four. Pain, m., bread.
Vin, m., wine.
1. Avez-vous la montre d'or ? Frère, m., brother. Plume, f., pen. Vinaigre, mn., vinegar,
2. Oui, Madame, j'ai la Livre, m., book.
montre d'or et le chapeau de soie. 3. Monsieur, avez-vous lo OBs.-Note and remember that the noun livre, bools, is masculine, but
livre du tailleur ? 4. Non, Monsieur, j'ai le livre du médecin. the nouns livre, a pound (in weight), and livre, a piece of money equiva- 5. Ont-ils le pain du boulanger? 6. Ils ont le pain du boulanlant to a franc, are feminine.
ger et la farine du meunier. 7. Avez-vous le porte-crayon EXERCISE 1.
d'argent ? 8. Oui, Monsieur, nous avons le porte-crayon To be translated into English.
d'argent. 9. Avons-nous l'avoine du cheval ? 10. Vous avez 1. Qui a le pain ? 2. Le boulanger a le pain. 3. A-t-il la l'avoine et le foin du cheval. 11. Qui a l'habit de drap du farine ? 4. Oni, Monsieur, il a la farine. 5. Avons-nous la charpentier ? 12. Le cordonnier a le chapeau de soie du tail.
leur. 13. Le tailleur a le soulier de cuir du cordonnier. viande ? 6. Oui, Monsieur, vous avez la viande et le pain. 14. Avez-vous la table de bois ? 7. Le meunier a la farine. 8. Le boulanger a la farine et le table de bois du charpentier. 16. Ont-ils le couteau d'argent?
15. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai la blé. 9. Arons-nons le livre et la plume ? 10. Oui, Mademoi
17. Ils ont le couteau d'argent. 18. Le frère du médecin a la selle, vous avez le livre et la plume. 11. Le boucher a la
montre d'argent. 19. La seur du cordonnier a la robe de viande. 12. Le meunier a la viande et j'ai le café. 13. Avezvous l'eau et le sel ? 14. Oui, Monsieur, nous avons l'eau, le soie. 20. A-t-elle le soulier de cuir? 21. Non, Madame, elle a
le soulier de satin. 22. Avons-nous le bas de laine ? 23. Non, sel, et l'avoine. 15. Avons-nous le thé ? 16. Non, Monsieur, Monsieur, vous avez le bas de soie du tailleur. 24. Qui a le bas la fille a le thé, le vinaigre, et le sel. 17. Ai-je le vin? 18. de coton ? 25. Le médecin a le bas de coton. 26. La dame a Non, Madame, vous avez seulement le vinaigre et la viande. le soulier de satin de la seur du boulanger. 19. Avez-vous la table 2" 20. Oui, Madame, j'ai la table.
To be translated into French.
1. Have you the tailor's book? 2. No, Sir, I have the 1. Have you the wheat? 2. Yes, Sir, I have the wheat. physician's watch. 3. Who has the gold watch? 4. The lady 3. Who has the meat ? 4. The butcher has the meat and the has the gold watch and the silver pencil-case. 5. Have you salt. 5. Has he the oats ? 6. No, Madam, the horse has the the tailor's shoe? 6. I have the tailor's cloth shoe. 7. Have oats. 7. Have we the wheat? 8. Yon have the wheat and the
we the wooden table? 8. Yes, Sir, you have the wooden table. four. 9. Who has the salt? 10. I have the salt and the meat. 9. Have they the silver knife? 10. They have the silver knife. 11. Have we the vinegar, the tea, and the coffee ? 12. No, 11. The lady has the silver knife and the gold pencil-case. Sir, the brother has the vinegar. 13. Who has the horse ? 12. Has she the satin dress ? 13. The physician's sister has 14. The baker has the horse. 15. Have we the book and the the satin dress. 14. Who has the wood ? 15. The carpenter's pen? 16. No, Miss, the girl has the pen, and the miller has brother has the wood. 16. Have you the woollen stockings ? the book. 17. Have you the table, Sir? 18. No, Sir, have 17. No, Sir, I have the cotton stockings. 18. Who has the only the book. 19. Who has the table ? 20. We have the baker's bread ? 19. We have the baker's bread and the mil. table, the pen, and the book.
ler's flour. 20. Have we the horse's hay? 21. You have the SECTION TII.-THE ARTICLE (Continued).
horse's oats. 22. Have we the tailor's silk hat? 23. Yes, 1. The article le, with the preposition de preceding, must be Sir, you have the tailor's silk hat and the shoemaker's leather contracted into du, when it comes before a word in the mascu
shoe. 24. Have you the cloth shoe of the physician's sister ? line singular, commencing with a consonant or an ħ aspirated 25. No, Madam, I have the lady's silk dress. [§ 13 (8) (9)], as : Du frère, of the brother. Du château, of the castle.
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-I. Du héros, of the hero.
Du chemin, of the way. 2. Before feminine words, and before masculine words com- EARLY NOTIONS; THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE SCRIPTURES. mencing with a vowel or an h mute, the article is not blended The term Geography is derived from two Greek words, yn, the with the preposition, as :
earth, and ypaon, a description (pronounced ghee and grá-phe), De la dame, f., of the lady,
1 De l'argent, m., of the money.
De l'amie, f., of the fomale friend. and simply means a description of the earth's surface; it is there.
fore rightly applied to that science which treats of the natural 3. In French, the name of the possessor follows the name of outline and extent, the political division and constitution, the the object possessed [$ 76 (10)], as:
civil and social condition, and the industrial wealth and populaLa maison du médecin, The physician's house.
tion of the various countries, kingdoms, and states which have L'arbre du jardin, The tree of the garden.
appeared, or which now exist on the face of the globe. GeograLa lettre de la scur, The sister's letter,
phy includes also the description of the form of the earth, its
motions, its place in the solar system, the great circles supposed possessing all those antiquated notions in science, particularly to be drawn on its surface, and its position in the heavens by in geography and astronomy, which the minstructed tribes of which it is surrounded on all sides; the diversified nature of Asia, Australasia, and Polynesia possess at the present day. its surface, as seen in its mountains, valleys, plains, rivers, seas, “The Hebrews,” says an eminent writer, “obviously never and oceans, and in the constitution and phenomena of the attempted to form any scientific theory respecting the structure atmosphere by which it is enveloped, as in a swaddling band; of the earth. The natural impression which represents it as a and the different races of animals, including man, and the flat surface, with the heaven as a firmament or curtain spread various kinds of vegetable and mineral productions which are over it, is found to be universally prevalent. Beneath was distributed over its surface.
conceived to be a deep pit, the abode of darkness and the It will be sufficient for our purpose, in this first lesson, to shadow of death. In one place we find the grand image of the state generally that the form or shape of the earth is that of a earth being hung upon nothing; but elsewhere the pillars of the globe or ball, and that the height of the highest mountains on earth are repeatedly mentioned ; and sometimes the pillars of its surface is so small in comparison with the size of the earth, heaven. In short, it is evident that every writer caught the and interfere so little with its rotundity, or roundness, that this idea impressed on his senses and imagination by the view of height has about the same proportion to the diameter of the these grand objects, without endeavouring to arrange them into earth, which the thickness of common writing-paper has to the any regular system.” We have quoted this passage as diameter of a twelve-inch terrestrial globe. The ancients had 'specimen of the loose style of writing and thinking regarding
no such knowledge of the earth as we now possess; and though the science of the sacred Scriptures. The style of these some of the most intellectual of the philosophers of Greece, such writings, in the places above referred to, is highly poetical; and Ay the famous Pythagoras, are supposed to have reached the who, we would ask, expects to find didactic theories in a poem ? motion of its globular form, it was buried under a cloud of errors The poet seizes the phenomena of nature as they appear to the and extravagances.
eye, and enlarges, magnifies, or arranges them at pleasure ; he To the most extended view which the human eye can take of is not tied to rules, nor confined to the language of the any part of the surface of the earth, even from the highest schools. To do so, would destroy his poetry, and reduce his eminence found on that surface, it appears to be one vast and imagination to an automaton. The book of Job, in which these illimitable plain, diversified by hill and dale, land and water, grand expressions are found, is the oldest book in the world. mountain and valley. The heavens appear to be a luminous It was written long before the time of Moses; and though found dome above the head of the observer, bespangled with stars at in the Hebrew language, it was evidently not written by a night, and they seem to rest on the surface of the earth at an Hebrew. It is curious, however, that the writer of this book immense and immeasurable distance. He feels as if he would should have lighted upon such a striking fact, as that the earth be afraid to travel so far, either on land or sea, as to reach the hangs upon nothing ! Had this been found in a Chinese or a limit which he supposes must ultimately be found to this Hindoo book, possessing such claims to antiquity as the Hebrew surface, lest he fall over into an interminable abyss; and he book, it would have been lauded to the ski as a proof of supposes that the phenomena of the heavens are confined to the superior knowledge, and would have been held as an infallible apper and visible concave which he beholds, while his imagina- proof that the Chinese or the Hindoos, ages ago, were actually tion dooms all beneath his feet to death and everlasting oblivion. acquainted with the facts of modern science. Such were the limited notions which prevailed at an early period The same writer looks to Phænicia for the origin of geograin the history of the world; and it is one great proof of the phical knowledge; and there can be no doubt that, being some antiquity and authenticity of the sacred Scriptures, that they of the earliest merchants and traders both by sea and land, the describe men as they really were in ancient times, and as Phænicians must have been among the first nations of the world