« AnteriorContinuar »
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XVIII.
Brunswick to-morrow. 15. The heavens declare the giory
of God. SECTION XXXIII.-PECULIARITIES IN VERBS, ETC.
VOCABULARY. 1. The infinitive of the active voice, in certain phrases, is, espe- Abholen, to fetch, call Herum', about, round. Wie'ternehmen, to take cially after the verb Sein, often employed in a passive significa- for.
Hin'schiden, to send to. again, back. tion, as :-Er ist zu ehren, he is to be honoured. Gr ist zu loben, he Abreisen, to depart. Johann, John.
Wilhelm, m. William. is to be praised. Laß ihn rufen, let him be called. This use of Ab'sdreiben, to copy. Luft, f. desire, wish. Zurüct', back. the infinitive prevails to some extent in English. Thus, we may lavier'unterricht, m. Mit'bringen, to bring. Zurüd tommen, to come translate literally the following examples :- Tieses Haus ist zu ver, instruction on the Mit'gehen, to go with. back. mietben, this house is to let. Dieser Knabe ist zu tateln, this boy is piano.
Zurüd'ichiden, to send to blame.
Gärtner m. gardener. I Spazier'gang, m. walk.' back. 2. Deigen signifies “to name, to call;" also, sometimes, “to command.” In the sense of naming or calling, it is most generally
EXERCISE 62. used in a passive signification, as :- Wie beißen Sie? how are
1. Wo schiden Sie Ihren Berienten hin? 2. &r ist frant, er fann you called ? or, what is your name? Ich heiße Rurolph, I am nirgents Þingehen. 3. Schreiben Sie diesen Brief ab? 4. Id Kabe ihn called Ralph, or, my name is Ralph.
icon abgeschrieben. 5. Glauben Sie, daß der Buchbinder mir meine VOCABULARY.
Bücher zurüdididt? 6. Hat Ihre Schwester tie Blumen erhalten, die ich
ihr gekauft habe? 7. Der (Wärtner kommt morgen und wird sie mitbringen Aus“sprache. f. pronun. Heißen, to name (R. Sanell, quick, rapid. | (Sect. XXVI. 2). 8. Wann geht Johann in die Schule ? 9. Er gebt ciation. 1. 2.)
morgen dahin, und der kleine Heinrich gebt auch 10. Wo sind die Bei'tragen, to contri.' Her stellen, to restore, Uebung, f. practice, neuen Tische, welche der Schreiner gemacht hat? 11. Haben Sie den bute. re-establish.
schönen Wagen gefeben, in welchem Herr . seine Frau und seine Kinder Braunschweig,
Himmel, (the) | llcberre'ten, to per. abholte? 12. Wann tommt Ihr Herr Bruder von Paris zurüc ? 13. Brunswick. heavens, sky.
Er ist schon seit (Sect. LVII.) fünf Tagen zurüd. 14. Haben Sie Durch, through, by Jafob, m. James. le'bersdub, m. over- Luft, einen Sraziergang zu machen ? 15. Nein, ich habe schon einen means of. 3e reste. or je je, the- shoe.
Spaziergang um die Start gemacht.
Verzeiven, to pardon, was interrupted by the arrival of a stranger. 2. When did gain. Mübe, f. pains, toil. excuse.
your sister start for France? 3. She left the day before yesterGlüct'je'ligkeit, f. feli. Obne, without. Vollfom'men, perfect. day. 4. Has she taken little Mary with her ? 5. It will be very city.
Werthvoll, valuable. difficult to make his conduct agree with the principles that he RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
professes. 6. You, who have forsaken your friends, are entitled
to no confidence. 7. Good women are the most charming class Ein böses Gewissen ist nicht zu be. An evil conscience is not to be of society; they comfort us, raise our minds, constitute our ru'bigen
happiness, and have no vices but those which we communicate Ein Gelchr'ter ist leichter zu über. A learned man is easier to con. to them, zeut gen, als ein Dimmer vince, than a stupid (one).
SECTION XXXIV.-PECULIARITIES IN VERBS, ETC.Weiércit ist nicht wie eine Waare zu Wisdom is not to be bought
like wares. Die Rose heißt die Königin der The rose is called the queen of Werden is used as an auxiliary in forming the future of all Blumen
German verbs; and, in this use, is translated by our auxiliary Der Soms beigt Der König der The lion is called the king of
"shall” or “will." (§ 70. 6.) Thiere the beasts,
1. As an independent verb werten signifies, “ to become, to
grow, to get," etc., as :-Er wird alt, he is growing old. Das EXERCISE 60.
Wetter wirt fälter, the weather is growing colder. Es wirt tuntel 1. Dicie großen schönen Häuser sind allo zu vermiether. 2. Das eine | it is getting dark. Der Rabe wird sehr alt, the raven becomes very Haus ist zu vermiethen, tas antere zu verkaufen 3. Es ist nicht zu glau- old (lives or attains to a great age). ben tag er uns verlassen bat 4. Dieses Buch ist bei Herrn Westermann
2. Werder with the dative often denotes possession, as :-Mir in Praunicwcig zu haben. 5. Kein einziger Stern war am ganzen Him wird immer das Meinige. I always obtain my own (to me comes mel zu seben. 6. Wie ist dieses lange Wort auszusprechen? 7. Wo sintl (becomes] always my own). Meinen armen Untertbanen mus tas die beiten Stiefel, Scube und Uebericuhe zu finden? 8. Die besten, dic Ibrize werten, my poor subjects must have their own (property). ich geieben babe sind bei meinem alten Nachbar N zu finten 9. Das
CONJUGATION OF THE VERB werden IN THE INDICATIVE Feuer brannte so schnell, tas nichts im Schlosse zu retten war. 10. Nidhte Wertbrelles iit obne Mühe zu gewinnen 11. Tieser bohe Felsen ist nicht
Participles. zu erklimmen 12. Dieses alte Haus ist nicht mehr berzustellen 13. PRES. Wcrren to become. PRES. Wertent, becoming. Durch dicien Walt ist nicht zu formen 14. Gr ist weter zu überzeugen. PERF. Gewer'ten sein, to have PERF, Geworden. become. noch zu überrer en 15. Sein Betragen ist gar nicht zu verzeiben 16.
become. Wie beißt Ihr Freund ? 17. Gr beißt Jafob. 18. Wie beißt das auf
PRESENT. Deutic ? 19. (8 heißt eine Brille 20. Gin Kunstwerf ist desto schöner,
Plural. je vollfommenier es ist das heißt je mehr Tbeile es hat, und je mehr alle Id merte, I become ;
wir werten, we become. tiere Theile zum Zwecke beitragen.
Du wirst, thou becomest; ibr wertet, you become.
Er wirs, he becomes ;
fie werten, they become. 1. The pronunciation of foreign words is only to be acqnired
IMPERFECT. through practice. 2. Nothing is to be learned without pains. Id wurte or wart, I became ; wir wurden, we became. 3. Perfect felicity is not to be found in this world. 4. You Du wurtest or warrst, thou be- ihr murtet, you became. speak so quick, that you are not to be understood. 5. Health camest; is not to be bought with money. 6. The peace of the town was Gr nurte or wart, he became; fic rurten, they became. not to be restored through severe orders. 7. How do you call these flowers ? 8. They are called tulips. 9. The intelligent
PERFECT. scholars are to be praised. 10 The difference between to buy Id bin geworten I have be- wir fint geworten we have beand to sell must, by this time, he known to the scholar. 11. come ; This book is to be had of the bookseller C. in London. 12. Du bist geworden, thou hast be. ihr seit geworden you have be, A valuable work of art cannot be made without much toil. 13. The rose and the violet are valued for their perfume, the Gr ist geworten, he has become; fic fint geworten, they have be tulip for the brilliancy of its colours. 14. James is going to
8. frankreich It war geworden, I had become; wir waren geworden, we had bees vor, aber ich glaube nicht, daß etw.is taraus werten wird.
wurde im Jahre eintausend adythuntert acht und vierzig cine Republif. 9.
10. 3it Ihre neue Grammatif (chor. Du marft geworden thou hadst ihr waret geworten, you had be. Gott sprac: es werde, und es wars. become;
beenrigt? 11. Noch nicht, aber ich hoffe, daß sie in längstens vierzehn come.
12. Was soll sus mir werten? 13. Es wird Er war geworden he had be. sie waren geworren, they had be- Tagen fertig werden wird.
cin beißer Tag werden, sprach ein alter Krieger, wenige Stunten vor der
Schlucht, zu seinen Cameraten. 14. Die Sonne sanf in tas Diecr, und c$ FIRST FUTURE.
mart Nacht 15. Der Sirante seufzt auf seinem Lager : ,,will es denn nie Ido merte werden. I shall be. wir werten werden, we shall be- | Tag werren?“ und der Taglöhner unter dem Druđe seiner Arbeit: „wird es
tenn nicột bald Nacht werten ? “ 16. Das Wetter ist schon ziemlich falt Du wirst werden, thou wilt be. ibr wertet werden, you will be generten.
EXERCISE 65. fr mirt werden, he will become; sie werten werten, they will be- 1. The present [Gegenwart] we know, the future [Zufunft] we
know not of, and honour to that man who can quietly await
[rubig erwarten] the future. 2. Became your sister suddenly ill ? SECOND FUTURE.
3. No, she felt a violent headache eight days previously. 4. Do It merre geworden sein. I shall wir werden geworden sein, we shall you intend to become a learned man? 5. Let us go home before have become; have become.
it gets dark. 6. Most people become ill through neglect [rurch Du wirst geworden sein, thou wilt ihr werdet geworden sein, you will Bernachlafligung). 7. Many a one (Mancher] has become quite have become; have become.
another man, after he has received a more careful education. Gr wirt geworden sein, he will sie werden geworden sein, they will Most people become slaves of wealth instead of masters of it. i have become ; have become.
9. As soon as it becomes spring, the whole of nature revives
again (belebt fich wieder). IMPERATIVE. Berte tu, become thon ;
werret ihr, become you. Harte er, let him become , werten sie, let them become.
OUR HOLIDA Y.
GYMNASTICS.-VI. 3. Often, when repeated or customary action is implied, the genitive of a noun is made to supply the place of an adrerb, The construction we have next to notice among the appliances 23. Des Morgens schlärt res Mittags licst, und des Abents srielt er, he of the Gymnasium is that known as sleaps in the morning, reads at noon, and plays in the evening. ( 101.)
THE VAULTING HORSE. 4. Ale (as), after fobalt, so viel, so weit, etc., is frequently This consists a figure made of wood, something in the form omitted, but must be supplied in translating, as :-So viel id of the body of a horse, and the character of which will be seen ITSTG, so far as I know. Co gut ich fann, as well as I can. Sobalt
by our illustration (Fig. 19). It is desirable that the block a tommt, as soon as he comes, etc. For other uses of als. see which forms the body of the horse should be covered with Sect. LX.
leather and well padded, but this is not indispensable. The VOCABULARY.
legs, which must be very firmly fixed in the ground, should be Funstor, dark.
Sinfon, to sink. so contrived as to be capable of elevating or lowering the body Hus mantern, to emi fübien to feel. Sobalt', as soon as. of the horse at pleasure, and the pommels also should be grate. pegi hot.
Tagʻlöhner, m. day. movable, so as to be adjusted at the most convenient distances Peen'rigen, to end, Ociten, to hope.
for the performance of the different exercises. finish.
buntert, hundred. Tausent, thousand ($ In some gymnasia a more simple kind of construction, named Cimetat m. comrade. Jabr, n. year.
a Vaulting Buck, is employed for the use of learners in the Dargus'.
thereout, Krieger, m, warrior. Vermögen, to be able. preliminary exercises among the Vaulting Horse series. The therefrom
Lager, n, couch. Vor'baben, to intend. buck is a solid block, in form an oblong square, and supported
lingstens, the Werten, to become, either on four legs, or on one stout one, so fixed in the centre Darien to be per. longest.
etc. (R. 1). that the body of the buck revolves upon it. But as the first mitted ($ 25). Meer, n. sea.
Ziel, n. limit, goal, few of the exercises we have now to mention closely resemble Grbit den to descry, Plöblicy, suddenly. aim.
those which are performed on the vaulting buck, we need not Solucit, f. battle. Ziemlich, tolerably, here make more than a passing allusion to the latter. Grrar ten to await. Republik", f. republic. Zuver'previously. The body of the vaulting horse is divided into three portions, Gertig ready Scufzen, to sigh. Zu'fünftig, future. the neck, the saddle, and the croup. The saddle is, of course,
the space between the two pommels; the neck, the narrower RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
portion in advance of the pommels; and the croup, behind Schult' er tas borte, stond er auf As soon (as) he heard that, he them. Near side is the side on your left hand, looking towards
stood up (got up).
the neck from behind; and off siele, the side on your right. 6: viel ich weiß ist er ein chrlicher As much (as) I know (so far as The first position for rner to practise is the rest (Fig. Mann I know), he is an honourable 20). You vault into this position from the ground, either with
or without a run. Placing the hands on the pommels of the Estalt
' rie Nachricht von dem Ver: As soon as the report of the horse you spring lightly up, until the thighs rest on the body of raʻibe (Hörger'8 erntraf, fant ter treachery of Görgey arrived, the horse, as in the illustration. Then descend to the ground, Much ter llngarn.
the courage of the Hunga- and, without leaving your hold of the pommels, spring up agair. rians sank.
and again several times in succession. Schult' die Sonne untergeht wirt As soon as the sun goes down,
2. Still in the position of the rest, practise the free movement it (becomes) is night.
of the legs, first one and then the other, sideways as far as you 9:5 ist aus ihm gewor'den ?
What has become of him? can extend them. Afterwards move both together in the same Ite Stunren werten zu Tagen, tie The hours (become) grow to war. The object of this exercise is to prepare the learner to Tage zu Woten, die Wochen zu days, the days to weeks, the mount the horse in a free and easy manner. Monaten, und tie Mo'nate zu wecks to months, and the 3. The sadille mount is performed in the following manner :months to years.
Go into the rest on the near side, then throw the right leg
upward, and let it pass over the croup; remove the right hand EXERCISE 64.
at the same time, and place it either upon the saddle or upon 1. Wir wert en alt une alter. unt sint cher am Zicle, ale ung angenețm the front pommel, when you can come down easily astride the 2. Es war io finlīst, taj mir unsere Hinte nicht ver ten Augen zu horse. This position is said to be crossways to the horse, and
3. Ilm fünf Uhr wird es tunfel. 4. Stehen Sie you are sideways when in the rest. Ponte Morgens früh auf? 5. Sobal: eg Ting wird, verlasse ich mein Lager 4. For the croup mount, you raise both legs upward from the
Huge, il. eye.
Irud m. pressure.
rest, and, opening them when they are above the croup, you course, grasping the pommel; but here, again, it is necessary come lightly down into the seat.
to have one or two persons by to assist you in case of a 5. In the neck mount, you start as with the saddle mount, but slip. throw the right leg over both croup and saddle, removing both 11. The balancing movement will assist you in changing hands as the leg passes.
readily from one seat to another. Thus, from the croup seat 6. In dismounting from the saddle seat, the right hand rests you raise the body as in Fig. 21, the legs being close together ;
upon the pommel in front you then throw the legs downward and forward along the side
the position of the rest, and swing them forward
but on the off-side of the as before, but as you
horse, and you then spring pass one leg over the lightly to the ground. In dismounting from the croup, you neck you face about, and throw up both legs backwards, and come to the ground on the come into the seat with off-side, without an intermediate position. From the neck you the forward pommel in dismount as from the saddle, by swinging the left leg back. front of you. These wards, or you may occasionally descend to the ground by the exercises may be done direct leap forward.
on both the near and There are various other ways of mounting and dismounting, off sides of the horse more or less fantastic in their nature, but it would require too in turn. mueh space, and serve no practical purpose, to describe them 13. Sit on one side of
Fig. 21. here.
the croup, and grasp one 7. In descending from the horse, both in the exercises just pommel in each hand, then raise the body and pass it com. described and in the more advanced of the series, the backward pletely over and round the horse until you reach the neck swing of may be performed with advantage, as follows :—When seat, and descend into it, facing about as before. In this the position of the rest is reached, grasp the pommels firmly, exercise the body describes a complete semicircle, the weight throw up the legs backwards, and, at the same moment, push. resting upon the hands. ing off lightly with the hands, you descend to the ground some 14. There are various ways of vaulting over the horse, one of distance from the horse. In descending in this manner, you which is shown in Fig. 22. rasp both pom els before taking may also either turn to the right or to the left before coming to the spring, but relinquish the hold of one hand as the body the ground, or completely round, so that the back is towards the passes over. A run of a few paces will give an additional horse when the feet touch the earth.
impetus for the spring, but the movement should also be prac8. Balancing upon the horse is performed in a variety of tised from the standing position. ways, but in these exercises the legs must not touch the horse. 15. Vault straight over the horse, after a short run, by placing One form of balancing is shown in Fig. 21. In executing this the hands upon the pommels and springing upward, the legs balance you start from the croup seat, and throw your legs passing between the arms, and the knees being raised towards gradually behind you, leaning well forward upon the hands at the chest as you pass over. This exercise may afterwards be the same time, the weight of the body resting upon them. In done with the knees lowered and the legs bent straight behind this way you raise the legs to the position shown in the illus- in taking the jump, which will give variety to the murement. tration, and, as you become more expert and confident, you may But these vaults should be practised only by an expert continue the upward movement until you stand upon the hands. gymnast. But when attempting to perform this teat, it is necessary that Other vaults are taught in our gymnasia, some of a much some one should be close by the gymnast to render assistance more difficult and daring character. Among these may be menin case it is required.
tioned the leap over the horse without touching it with any part 9. The same kind of movement may be performed from the of the person, technically known as the free leap. It is nsual position already described as the rest (Fig. 20), but in this case to prepare for this exercise by vaulting from the ground on to the legs, even from the moment of starting, may be kept entirely the saddle, resting one foot thereupon; and after the gymnast can clear of the horse. Grasping both pommels firmly, gradually accomplish this, he is allowed to attempt the free leap. There
raise the legs from the ground until the is a still more hazard-
Fig. 22. on leaping exercises, to alight on the balls horse are practised Fig. 20. of the feet, bending the knees slightly as occasionally, generally starting from the position of the rest;
you touch the earth, and you thas come but we cannot commend any of these performances to the down without a violent shock.
emulation of our readers. In the gymnasia in which they may 10. Starting from the saddle seat, grasp the forward pommel, occasionally be seen, only advanced gymnasts are allowed to and then, keeping the legs just clear of the horse, raise the attempt them, nor is even the expert performer left without the back until it forms almost a straight line with the head, the legs aid of one or more attendants, who stand by in readiness to extending straight downwards on either side. After you can give any assistance that may be required. Even in the simpler do this with ease, you may bring the head downward until it performances upon the horse caution is requisite, as in many touches the horse, and stand on your head, the hands, of other gymnastic exercises.
LESSONS IN BOTANY.-X.
| Pentandria-five stamens. 6. Herandria—six stameng. 7.
Heptandria - seven stamens. 8. Octandria-eight stamens. SECTION XX,-FURTHER CLASSIFICATION OF
9. Enneandria-nine stamens. 10. Decandria-ten stamens. VEGETABLES.
11. Dodecandria-eleven to nineteen stamens. 12. Icosandria All the general principles we have discussed and taken advan. —twenty or more on the calyx. 13. Polyandria- twenty or more tage of hitherto have merely furnished us with the means of on the receptacle. 14. Didynamia-four, two long, two short. dividing vegetables into three sections ; the question, there. 15. Tetradynamia-six, four long, two short. 16. Monadelphia fore presents itself, how we are to continue the division, how stamens joined by their filaments into one body. 17.Diadelphia arrange the classification of the hundreds of thousands of stamens joined into two bodies. 18. Polyadelphia-stamens plants which exist ? Various methods have been at different joined into more than two bodies. 19. Syngenesia—stamens times proposed for accomplishing this. We shall not mention joined by their anthers into a cylinder. 20. Gynandria-stamens them in the order of their organisation, nor shall we fully adherent to pistil. 21. Monæcia-flowers bearing pistils excludescribe them, such not being the object with which these papers sively, and flowers bearing stamens exclusively, on the same plant. are written. We shall mention the general principles involved in i 22. Diæcia-flowers bearing pistils exclusively, and flowers bear. effecting some of these classifica
ing stamens exclusively, on different tions, and shall point out in what
plants. 23. Polygamia — flowers respects certain classifications are
bearing stamens exclusively, or better than others.
pistils exclusively, or hermaphroOf all the different schemes of
dite, on the same or on different classification which have ever been
plants. 24. Cryptogamia. proposed or carried into execution,
In the annexed illustration, a that of the celebrated Swede, Linné
representation is given of the fleshy or Linnæus, undoubtedly attained to
rhizome, leaves, and flower of the the greatest popularity. Indeed,
Iris florentina, or White Iris, a so firm is the hold which it took of
beautiful species of the family popular appreciation that no incon
Iridaceæ, and a native of Southern siderable number of those who even
Europe. It flowers in May. AcDow study Botany fancy they have
cording to the division adopted nothing more to learn than the
by Linnæus, this plant belongs number of pistils and stamens
to the first order Monogynia which are contained in different
(having one pistil), of the third flowers, totally unconscious of all
class Triandria (having three stanatural alliances. Suppose that
mens). some eccentric ethnologist should
From an inspection of this ar. adopt the grotesque idea of classify.
rangement, we observe that up to ing human races according to the
the eleventh class the number of gamber of wives the individuals of
stamens alone furnishes the dig. each race were in the habit of mar.
tinctive sign, after which other rying. Suppose that in reference
circumstances are taken cogni. to this master-idea the ethnologist
sance of. These circumstances should arrive at the conclusion that
are sufficiently indicated in the inasmuch as Mussulman Turks, and
list of classes given above; but Mussulman negroes, and Mussulman
it is desirable to present the reader Kalmucs, and Malays, all marry
with the derivation of the names. & great many wives, that for this
It will be remembered that the reason Turks, negroes, and
stamens are the male organs of Kalmucs, and Malays, must all
the flower, and the names given belong to the same race of men.
to the first eleven classes are comWould not such a classification
pounded of the Greek words for awaken a smile at its grotesque
the numerals, one, two, three, four, whimsicality ? and would it not be
five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, and considered an eminently false classi.
twelve, and the Greek noun arnp fication, not to say absurd ?
(an'-eor), genitive avdpos (an'-dros), Yet this is almost a parallel
Icosandria is formed of arrangement to that of Linnæus,
the same Greek noun, and ElkOO. who effected his celebrated artificial
(ei'-ko-si), the Greek for twenty; division of plants according to the
polyandria from the same Greek sumber and position of the malo
noun, aynp, and
the adjective and female parts (stamens and
Tolvs (pol-use), much or many. pistils) of flowers. TEB IRIS, AN EXAMPLE OF THE LINXEAN CLASS TRIANDRIA.
The term didynamia means two. Nevertheless, the artificial classi
powered, from the Greek δυο fication of Linnæus has acquired &
(du'-o), two, and duvamis (du-nacelebrity so great, and is so interwoven with popular botanical' mis), power ; the reason why the term is applied will be seen ideas, that it cannot be dismissed with the casual notice we i by referring to the explanation given above. Monadelphia have already afforded it. Let us, therefore, proceed to examine means one brotherhood, from the Greek povos (mon'-08), one, the general principles on which it is based.
and adenpos (a-del'-phos), brother, because all the stamens In the first place, Linnæus divided plants into cryptogamic are connected together. Syngenesia is another term signifying and flowering, as we have done. The department of crypto- a growing together, from the Greek ouv (sune), together, and gamic botany was, however, very imperfectly known to rivouac (gi'-no-mi, the g hard), I grow. Gynandria is derived Linnæus ; it was to the classification of Aowering plants that from the Greek gurn (gu'-ne, g hard), woman, and avnp, genitive his chief efforts were directed, and it is his mode of effecting | avopos, a man, because the pistils and stamens are attached. this that we have to examine. Linnæus arranged all flowering Monacia signifies one-housed, from the Greek movos, one, plants under twenty-three classes, founded on the number and and otkos (op'-kos), house, for a reason which will be evident. arrangement of the male parts (stamens) of the flower.
Polygamia is derived from the Greek tous, many, yapos The names of his twenty-four classes, including cryptogamic (gam'-os), marriage; the meaning of which term will also be plants as the twenty-fourth, are as follows:
evident by a simple inspection of the list of classes. In order 1. Monandria-ono stamen. 2. Diandria-two stamens. 3. that the student may become practically acquainted with the Triandria—three stamens. 4. Tetrandria-four stame:3. 5. respective peculiarities of these classes, we shall now mention in
conn action with each class a corresponding flower, in which the order of any particular vegetable can be determined, are not so characteristic mark of distinction may be recognised
easily discriminated as might be supposed. Dodecandria, icoExamples
sandria, and polyandria, are occasionally very difficult to distin. 1. Centranthus
guish one from the other. In didynamia and tetradynamia the 2. Veronica
stamens are sometimes equrl, whilst in other classes, in which 3. Iris
they form two series, their inequality is manifest; such is the 4. Plantain
case in pinks and geraniums. Monadelphia and diadeipnia are 5. Pimpernel
Pentandria. 6. Lily
sources of continual mistakes ; many plants called monadel.
Hexandria. 7. Horse Chestnut
phous in the system of Linnæus scarcely present an appreciable
Heptandria. 8. Evening Primrose
junction of the stamens; many plants called diadelphous are 9. Bay-Laure!
really monadelphous. Syngenesia should as fairly include the 10. Pink
cyclamen as the violet. Monacia and diccia furnish many 11. Houseleek
characteristic appearances which are not taken cognisance of; 12. Strawberry
and many other objections might be readily cited. 13. Ranunculus
Polyandria, 14. Foxglove
Didynamia. 15. Wall-flower
Tetradynamia 16. Mallow.
READING AND ELOCUTION.-X. 17. Pea
ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE. (continued.) 18. St. John's Wort
Polyadelphia. 19. Blue Corn-Flower Syvgenesia.
V.-TRUE TIME. 20. Orchis
Gynandria. 21. Arum
By true time in elocution is meant an utterance well-propor22. Nettle
tioned in sound and pause, and neither too fast nor too slow. 23. Pellitory of the wall
We should never read so fast as to render our reading indistinct, With respect to further divisions of these classes, the first nor so slow as to impair the vivacity, or prevent the full effect, thirteen of them are divided into orders founded on the number of what is read. of free carpels or styles entering into the composition of the Everything tender or solemn, plaintive or grave, should be pistil. In the order monogynia the pistil is formed of one read with great moderation. Everything humorous or sprightly, singie carpel, or many carpels united into one single body by everything witty or amusing, should be read in a brisk and their ovaries or their styles ; in digynia there are two distinct lively manner. Narration should be generally equable and ovaries, or styles; in trigynia, three; in tetragynia, four; in flowing ; vehemence, firm and accelerated ; anger and joy, pentagynia, five; in hexagynia, six ; in polygynia, a number rapid; whereas, dignity, authority, sublimity, reverence, and exceeding ten. The fourteenth class includes two orders : awe, should, along with deeper tone, assume a slower movement. gymnospermia, in which the pistil is composed of four achænia, The movement should, in every instance, be adapted to the having the appearance of naked seeds; angiospermia, in which sense, and free from all hurry on the one hand, or drawling on the seeds are included in a capsule. The fifteenth class, the other. The pausing, too, should be carefully proportioned or tetradynamia, is divided into two orders, siliquosa or to the movement or rate of the voice; and no change of movesiliculosæ, according as the fruit happens to be longer than ment from slow to fast, or the reverse, should take place in any broad, or broader than long. The sixteenth, seventeenth, clause, unless a change of emotion is implied in the language of eighteenth, twentieth, twenty-first, and twenty-second classes, the piece. have their orders established in conformity with the number The “slowest” and the “ quickest ” rates of utterance have and the mode of connection of the stamens and the styles been exemplified under the head of "versatility ." of voice, and (triandria, pentandria, polyandria, monogynia, polygynia, mona- need not be repeated here. They occur in the extremes of grave delphia, etc.). The nineteenth class is sub-divided into poly- and gay emotion. gamia æqualis, in which all the flowers of the head contain both There are three important applications of "time" in connecstamens and pistils; polygamia superflua, in which the tion with “ rate” or “movement,” which frequently occur in the central flowers of the capitulum contain both stamens and common forms of reading and speaking. These are the “slow," pistils, and those of the circumference pistils only; poly- the “moderate,” and the “lively." The first of these, the gamia frustranea, when the flowers of the circumference have “slow,” is exhibited in the tones of awe, reverence, and solemnity, neither stamens nor pistils ; polygamia necessaria, when all when these emotions are not so deep as to require the slowest the central flowers contain stamens, and those of the circum- movement of all: the second, the "moderate," belongs to grave ference pistils.
and serious expression, when not so deep as to require the The botanist who sets about applying the principles of Lin. “slow” movement; it belongs, also, to all unimpassioned comnæus soon finds that the same class is made to contain plants munication, addressed to the understanding more than to the of different natural families, whilst others having affinities to feelings; and it is exemplified in the utterance of moderate, each other are widely separated.
subdued, and chastened emotion : the third rate, the “lively," is It would be unjust to the memory of Linnæus not to say that perhaps sufficiently indicated by its designation, as characterhe recognised the desirableness of classifying vegetables accord-ising all animated, cheerful, and gay expression. ing to their natural alliances, if this could be done; but at the All the exercises on "time" should be repeated till they can time when he lived a sufficient number of facts to admit of this be exemplified perfectly and at once. Previous to practising had not been collected. “ All plants,” remarks Linnæus, in his the following exercises, the student will be aided in formning botanical philosophy, are allied by affinities, just as territories distinct and well-defined ideas of “time," by turning back to come in contact with each other on a geographical chart. Bota- the example under“ versatility,” marked as “very slow," and nists should unceasingly endeavour to arrive at a natural order repeating it, with close attention to its extreme slowness. He of classification. Such natural order is the final aim of botani. will observe that, in the repeating of this example, the effect of cal science. The circumstance rendering such a plan defective “time,” or proportion of movement, is to cause a remarkable now is the insufficient knowledge we have of plants, so many lengthening out of the sound of every accented vowel; an species of which are yet undiscovered. When these species are extreme slowness in the succession of the sounds of all letters, discovered and described, a natural classification will be accom. syllables, and words : and along with all this, an unusual length plished, for nature does not proceed abruptly, as it were by in all the pauses. It is this adjustment of single and successivo leaps.”
sounds and their intermissions, which properly constitutes the These sentiments, made known by the great Swede himself, office of “ time” in elocution: although the term is often indeprove to us that he only intended his artificial classification to finitely used rather as synonymous with the word “ movement," be a provisional arrangement.
as applied in music. Waiving the question of its intrinsic utility, the artificial sys. The “slow” movement differs from the “slowest,” in not tem of Linnæus is not always so easy of application as it might possessing the same extreme prolongation of sound in single at a first glance be thought. The characters of the stamens vowels, or the same length of pause. The slow succession of and the pistils necessary to be made out before the class and sound is, however, a common characteristic in both.