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Exarole of " Siow" Movement.

2. Before and after an intervening phrase Thou, who didst put to flight

Talents || without application || are no security for progress in Primeval silence, when the morning stars

learning. Exulting shouted o'er the rising ball;

3. Wherever transposition of phrases may take place :O Thou, whose word from solid darkness struck That spark, the sun, strike wisdom from my soul!

Through dangers the most appalling || he advanced with heroic

intrepidity. “ Moderate." There is something nobly simple and pure in a taste for the cultiva

4. Before an adjective following its noun :tion of forest trees. It argues, I think, a sweet and generous nature, Hers was a soul || replete with every noble quality. to have a strong relish for the beauties of vegetation, and a friendship

5. Before relative pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, or for the hardy and glorious sons of the forest. There is a grandeur of adverbs used conjunctively, when followed by a clause depending thought connected with this part of rural economy. It is worthy of liberal, and freeborn, and aspiring men. He who plants an oak looks

on them :forward to future ages, and plants for posterity. Nothing can be less A physician was called in || who prescribed appropriate remedies. selfish than this. He cannot expect to sit in its shade, and enjoy its The traveller began his journey || in the highest spirits || and with sbelter; but he exults in the idea that the acorn which he has buried the most delightful anticipations. in the earth shall grow up into a lofty tree, and shall keep on flourish.

6. Where ellipsis, or omission of words, takes place :ing, and increasing, and benefiting mankind, long after he shall have ceased to tread his paternal fields.

To your elders manifest becoming deference, to your companions I

frankness, to your juniors || condescension. “ Lively.

7. Before a verb in the infinitive mood, governed by another How does the water come down at Lodore ?

verb :Here it comes sparkling,

The general now commanded his reserve force ll to advance to the And there it lies darkling;

aid of the main body.
Here smoking and frothing,

Exercise on Rhetorical" Pauses.
Its tumult and wrath in.
Till in this rapid ruce

Industry || is the guardian' of innocence.
On which it is bent,

Honour || is the subject of my story.
It reaches the place

The prodigal || lose many opportunities ' for doing good.

Of its steep descent.

Prosperity || gains friends, adversity I tries them.
The cataract strong

Time || once passed || never returns.
Then plunges along,

He i that hath no rule ' over his own spirit, is like a city' that is
Striking and raging,

broken down, and without walls. As if a war waging,

Better ' is a dinner of herbs || where love | is, than a stalled ox || and Its caverns and rocks among;

hatred | therewith, Rising and leaping,

The veil || which covers ' from our sight | the events of succeeding Sinking and creeping,

years, is a veil' woven by the hand of Mercy.
Swelling and sweeping,

Blessed || are the poor in spirit.
Showering and spriuging,

Silver | and gold || have I none.
Flying and fiinging,

Mirth || I consider ' as an act, cheerfulness || as a habit ' of the
Writhing and ringing,

mind. Mirth || is short' and transient, cheerfulness || fixed ' and Eddying and whisking,

permanent. Mirth || is like a flash of lightning, that glitters' for Spouting and frisking,

a moment: cheerfulness || keeps up a kind of daylight ' in the Turning and twisting

Around and around,

Some || place the bliss ' in action, some || in ease;
With endless rebound;

Those || call it pleasure, and contentment || these.
Smiting and fighting,
A sight to delight in ;

The habitual tendency of young readers being to hurry, in
Confounding, astounding,

reading, their pauses are liable to become too short for distinctDizzying and deafening the ear with its sound.

ness, or to be entirely omitted. In most of the above examples,

the precision, beauty, and force of the sentiment, depend much And so never ending, but always descending,

on the careful observance of the rhetorical pauses. The student Sounds and motions for ever and ever are blending,

may obtain an idea of their effect, by reading each sentence All at once and all o'er, with a mighty uproar; And this way the water comes down at Lodore.

first, without the rhetorical pauses-secondly, with the pausing


Rule on the OratoricalPause. The grammatical punctuation of sentences, by which they are

The “oratorical ” pause is introduced into those passages divided into clauses by commas, although sufficiently distinct which express the deepest and most solemn emotions, such for the purpose of separating the syntactical portions of the structure, are not adequate to the object of marking all the

as naturally arrest and overpower, rather than inspire utter. andible pauses, which sense and feeling require, in reading

Examples. aloud. Hence we find, that intelligible and impressive reading depends on introducing many short pauses, not indicated by The sentence was-DEATH ! There is one sure refuge for the commas or other points, but essential to the meaning of phrases oppressed, one sure resting place for the weary-The grave. and sentences. These shorter pauses are, for the sake of dis

It was the design of Providence, that the infant mind | should tinction, termed *rhetorical.”

possess the germ' of every science. If it were not so, the sciences Powerful emotion not unfrequently suggests another species the field | a place ' wherein it may grow, regale the sense | with its

could hardly be learnt. The care of God || provides ' for the flower of of panse, adapted to the utterance of deep feeling. This pause fragrance, and delight the soul | with its beauty. Is his providence' Bometimes takes place where there is no grammatical point less active over those, to whom this flower offers its incense ?-No. need, and sometimes is added to give length to a grammatical The soil' which produces the vine || in its most healthy luxuriance, is pense. This pause may be termed the “ oratorical,” or the not better adapted to that end, than the world we inhabit, to draw panse of "effect."

forth the latent energies of the soul, and fill them' with life' and The length of the rhetorical pause depends on the length of vigour. As well might the eye | see ' without light, or the ear | hear the clanse, or the significance of the word which follows it. The

| without sound, as the human mind | be healthy and athletic | with. full “ rhetorical pause" is marked thus ll, the "half-rhetorical

out descending into the natural world, and breathing the mountain

air. pause" thus 1, and the short “rhetorical pause

thus '.

Is there aught in Eloquence, which warms the heart ? She draws Rules for RhetoricatPauses.

her fire' from natural imagery. Is there aught in Poetry | to enliven The “ rhetorical” pause takes place, as follows :

the imagination ? There is the secret of all her power.

Is there 1. Before a verb when the nominative is long, or when it is the natural world || is only the body, of which she is the soul. aught in Science to add strength' and dignity ' to the human mind?

In books, Science' is presented to the eye of the pupil, as it were, in a Life i is abort, and art | is long.

dried ' and preserved 'state.


The time may come, when the in


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emphatic :

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structor will take him by the hand, and lead him ' by the running | triangles only, but for any triangles, whether symmetrical or streams, and teach him all the principles of Science, as she comes not, that are upon the same base and between the same from her Maker; as he would smell the fragrance of the rose, with parallels. Thus, the triangles L F G, M F G are each of them out gathering it. This love of nature; this adaptation of man' to the place assigned between the same parallels, D E, K, and each of them would

equal to the triangle PFG, which is on the same base, F G, and him ' by his heavenly Father; this fulness of the mind || as it descends into the works of God, is something, which has been felt' by be equal to any triangle that may be formed by drawing lines every one, though to an imperfect degree, and therefore I needs no from the points F and a to any point in the straight line 1 K, explanation. It is the part of science, that this l be no longer a blind produced both ways indefinitely affection; but' that the mind' be opened to a just perception of Triangles also which stand upon equal bases and between the what it is, which it loves. The uffection, which the lover first feels!

same parallels are equal to one another. Thus, the triangles for his future wife, may be attended' only by a general sense' of her

LNG, M O F, which external beauty ; but his mind 'gradually opens to a perception of

stand on equal the peculiar features of the soul, of which the external appearance | is only an image. So it is ' with nature. Do we love to gaze on the

bases, NG, F 0, and

K between the same sun, the moon, the stars, and the planets ? This affection | contains ' in its bosom | the whole science of astronomy, as the seed contains

parallels, DE, HE, the future tree. It is the office of the instructor' to give it an

are equal to one existence and a name, by making known the laws which govern the

another, as are also motions of the heavenly bodies, the relation of these bodies to each

the triangles LN F, other, and their uses.

MOG, which are Have we felt delight' in beholding the animal creation,-in watching

Ē between the same their pastimes, and their labours? It is the office of the instructor i

Fig. 32. to give birth to this affection, by describing the different classes of

parallels and stand animals, with their peculiar characteristics, which inhabit the earth,

on equal bases x P, the air, and the sea. Have we known the inexpressible pleasure of

And this is also as true of unsymmetrical triangles as of beholding the beauties ' of the vegetable world ? This affection | can

symmetrical triangles, for if we join the dotted line NP, the only expand ' in the science of botany. Thus it is, that the love of triangles L NF, PNF, are equal to one another, because they nature in the mass || may become the love of all the sciences, and are on the same base, NF, and between the same parallels ; the mind will grow and bring forth fruit | from its own inherent and since the triangle Mgo is equal to the triangle L N F, it power of development.

must also be equal to the triangle PN F.

In Case 3, when two of the angles of the required triangle are

given, it is manifestly necessary only to make at two points in LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-X.

the same straight line, and on the same side of it, two angles In our last lesson we considered the various series of data equal to the given angles, each having its opening turned necessary for the construction of an isosceles triangle: we will towards the apex of the other, and then, if necessary in order to now do the same for any kind of scalene triangle, or triangle of complete the triangle, to produce the sides of the angles that are which all three sides are unequal.

inclined to the side that is common to both. The student must A scalene triangle, as it has been stated, may be an acute notice that when two anglos of a required triangle are given angled triangle, an obtuse-angled triangle, or a right-angled without any special requirement as to their relative position

, triangle. To determine any scalone triangle, it is plain that we

an endless number of pairs of symmetrical triangles may be must have one of the following series of data.

drawn, similar in form but of different superficial areas, all I. With regard to the sides without the angles :

satisfying the general requirements set forth in the data.

Thus, in Fig. 33, if A and B represent the given angles of the 1. The length of each of the three unequal sides. 2. The length of two sides and the altitude of the triangle.

triangle required, it is plain that to make a triangle having two

angles equal to the given angles A and B, we have only to make II. With regard to the angles without the sides :

at any point, c, in a straight line, xy, of indefinite length, the 3. Any two of the angles of the triangle.

angle Y c E equal to A, and at another point, D, in the same III. With regard to the sides and angles combined :

straight line, the angle x D E equal to B, each angle having its

opening opposite or turned towards the apex of the other, as, in 4. The length of any two of the sides of the triangle and one of its this figure, the opening of the angle at c is opposite the apes D angles. 5. The length of one side of the triangle and two of its angles.

of the angle at D, and vice versa ; and to complete the triangle 6. The length of one side of the triangle, its altitude, and one of its produce the sides, C E, D Е, of the angles at cand o that are angles adjacent to the given side.

inclined to the common side, CD, until they meet. If we reverse

the position of the angles, making the angle at c equal to the As in the construction of the isosceles triangle, the first case angle at B, and the angle at D is met by Problem VIII. (page 191), but the second brings equal to the angle at a, the us to

triangle assumes the form shown PROBLEM XXIV.—To draw a triangle of which the length of by the triangle rcd in the two of its sides and the altitude are given.

figure. The triangles ECD, Let A and B (Fig. 32) represent the length of two of the sides FCD, are symmetrical and equal of the triangle required, and c its altitude. In any straight line, in every respect. The triangles DE, of indefinite length, set off F G equal to B, and by Problem X. KG 1, LG H, shown by dotted (page 192), draw the indefinite straight line, HK, parallel to lines, are also equal and sym. DE, at a distance from it equal to c, the altitude of the required metrical in every respect, and triangle. Then from F as centre, with a radius equal to A, draw satisfy the general conditions of an arc cutting I K in the point L. Join L F, LG; the triangle the data, although their superLF G is a triangle answering the requirements of the data, for ficial area is greater than the

Fig. 33. its sides, L F, F G, are equal to A and B respectively, and its area of the triangles EC D, FCD, altitude shown by the dotted line L N is equal to the given because

the points 4 and 1, at which the angles necessary for straight line c. The triangle M F G, drawn in the same way, is the construction of the triangle required are made equal to s also a triangle which meets the requirements of the data, for its and B, are taken on the indefinite straight line, xy, at a greater sides, M G, G F, are equal to A and B respectively, and its altitude, distance apart than c and D. shown by the dotted line mo, is equal to c.

PROBLEM XXV.To draw a triangle of which two sides and The triangles LFG, MFG, are equal to each other in every one of the angles are given. respect, namely, the length of their sides, their altitude, and First, let the given angle be included between the given sides, their superficial area. They are upon the same base, FG, and and let the straight lines B, o represent the length of the given between the same parallels, D E, 1 K, and they are what we may sides of the triangle

required, and A the given angle included term symmetrical triangles. From this we learn that symme between them (Fig. 34). Draw any straight line, xy, of indetrical triangles on the same base and between the same parallels finite length,

and at any point, , in Xy, make the

angle D B are equal to one another; and this is true, not for symmetrical equal to the given angle A. Along D y set off D F, equal to G


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and along D E set off D G, equal to B. Join G F; the triangle to A. If it be required to have the smaller angle opposite to G D F answers the requirements set forth in the data, as does the given side, the angle ki o must be made equal to the larger also the triangle KDH, obtained by setting off D u along de angle B, and the same method of construction followed as indi. equal to B, and D K along D E equal to c.

cated by the dotted lines in the figure. The triangles G DF, K D H are symmetrical and equal in every PROBLEM XXVII.—To draw a triangle of which one side, its respect; but if the position of the given angle had been required to be opposite to one of the given sides, instead of being included between them, a very different result would have been obtained.

We will suppose, firstly, that it is required to place the angle
opposite the shorter of the two given sides. At the point L in the

straight line of inde-
finite length, X Y,
make the angle x L M
equal to the given

Fig. 36.
angle A, and as this
angle is to be opposite altitude, and one of its angles adjacent to the given side, are
to the shorter side, given.

set off along L x the Let A represent the length of the given side of the required y straight line LN, triangle, B its altitude, and c the given angle. Draw any

equal to c; and from straight line, xy, of indefinite length, and, by Problem x. Fig. 34.

Nas a centre, with (page 192), draw the straight line D E, also of indefinite length,

a radius equal to B, parallel to it, at a distance from it equal to B. Set off ra in describe the arc O P, cutting the straight line L x in the points x y equal to A, and at the point F in the straight line G F make O, P. Join O N and pn. Either of the triangles ONL, PNL, the angle GF H equal to the given angle c. Let Fi meet D E will satisfy the requirements of the data, for in the triangle in H.

Join G H The triangle F G H answers the requirements ONL the sides on, n L are equal to B and c respectively, of the data, for it has a side F G equal to A, an angle a FH While the angle o L N is opposite to the shorter side on; and equal to c, and it is of the altitude # k, which is equal to the in the triangle PNL, the sides PN, NL are equal to B and c given altitude B. A triangle equal to the triangle GF 1 in respectively, while the angle PL N is opposite to the shorter every respect, and symmetrical with it, may be obtained by side PN.

making an angle at g, in the straight line F G, equal to c, and If it be required to place the angle opposite to the longer of following the same process of construction. the two given sides, it is manifest that we must set off L Q along

If the given angle be an obtuse angle, as c, the line which LI equal to B; and from as centre, with a radius equal to c, represents the altitude of the triangle required will fall on a describe an arc cutting the straight line L M in R. By joining point in X Y without the line which is set off upon it equal to BQ, we get a triangle, R Q L, that satisfies the requirements of the given side. If it be an acute angle, as the angle 2, the the data, the sides L Q, Q R being equal to B and c respectively, line representing the altitude of the triangle may fall between and the angle QL R, which is equal to the angle a, opposite to the extremities of the line set off equal to the given side, as the longer side R Q.

no in the triangle NLM, which is drawn having the side L M The learner may make an endless variety of practical exercises equal to A, and the angle ML N equal to the given angle z; on this problem, by varying the length of the given sides and but whether this be the case or not depends entirely on the the opening of the given angle. Practice of this kind will be size of the angle and the relative proportions of the altitude and. found to ensure neatness and accuracy in geometrical or given side. mechanical drawing, and will tend to render the draughtsman

In the construction of right-angled triangles, as one angle is skilful in the use of his compasses and parallel ruler.

always necessarily known, less data are required than in the PROBLEM XXVI.—To draw a triangle of which one side and construction of obtuse-angled and acute-angled triangles ; thus two of the angles are given.

any right-angled triangle may be constructed if we knowLet a represent the length of the given side of the required 1. The length of either of the sides containing the right angle (as triangle, and B and c the given angles, and first let both of the A B and Ac in Fig. 37).

given angles be ad- 2. The length of either of the sides containing the right angle, and
jacent to the given the side which subtends the right angle (as a B and Bc, or ac and BC
side, or in other in Fig. 37).
words, let them be

3. The side which subtends the right angle, and the perpendicular at its opposite ex.

let fall on it from the right angle (as AD and Bc in Fig. 37), tremities, the Thus, if the sides that contain the right angle be equal to 1 same side of it. and R, draw at right angles to each other A B and Ac, and

Draw any straight make A B equal to P, and AC equal to R, and join BC: ABO line, x y, of indefinite will be the triangle required.

y length, and in it take Again, if one of the sides containing the right angle be given. E H

D E equal to A. At equal to P, and the side that sub-
Fig. 35.

the point d make the tends the right angle equal to s,

angle E D F equal to draw BC equal to s; bisect it in the angle B, and at the point E make the angle D E F equal to c. E, and from E as centre, with the Let the sides DF, EF meet in the point F; the triangle FDE distance EB or Ec, describe the satisfies the requirements of the data; as will also the triangle semicircle B A C. Then from B as GDE, constructed by making the angle GDE equal to c, and centre, with a radius equal to P, the angle GED equal to B.

draw an arc cutting the semicircle Next, let one of the given angles be opposite to the given BAC in A. Join A B, AC; the side, as, for example, when the angle equal to the larger angle B triangle ABC will be the triang! is required to be in this position. Take I k, in the straight required.

Fig. 37. line of indefinite length, xy, and at the point u make the angle if the side which subtends therr KHL equal to the angle c. Through K draw km parallel to right angle be given equal to s, and the perpendicular let fall I L, and at the point k in the straight line m K make the angle on it from the right angle equal to e, draw B C equal to s, bisect IK N equal to the angle B, and let the straight line k meet it in E, and draw the semicircle B AC as before; through E draw the straight line 1 Loin n. The triangle ni has the angle af perpendicular to B c, and along it set of EG equal to Q. X H N equal to c, and the angle u N K equal to B (for it is equal Through a draw GA parallel to B c, cutting the circumference to ita alternate angle N KM, which was made equal to B), and the in a, and from a draw A B, AC, to the points B and c. The larger angle u n is opposite to the side u k, which is equal altitude, A D, of the triangle A B C is equal to g.

y death

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Gr hat genug.


Sie hat (deren) genug', aber zu wenig She has enough of them, but
Zeit, dieselben zu lesen.

too little time to read them. SECTION XXXV.-PECULIARITIES IN VERBS, ETC.(continued).

Wissen Sie, wer das ist ?

Do you know who that is ?

Es ist mein Vater, ?utter, It is my father, my mother, my FOR “any” and “ some,” as generally used before a noun, the

mein Kind.

child. German has no corresponding word, as:- -Haben Sie Brod? have

EXERCISE 66. you some bread? Haben Sie Seite? have you any silk ? Ich

1. Wie alt ist dieser Mann? 2. Er ist nicht sehr alt. 3. Hat er viel Şabe Bücher, I have some books. 1. The indefinite adjective pronoun

is expressed in Selt? 4. Ja, und er hat auch viele Freunde und viele Feinte. 5. Welcher German by welcher, welche, welches, as :-Haben Sie Wasser? Ich habe Knabe hat viel (R. 2, above) Nepfel und Birnen? 6. Giner von den welcheb; I have “some.” For the genitive of welcher--which, Söhnen des Bauern hat viel Aepfel, der andere vie! Birnen. 7. Der eine however, is usually left out--we employ the personal pronoun bat viel Glüd, der andere hat nur Gram und Rummer. 8. Wie viel Prod preceded by “of,” as:- Haben Sie viel Wasser? have you much hat der Bäder? 9. Er hat sehr viel Brod, aber nur wenig Mehl. 10. water? Ich habe (dessen) viel, I have much of it (literally, I have Dieser Mann þat wenig Geld, aber viel Berstand. 11. Diese Stiefel of it much). Haben Sie viel Hüte ? have you many hats ? Il find mit viel zu groß, und die Stube sind meinem Bruder ein wenig zu habe (deren) vicle, I have many of them (I have of them many). kurz. 12. Wird Ihr Oheim viel Pulver faufen? 13. Er wird nur wenig

14. Wer ist das? 15. Gs ist ein From these examples it will be seen that the partitive word in faufen, denn er hat zu wenig Geld. German is placed after the pronoun, while in English it is alter Freund des Arztes. 16. Wer hat gutes Wasser ? 17. Der Matrose placed before it. In this use it is declined like the relative welcher. Wat welches. 18. Werde ich morgen die Bücher befommen? 19. Sie sollen

schon heute welche haben. 20. Hat der Bauer viel Weigen? 21. Gr bat DECLENSION OF welcher AS A PARTITIVE.

dessen nicht viel. 22. Hat der Schmied viel Stahl ? 23. Er hat (tessen) Singular.


viel. 24. Hat er viel Nägel ? 25. Er hat (deren) viel. 26. Wer hat Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. of all genders. Milch ? 27. Der Bauer hat welche. 28. Hat er (deren) sehr viel ? 29. N. Weicher, welche, welches,

welche, who. 8 Фејјст, teren, dessen,

EXERCISE 67. deren, whose. D. Welchem, welcher, welchem, welchen, to whom. 1. We must be cautious in the choice [vorsichtig in der Wahl) of A. Welchen, welche, weldes, welche, whom.

him to whom we confide important concerns [wichtige Angelegens 2. Genug, like “enough,” is indeclinable, and generally follows are often worse [ichlimmer] than those whose failings they lay

Heiten anvertrauen). 2. They that (who) speak evil (übel] of others its noun, or stands independently. Viel and wenig are frequently open [bloßstellen). 3. Ho professed [befannte) that religion whose used without declension. (8 53.)

origin is divine (Ursprung göttlich ist). 4. This boy has too much 3. Das, as also dies (dies being a contraction of the neuter dieses) pride and too little diligence. 5. That is the man through is frequently used in referring to nouns of both numbers and all whose help he was saved. 6. Which pleased you the most ? genders, as :- --Wer ist tag? who is that? Dies ist mein Freund. This or that? Neither. 7. Can those be loved whose vices are This is my friend. Das sind Franzosen, those are Frenchmen. Das detested by everybody (Jerermann]? 8. How many hats has and ries, however, never precede and qualify a noun, except of that boy ? 9. He has three of them. 10. Who sells here good the neuter gender. (§ 134. 1.)

bread ? 11. Our baker sells very good bread. 4. Go, like its English equivalent, may refer to nouns of both numbers and all genders, as :-s ist mein Freund, it is my friend.

SECTION XXXVI.-IMPERSONAL VERBS. When c8 refers to a noun in the plural, the verb must agree in Impersonal verbs are confined to the third person singular, number with the noun, while in English it agrees with the pro. and have as their subject or nominative only the pronoun es, noun, as :- -&& sind die Russen, die Ungarn überwunden haben, it is as :-&& regnet, it rains. Es donnert, it thunders. Go blißt, it (German, sind) the Russians who have overpowered (conquered) lightens. ($ 81. 1.) Hungary. (§ 57. 8.)

1. Besides those verbs that are merely impersonal, others may 5. 68 sometimes answers to our word “so” or “one," as :- be thus employed, as :- -Es scheint, daß er frant ist, it appears that he Er ist gesund, oder scheint es zu sein, he is healthy, or appears so to is sick. Es schmerzt mich, daß zu hören, it pains me to hear that, etc. be. &r ift Soltat, aber ich bin es nicht, he is (a) soldier, but I am 2. Many verbs, however, that in German are used impersonnot one.

Ge is likewise rendered by “there” (Sect. XXXVI. ally have, in this respect, no verbs of the same kind in English to 3), as :--: stand in alten Zeiten ein Schloß so hoch und hebr (Uhland), correspond, as :- -Es gelingt mir, I succeed (it succeeds to me), there stood in ancient times a castle so high and lofty. etc. Es war ein König in Thule (Goethe), there was a king in Thule. 3. Geben, “to give," is often, with its proper case (the accusa($ 57. 8.)

tive), employed to denote existence in a manner general and in. 6. Gs is often so used as to have no equivalent in English, definite, and is translated like sein, “ to be," as :-&s giebt (not e as :-68 reben und träumen die Menschen viel von bessern fünstigen Tagen sind) leute, die alle Tage auf den Markt gehen, there are (i.e., there (Schiller), men talk and dream much of better future days. exist) people who go to the market every day. Es sind heute (not Id weiß es, daß er da war, I know (it) that he was there. 68 c# giebt) viele Leute auf dem Marfte, there are many people to-day at leben die Freihertstāmpfer, (long) live the champions of liberty. Es the market. Es giebt feine Rosen ohne Dornen, there are (there lebe die Republik, (long) live the republic.

erist) no roses without thorns. Os find (not es giebt) viele Kinder in

dieser Schule, there are many children in this school. Es giebt VOCABULARY.

(there exist) noch Riesen in der Welt, there are still giants in the Arzt, m. physician. | Gram, m. grief, afflic- Kurz, short.

world. Fleiß, m. diligence. tion, sorrow. Mild, f. milk.

VOCABULARY. Gelehrósamfcit, f. eru- Klug, prudent, judi- Nagel, m. nail.

Armee', f. army.

Edel, noble, magna- | Rüdzug, m. return. dition, learning. cious. Pulver, n. powder. Aufgang, m. rising, nimous.

Schmien, to snow. Glüd, n. luck, for.' Rödin, f. cook. Stabl, m. steel.

Gie, n, ice.

Stürmen, to storm. tune, happiness.

I Nummer, m. anxiety, Stolz, m. pride. Bis, until, up to. Erfla'ren, to explain. Tagen, to dawn, be-

Blißen, to lighten. Feindlich, hostile. come day.

Brechen, to break. Fürchten, to fear. Thauen, to thaw.

Ding, n. thing, af- Georg', m. George. Verge'ben, to forgive. Er hat mir Aepfel und Birnca ge. He has given me (some) apples fair.

Hageln, to hail. Wahr, true. geben. al to

Donnern, to thunder. | Leicht, easy, easily. Wolf. m. wolf. Wollen Sie Vrod oder Siem? Will you have (some) bread or

Reißend, ravenous. Zuflucht, f. refuge. ben ?

(some) cake ? Haben Sie feines schwarze! Tuch? Have you (some, any) fine

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. black cloth ?

G# wird immer leute geben, die sich There will always be people bat er Geld genug, oder hat cr Has he money enough, or has gegen die hellsten Wabrheiten who exalt themselves against feince? he none ?

empūʻren, wie viele giebt es teren the clearest truths ; how ffer hat (tosjen) genug'. He has enough (of it).

beut zu Tage nicht!

many of those are there (not) Vat lie Vücher genugʻ? Has she books enough?

at the present day!

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Os mar einmal ein Weijer, welcher There was once a sage who learned men that are owned by the three kingdoms. They call

behauptete, daß es fein besseres maintained that there was themselves Templars, they worship in common in the Temple Gut gebe, als eine gesun'te Ber. no better possession than a Church, and they preserve the devices and traditions of an order nunft in einem gesun'den Körper. sound understanding in a of knights whose name they bear, and in whose seats they sit. sound body.

How is this? Was it always so ? Certainly not. The lines Ci'nige behaupten, daß es Ein's Some maintain that there are of Edmunu spenser, quoted above, testify as much, and their

wohnter im Monde gebe. (Sect. inhabitants in the moon. witness, as we shall see in the course of this sketch, is exactly XLII.)

even with the truth. Let us inquire somewhat into the history Ge ist kein Mensch un'glüdlicher, als There is no mortal more unfor- of these colleges of law, and see how they came to be colleges

ber, welcher nic Widerwärtigkeiten tunate than he (that one) at all; let us glean something out of the historio memories ertul bete.

who never endured reverses which cling around them, and follow the path pointed out by of fortune.

the finger of Time till it leads us to the epoch when the lawyers 6s giebt wenig Helden, die ihren There are few heroes who main. dwelt not in the Temple, but armed Christianity stalled her

Gharac'ter bis in ihr Alter be. tain their character till (in) horse and sharpened her sword there.
their old age.

There was a cry in Christendom that the heathen had entered Gli ist nicht loʻbenswerther, als There is nothing more praise- into the inheritance of God, and had defiled His holy places

andete das'jenige zu lehren, was worthy than to teach what Stories the most pitiable wore told of what the infidels had man weiß. one knows to others.

done to those who went up to Jerusalem to worship ; how that EXERCISE 68.

once more the wicked had given the dead bodies of God's ser

vants to be meat for the fowls of the air, and the flesh of His 1. Es giebt dieses Jahr sehr viel Obst. 2. Es heute sehr schönes saints to the beasts of the land. A thrill of horror went through Wetter. 3. Es giebt mehr arme, als reiche Leute. 4. Es ist ein wahres men as they listened to the accounts, most likely exaggerated, Bergnügen, diesen Morgen spazieren zu gehen. 5. Giebt es in Deutschland which were repeated from mouth to mouth, "and the sensation auch reißende Thiere ? 6. && giebt noch viele Wölfe in ten Gebirgen. vibrated to the heart of Europe." Swiftly there followed upon 7. Die feindlid Amee ist auf ihrem Rüdzuge. 8. Giebt es etwas this a determination to be up and doing, a stern sentiment Schöneres, als den Aufgang der Sonne ? 9. Es hat den ganzen Tag founded on religion and soldierly anger, prompting men to exact geschneit. 10. Geben Sie diesen Nachmittag mit mir auf's Eis? 11. satisfaction at the risk of their lives for the blood of Christ's Nein, eg thaut ídon, und das Eis fann leicht brechen. 12. Wenn es children which had been shed. This was in the year 1090. tagt, werde ich Sie zu einem Spaziergang abholen. 13. Es schneit heute

The Saracens (a people often confounded with Turks, from den ganzen Tag. 14. Regnet es schon ? 15. Nein, aber es wird bald whom they were altogether dissimilar), from Arabia, had con. anfangen zu regnen. 16. Wie lange hat es geregnet ? 17. Es hat bis quered Palestine in the year of our Lord 637, driving out the sier Uhr geregnet. 18. Donnert ed? 19. Ja, es donnert und blißt, und authority of the declining Greek emperors, and establishing the ich fürchte, daß es auch bageln wird. 20. Wo waren Sie, während es religion and the state system of Mahomet. The Caliphs, or Gneite? 21. Ich suchte in der Capelle des St. Georg Zuflucht, denn es chiefs of the Saracens, had so far respected the religion and fichneite nicht nur, sondern es stürmte und hagelte auch. 22. Ich sage social habits of the conquered Christians, that they had allowed Ihnen nur das, was (Sect. XXI. 1) ich gehört habe.

them to retain about one-fourth of the city of Jerusalem, besides EXERCISE 69.

numerous places in the provinces. Among other things which

they were permitted to keep was the Church of the Holy Sepul. 1. It seemed this morning as if it [als ob es] would rain, but chre, which the Empress Helena, mother of the first Christian now the weather begins to be fine. 2. It happened [e8 ereignete Emperor, Constantine, had built over the spot where the Saviour fic] that it rained just as the battle commenced, and it thun

was supposed to have been buried. The Christians experienced dered and hailed throughout the whole day. 3. It has rained, at the hands of the Saracens the greatest moderation, though hailed, snowed, and frozen this winter. 4. As long as it rains the character and principles of the two religions were essentially I cannot depart. 5. It appears that there are many strangers different, and in some particulars diametrically opposed. Pil. in this hotel. 6. There are (exist) many things which we cannot grims flocked in hundreds and thousands from all parts of explain. 7. As soon as it becomes day, I shall call upon you to Europe, to see the places which had been honoured by the real go and see the rising of the sun. 8. Exists there anything more presence of their Lord, to utter their prayers in the very places noble than to forgive an enemy? 9. Do you intend to go to where He had prayed, to abase themselves on the very scene of morrow with me upon the ice ? 10. No, I fear that it thaws His sufferings, and to adore Him in Jerusalem, “the place already, and it would be dangerous to venture it (gefährlich sein, es where God ought to be worshipped.” Though their numbers zu wagen]. 11. As soon as the wind abates it will rain. 12. In must have proved inconvenient, one would think, to the Musgul. every community there exist more blockheads than villains, and man authorities, and though their enthusiasm was not unlikely more ignorant men than learned.

to have produced breaches of the peace, we do not hear of their having been interfered with. Occasionally, perhaps, there was

a disturbance, but that in all probability was due rather to the HISTORIC SKETCHES.-X.

imprudence of the Christians than to the tyranny of the Caliph THE KNIGHTS TEMPLARS, OR RED CROSS KNIGHTS.

so the pilgrimages went on, and were accounted by the reli

gious system of the day for righteousness in those who perOn the borders of the debateable land where the jurisdictions formed them. of the Queen and of the Lord Mayor of London conflict and con- But a change came. In the year 1065, the year before the join, is a stately monument (not Temple Bar), rich in historic conquest of England by the Normans, Palestine was wrested interest, and in memories of bygone men. Hidden away under from the Saracens by the Turcoman troops, whom they had the block of buildings which form the south side of Fleet Street, hired, in the decline of their own vigour, to defend them. The one does not notice, without seeking for them, the colleges of power of the Arabian Caliphs was over; that of the Turkish the Inner and Middle Temple, which constitute the monument Sultans or Emirs had taken its place. A very different sort alluded to. It is from the river, from Waterloo or Blackfriars of power the Christians found it. Though professing the same Bridge, or better still from the Surrey shore, that one sees creed as the Saracens, the Turks had none of their moderation. " Those bricky towers,

Brutality coupled with fanaticism—these were the principles The which on Thames' broad, aged back do ride,

on which the new rulers proceeded to govern. Forthwith Where now the studious lawyers have their bowers,

came a wail of misery from the Holy Land; pilgrims were There whilome wont the Templar knights to bide,

ill-treated, insulted, and put to death. Women (it was cus. Till they decayed through pride."

tomary even for women to go) were outraged ; taxes the most Within those“ bricky towers” do now study and work the offensive were exacted from those pilgrims who had money, and apprentices, barristers, and serjeants of the law who are mem- those who had none were driven back with the sword, whilst great bers of the two societies of the Temple ; there are collected some numbers perished through the instrumentality of the Turks. of the brightest minds which the Universities of the kingdom A golden fee was required of every one before he could be adhave trained, some of the wittiest heads that ever Nature looked mitted to the Holy Sepulchre. The Patriarch of Jerusalem was spon and smiled, some of the most intellectual, polished, and dragged across his church by the hair of his head, and flung into

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