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a dungeon, in order that he might be induced to procure the dually, as zeal grew faint, these succours became less, and there large ransom demanded of him. These and other tales came to was considerable difficulty experienced by the Kings of Jerusalem Europe, brought by the wayworn and pitiable-looking objects who | in protecting their subjects, let alone visitors. It should be returned from their pilgrimage with life, and the effect of them mentioned that the first and most renowned of the Christian was to arouse in the minds of all men the feelings of indignation Kings of Jerusalem was Godfrey de Bouillon, who mortgaged and pity which have been already referred to-feelings akin to his Duchy of Bouillon in the Ardennes in 1095 to the Bishop those, though far more ecstatic, which were felt in England when of Liege, to raise the funds necessary to enable him to take the story of the Indian mutiny came over, or, in a less degree, part in the first Crusade. Following in the track of Peter the which were felt when the refusal of Abyssinian Theodore to give Hermit, he reached Palestine after encountering and surup his captives was made known.

mounting difficulties of no ordinary nature; and having been Men's minds were ripe for action. They only wanted, as they joined by the forces that marched under Robert of Normandy, ever want, some master-mind to take the lead. That master. Bohemond of Tarentum, and other leaders, he was unanimously mind was found in Peter the Hermit, who marched barefoot elected to the supreme command of the Christian hosts in the through Europe, preaching up a holy war, and exhorting Chris Holy Land. After a long siege Antioch yielded to the repeated tians not to suffer infidels to crucify the Lord afresh in the attacks of the Crusaders in 1098, and about a year after persons of His children, and to put Him to an open shame. Jerusalem was taken by assault, July 15, 1099. The guardian. Pope Urban II. backed the hermit with all his influence, and ship of the Holy City was vested in Godfrey de Bouillon, who Christendom roused as one man. “ It is the will of God! it is received the title of King of Jerusalem. He did not long enjoy the will of God!” the

his sovereignty, for people shouted on the

in a year and three plains of Auvergne,

days after the capwhen Peter stirred up

ture of Jerusalem, he many thousands of

died suddenly, hav. them with the burning

ing been, it is supwordsof his eloquence.

posed, poisoned by A vast mob, num.

the Emir of Cæsarea. bering over 500,000,

Pilgrims continued possessed with plenty

to journey to the Holy of enthusiasm, but

City, receiving as their little military know

reward the assurance ledge, marched forth

from the priests of with upder the guid

absolution even from ance of Peter the

the most deadly sins. Hermit and Walter

And certainly they the Moneyless; but

deserved something they melted like snow

substantial, for at this under the hardships

time they had not of the journey and by

only to bear the enorreason of the divi.

mous expense which a sions which sprang

pilgrimage, say from up among them. Be

Northampton to the fore they reached

East, cost in those Constantinople, then

days, but they had to the capital of the

incur, in addition to Christian Greek Em.

this, to say nothing pire (Constantinople

of the risks of climate, was not taken by the

etc., the certain hosTurks under Maho

tility of deadly foes, met II. till 1453),

well acquainted with they became a mere

the

country, and rabble, and went

whose business in life no farther. Other

it was to go about hordes, under mili

seeking what Chris. tary leaders, and in

tians they might denumbers 700,000 ARMS AND COSTUME OF THE KNIGHTS TEMPLARS.

vour, The journey strong, marched to

from the coast to the Crusades notwith

Jerusalem, no matter standing. Princes,

at what port the pil. barons, knights, esquires, yeomen, priests, hastened to enrol | grims disembarked, was full of peril. Numbers of travellers themselves under the banner of the Cross, and streamed east- were cut off even in sight of the Holy City, and the King of ward, possessed with the one idea of rescuing the Holy Land the place was not able to succour them. Afflicted beyond from the clutches of infidels, happy if only they might tread measure at the sight of so much wrong, anxious to redress, the land which had been trod by holiest feet. There were as far as in them lay, the injuries suffered by th3 pilgrims, many of these crusades, the most notable being that led by nine knights bound themselves by a solemn vow to devote themRichard the Lion-hearted in the year 1190.

selves wholly and unreservedly to the sacred duty of shielding It is not surprising that such desperate enthusiasm should the pilgrims and of punishing their oppressors. A brotherhood have succeeded in doing somewhat. Jerusalem was taken by of arms was formed under the most solemn circumstances, and the Crusaders. The Mussulmans were driven to the mountains, vows were taken by the nine in the presence of the Patriarch, and a Latin kingdom, based upon the feudal principle (for an to the effect that they would devote themselves to this work; account of this principle see “ Historic Sketches,” I., p. 9), was that they would be chaste, poor, and obedient, and do all to established in their place.

the glory of God. They called themselves The poor FellowThe dangers surrounding this kingdom were great and peren- soldiers of Jesus Christ. nial. The Turks, commingled now with their Saracen. brethren They acted as the police of the Latin King in the matter of in faith, were ever on the watch to inflict injury on the invaders, Turks, infidels, and heretics; and the idea on which the brotherand to play the part of the enemy who sowed the tares, if per- hood was founded, coupled with the reputation their prowess chance at any time the Christians slept. For a while the con- soon acquired, made the service of the Poor Fellow-soldiers querors. reinforced by numerous additions from home, held their very popular in Europe. A humorous writer has thus wyn, and kept up air companications with the sea ; but gra- analysed the motives which induced men to go to the Crusades

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SHIELD OF A KNIGHT TEMPLAR.

SWORD

OP

showing that "for sake of the party” most men were most Europe, amassing gifts, and getting recruits for the brotherhood. moved :

In England he was well received in the year 1128, and there he

founded a branch establishment of the Knights, under the war. Religion

1 Because it's the fashion Hatred of Turks 2 Love of bloodshed

denship of a Prior, who was, on the appointment of sub-priors The wish of my lady.love For the sake of the party. 15

over other branches in England, called the Grand Prior, and

subsequently Master of the Temple, the title of the supreme It may have been so with those who joined the brotherhood. head in Palestine being at the same time changed into that of Certain it is the number of the order soon exceeded the original | Grand Master. number, and some of the “best blood” and the first military On the spot where “now the studious lawyers have their

talents were to be found among its members. bowers,” the English Templars dwelt, their Master a peer of
Baldwin II., King of Jerusalem in the year Parliament. At first, however, they lived in the Old Temple
1118 (nineteen years after the conquest of the without Holborn Bars, close to the spot where Southampton
place), granted the knights a dwelling-place in Buildings now stand; and it was not till many years after the
the enclosure of the Temple on Mount Moriah, establishment of the order in Eng.
the re-edified Temple of Solomon, and from land that they bought the ground
that time the knights were known as the on which they built the New Tem.
Knighthood of the Temple of Solomon.

ple, the site of the present law
Ten years afterwards, the knights having colleges. Numerous branch depôts
formed themselves into a body of military in the country sent up men and
monks, bound by the same rules as monks, money to the central body in Lon.
and yet soldiers still, obtained recognition from don, and the Master and Knights
the Pope (Honorius), and were favoured with in London supplied the wants of
many honours of an ecclesiastical kind. St. the order at Jerusalem. In other
Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux (author, among countries, especially in France, the
other things, of the hymn " Jerusalem the Templars took deep root, and
Golden "), himself drew up the rules of the enormous possessions in land and
order, which are exceedingly curious and suffi. money were bestowed upon them.
ciently stringent.

The order became very popular, Constant attendance on prayer, self-morti. and its numbers increased so that fication, complete self-surrender, fasting—these the muster-roll of the Knights inwere the principles on which the rules were cluded the names of many thousands of warriors, picked med framed. The twentieth rule prescribed white from the flower of European chivalry. In the course of a few dresses for the knights. “To all the professed years they rose into such prominence that kings were glad to knights, both in winter and summer, we give, court their favour; to the King of Jerusalem they were in the if they can be procured, white garments; that stead of a standing army, and upon them devolved the never

those who have cast behind them a dark life, ceasing warfare which was necessary to defend the Latin settle

GOD- may know that they are to commend them ment from destruction.
FRET DE BOUIL- selves to their Creator by a pure and white life. About the year 1146, when the second Crusade was being pre-
LON, FROM THE For what is whiteness but perfect chastity, and pared, the Templars assumed, by permission of the Pope, a red

PRE- chastity is the security of the soul, and the cross, which was worn on the left breast of their mantles, and
JE- health of the body. And unless every knight which obtained for them the name of Red Friars, or Red Cross

shall continue chaste, he shall not come to per. Knights. They also obtained, at the same period, large addi.

petual rest, nor see God, as the Apostle Paul tional benefices. Their work was not all rose-water, however; witnesseth: Follow after peace with all men, and chastity, without far from it—they had rough and constant employment against which no man shall see God.” Esquires and retainers were to be enemies both to race and religion, men embittered by years of clothed in black cloth, or, failing that, of brown or some mean mutual injury, by fanaticism, by every strong impulse. At times colour ; "it is granted to none to wear white habits, or to have they conquered, at others they fell—even their Grand Master white mantles, excepting the above-named knights of Christ.” on one occasion being taken and kept in prison till he died. Gold or silver was forbidden to be worn on the harness and trap. Saladin, the hero of many a romance, a most able warrior and pings of the knights—simplicity and unrichness were to be the statesman, was the great foe of the Christians; and as under his order of the brotherhood. All money and all gifts were to be in auspices the Crescent grew, the light of the Cross became pale

There was not to be any communication with the outer in Palestine. At one time the whole of the brethren in garrison world except through the master, and sporting of all kinds was at Jerusalem having been captured, and offered the alternative strictly forbidden. For the purposes of the brotherhood it was of death or the Koran, elected the former, and were beheaded permitted the knights to possess lands

accordingly. By way of reprisal for and husbandmen, "and the customary

these things, it often happened that

b.; HIGIA GETIN GILTVS.CODB services ought to be specially rendered

ERIDVS DEBYLLONDILMIUL

the Knights forgot the Christian quality unto you.” Rule 66 says, It is,

of mercy, and involved in one common moreover, exceedingly dangerous to

destruction the whole of their captives; join sisters with you in your holy pro

indeed, in the end the war between fession, for the ancient enemy hath

Cross and Crescent became a war to drawn (St. Bernard spake as a monk)

the knife. The Templars were a terror many away from the right path to

to all but the best of the Turkish paradise through the society of women.”

soldiers, and rode through their lines In the last clause of the rules this

in splendid charges, which made the warning is repeated, with a prohibition :

earth quake beneath them. -"Lastly, we hold it dangerous to all

The Knights Templars had been in. religion to gaze too much on the coun.

stituted as a rival order to that of the tenance of women; and therefore no

Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, brother shall presume to kiss neither

which was organised as a military body widow nor virgin, nor mother nor sister,

about 1099. This order was never at nor annt, nor any other woman. Let the knighthood of Christ any time of its existence so wealthy and powerful as that of the ahun feminine kisses, through which men have very often been Templars, and on this account always held a higher position in./ drawn into danger, so that each, with a pure conscience and popular favour. The Templars, on the other hand, were being, secure life, may be able to walk everlastingly in the sight of spoiled by prosperity, and their wealth was now beginning to God."

stir up the envy and desire of the needy. In every country in These rules were confirmed by the Pope, and Hugh de Payens Europe they had property either in land or money-nine thou. was chosen Master of the Knights. De Payens travelled through sand manors in all, besides other riches; and their privileges,

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obtained both from kings and from the pope, were calculated to cause of Christianity. I disdain to purchase such a wretched and arouse the jealousy of the people. Riches, too, in the hands of disgraceful existence by engrafting another lie upon the original the "Poor Fellow-soldiers of Jesus Christ,” the men who had falsehood.” Guy, the Grand Preceptor, having said something taken vows of poverty, did not cause their possessors to prosper; to the same effect, Philip became enraged, and that same even. the military monks grew less and less chary of going to fight in ing, at dusk, the two unfortunate Knights, the last Grand the Holy Land; and when, in 1187, Saladin re-conquered Jeru- Master, and the last Grand Preceptor, were taken to a spot salem, and put all the Templars there, together with the other outside Paris, and slowly roasted to death. defenders of the place, to the sword, the rest of the fraternity Fuller says, " The chief cause of the ruin of the Templars were still less inclined to make an effort to rescue the city, and to was their extraordinary wealth. As Naboth's vineyard was the re-found the Latin Kingdom in the East. They remained, there chiefest ground of his blasphemy, and as in England Sir John fore, at home, living upon their property, jealously preserving Cornwall, Lord Fanhope, said merrily, not he, but his stately the rights granted to them under widely different circumstances, house at Ampthill, in Bedfordshire, was guilty of high treason, and making themselves obnoxious by their pride and worldli- so certainly their wealth was the principal cause of their over.

The annual incomo of the order was estimated at throw.” £6,000,000.

In England, while much of the property of the Knights was A society so rich and so powerful could not but have enemies. seized by the King (Edward III.), a large portion, including the It began to be whispered that not only did they visibly neglect Temple in London, was given to the Knights of St. John of Jeruthe obligations of their vows, but secretly they conducted them- salem, who let it to the lawyers, and continued to do so down to selves in the most abominable manner; that they worshipped the the time of the suppression of monasteries in 1539, when the devil, and dealt in magic, and that one part of the ceremonial on Knights of St. John, in common with all other conventual instiadmission to the order was the act of spitting on an image of tutions in England, ceased to exist. The property of the Knights the Saviour. These and other grave charges were brought against was resumed by the Crown, and various noblemen enjoyed the them, but their pride would not allow of their making any reply, grant of the Temple in London, until the reign of James I. till colour having been given to them by the irregularities of That monarch granted it to the executive members of the two some of the brethren, Philip the Fair, of France, who had an eye law societies which had flourished there since the downfall of to confiscations, resolved, in 1296, to proceed against them. As the Templar Knights, and they still hold it by virtue of King they had no friends, he thought he might safely kick them. James's grant, on condition of paying a quit rent of ten pounds After a splendid defence of each one of their posts in Syria, a year. which they lost in succession, overwhelmed by great numbers, CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE CRUSADES AND PRINCIPAL after the death in battle of their last notable Grand Master, and

EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF THE ORDERS OF THE KNIGHTS after their final expulsion from the Holy Land, their influence

TEMPLARS AND KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM. diminished with the disgrace that had come upon them.

Jerusalem taken by the Turks 1217 Philip gave ear to the scandal bruited concerning the Knights. Crusades suggested by Peter James de Molay, of a noble Burgundian family, was Grand

the Hermit, and sanctioned Sixth Crusade under Frede. Master. He was an illustrious warrior, who had fought in all First Crusade under Godfrey

by Pope Urban II.

1094 rick II, of Germany (temp. Henry III.)

1223 the latest battles in Palestine, and had, in conjunction with the de Bouillon and others Jerusalem again taken by the Persian King, to whom he at one time allied himself, re-conquered (temp. William II.)

1096 Turks

1239 for a while the lost ground in Syria. He had held King Philip Jerusalem taken July 15, 1099 The Temple Church built

1240 at the baptismal font. He was approved an honest man as Latin Principalities of Jeru- Seventh Crusade under Louis well as a noble soldier in the sight of all men, and the voice salem, Antioch, and Edessa IX. of France (temp. Henry of calumny was not able to speak against him. Yet Philip,

founded
1099 III.), unsuccessful

1249

Eighth and last Crusade com. having invited him from Cyprus, his stronghold, flung him into Military Order of the Knights

of St. John of Jerusalem

menced by Louis IX. of prison, and kept him there five years and a half. Meantime in.

founded

1099 formation, much of it of an absurd and ridiculous character, Order of Knights Templars

France (temp. Henry III.) 1270

Carried on by Prince Edward, was gladly received from any quarter by the King. Pope founded by Baldwin II. of

afterwards Edward I. of Clement V., who was wholly under French influence (the Papal Jerusalem

1118
England

1271 Court was then at Avignon), issued bulls ordering inquisition Templars establish them- Christian Troops finally with. to be made into the conduct of the monks. In France this selves in England

1128 drawn from the Holy Land 1291 inquiry was made under torture, and more than a hundred Edessa conquered by the Knights of St. John retire to

Saracens

1144

Cyprus. Knights died under the tormentors' hands. Some confessed,

1291

Rhodes occupied by Knights under the smart of pain, to foul and unnatural crimes, which Fresh Crusade preached by

St. Bernard of Clairvaux 1146 of St. John

1310 they denied afterwards to the death; and upon evidence of this

Second Crusade under Con. Order of Templars suppressed kind, and other evidence quite as unsatisfactory, several hun.

rad II. of Germany and

in France

1312 dreds of Templars were burned at slow fires—more than a hun. Louis VII. of France (temp. Grand Master, James de dred and ten in Paris on one occasion. France was the only Stephen), unsuccessful

1147

Molay, burned in Paris 1314 country in which this excessive barbarity was practised, but Jerusalem taken by the Sara- Templars suppressed in Eng. as in all countries the wealth of the order was a great crime, cens under Saladin

1187 land

about 1340 the fate of the order itself was decided simultaneously every

Third Crusade commenced Rhodes taken by Solyman II. 1523 where. Their possessions were confiscated throughout Europe,

by Frederick Barbarossa, Knights of St. John retire to

1189

Emperor of Germany and given, part to the rival order of the Knights of St. John of Carried on by Richard I. of

Sicily

1523

Malta given to the Knights Jerusalem, part to the princes who had seen them to their end;

England and Philip II. of of St. John by Charles V. and the Pope, in 1327, issued a decree abolishing the whole France

1190 of Germany

1530 order.

Fourth Crusade under Henry Order of Knights of St. John James de Molay, the Grand Master, having endured five

of Germany (temp.

finally suppressed in Engyears and a half of rigorous confinement, and having probably

Richard I.)

1195 land suffered torture therein, was led out in company with three of Fifth Crusade under Baldwin Malta taken by Bonaparte his chief officers, on the 18th of March, 1313, to recite in the

of Flanders, who stopped Malta taken by the British . 1800 hearing of the people of Paris the charges he had confessed

at Constantinople instead From this time the Knights while under torture.

of going to the Holy Land

of St. John have ceased to The Bishop of Alba read the confes

(temp. John)

1201 hold any territory. sions, and then called on the prisoners to affirm them. Two of the unhappy Knights, worn out by torture and suffering,

CHRISTIAN KINGS OF JERUSALEM. assented, but the Grand Master, loaded with chains, called out | Godfrey de Bouil. Amaury

1162| Amaury de Lu. with a loud voice that for him to affirm an untruth was a crime

lon

1099 Baldwin IV. 1173 signan

Baldwin I. (broof which he would not be guilty; and he added, “I do confess

Sibyl

. 1185 Jeanne de Brienne 1210

ther of God. Baldwin V. 1185 Frederick II. of my guilt, which consists in having, to my shame and dishonour,

frey)

1100 Guy de Lusignan 1186 suffered myself, through the pain of torture and the fear of Baldwin II.

Germany

1118 Henry de Cham- This King was exdeath, to give utterance to falsehoods imputing scandalous sins Fulk of Anjou 1131

pagno

1192 pelled by the and iniquities to an illustrious order, which hath nobly served the Baldwin III. 1144

Turks

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LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XX.

cinquante-cinq. 14. Fait-il trop froid pour vous dans cette

chambre? 15. Il n'y fait ni trop froid ni trop chaud. 16. Y SECTION XXXII.-UNIPERSONAL VERBS.

a-t-il beaucoup de foin dans votre écurie ? 17. Il y en a assez 1. By unipersonal verbs is simply meant those verbs which are

pour mon cheval. 18. Restez-vous à la maison quand il pleut ? used only in the third person singular. Having, properly speak- 19. Quand il pleut je reste à la maison, mais quand il fait beau ing, no personal subject, they are sometimes called impersonal; temps je vais chez mon cousin. 20. Y a-t-il de la viande au for the third person singular, used in English, is neuter, and in marché ? 21. Il y en a beaucoup, il y a aussi du gibier. 22. 11 French, thongh il be used, it is understood and translated as y a du veau, du mouton et de la volaille. 23. N'y a-t-il pas neuter by the word it. These verbs express chiefly an abstract aussi des légumes et des fruits ? 24. Il n'y en a pas. 25. Il y

en a aussi. opinion or sentiment; most frequently they denote the state or

EXERCISE 60. change of the weather ; and they generally precede or announce the occurrence of an event, as, it happened.

1. Are you cold this morning ? 2. I am not cold, it is warm this 2. The unipersonal verb is conjugated only in the third person morning. 3. Is it foggy or windy ? 4. It is neither foggy nor singular of a tense. Its nominative pronoun il, it, is used abso- windy, it rains in torrents (à verse). 5. Is it going to rain or lutely, i.e., it represents no noun previously expressed.

to snow? 6. It is going to freeze, it is very cold. 7. It is Il pleut aujourd'hui,

It rains to-day.

windy and foggy. 8. Is there anybody at your brother's to-day ? 3. The unipersonal verb assumes the termination of the class 9. My brother is at home, and my sister is at church. 10. Is

there any meat in the market ? 11. There is meat and poultry. or conjugation to which it belongs. Some verbs are always 12. Is it too warm or too cold for your sister in this room ? 13. unipersonal, and will be found in § 62. Others are only occasionally so, and if irregular, will be found in the personal form Are there good English books in your sister's library? 15. There

It is not so warm in this room as in your brother's library. 14. in the same § 62.

are some good ones. 16. Are there peaches and plums in your 4. PRESENT OF TE INDICATIVE OF THE UNIPERSONAL garden? 17. There are many. 18. Do you remain at your VERBS. brother's when it snows? 19. When it snows we remain at

21. Your two Y AVOIR, to be there. I PLEUVOIR, to rain.

home. 20. Are there ladies at your mother's ?

NEIGER, to snove. Il y a, there is, there Il pleut, it rains, it is il neige, it snows, it is sisters are there to-day. 22. Have you time to go and fetch

raining.

snowing.

them? 23. I have no time this morning. 24. Is your horse in GRÅLER, to hail. GELER, to freeze. DÉGELER, to thaw, the stable? 25. It is not there, it is at my brother's. 26. Does I grêle ($ 49), it hails, Il gèle ($ 49), it freezes, Il dégèle ($49), it it hail this morning ? 27. It does not hail, it freezes. 28. it is hailing, it is freezing.

thaus, it is thawing. What weather is it this morning ? 29. It is very fine weather.

30. Is it too warm ? 31. It is neither too warm nor too cold. 5. Il y a means there is, or there are, and may be followed by 32. Is it going to freeze? 33. It is going to snow. 34. Doos a singular or plural noun ($ 61 (2)].

it snow every day ? 35. It does not snow every day, but it Il y a du gibier au marché, There is gamo in the market.

snows very often. Il y a des pommes dans votre There are apples in your garden. jardin,

SECTION XXXIII.-PLACE OF THE ADVERB [$ 136]. 6. In relation to the weather, the verb faire is used uniper. 1. In simple tenses, the adverb generally follows the verb, and sonally in the same manner as the English verb to be.

is placed as near it as possible. I fait beau temps aujourd'hui, It is fine weather to-day.

Votre commis écrit très-bien, Your clerk writes very well. Il fait chaud, il fait froid,

It is warm, it is cold,

Cette demoiselle lit très-mal, That young lady reads very badly. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

2. When a verb is in the infinitive, the two negatives ne and Pleut-il ce matin ? Does it rain this morning

pas, ne and rien, should be placed before it. Il ne pleut pas, il neige.

It does not rain, it snows.
It is going to rain this morning.

Ne pas parler, ne pas lire,
Il va pleuvoir ce matin.

Not to speak, not to read. Ne gèle-t-il pas ce matin?

Does it not freeze this morning? 3. The adverb assez, enough, tolerably, precedes generally the Il ne gèle pas, il fait du brouillard. It does not freeze, it is foggy.

other adverbs. It precedes also adjectives and noans.
Y a-t-il du sucre chez vous ? Is there any sugar at your house ?
Il y en a beaucoup chez mon frère. There is a great deal at my brother's. Vous écrivez assez correctement, You write pretty correctly.
Y a-t-il plusieurs personnes chez Are there several persons at my Vous avez assez de livres,

You have books enough. moi ?

house?
Cet enfant est assez attentif,

That child is attentive enough. Il y a plus de cent personnes. There are more than one hundred

4. Voici means here is; voilà, there is.

persons. N'y a-t-il personne à l'église ? Is there nobody at church?

Voici le livre que vous aimez, Here is the book which you like. Il n'y a encore personne, There is as yet no one there. Voilà le monsieur dont

There is the gentleman of whom yout Est-il trop tôt ? Is it too soon? parlez,

speak. Au contraire, il est trop tard. On the contrary, it is too late. Fait-il froid ou chaud aujourd'hui? Is it cold or warm to-day?

5. Dans is used for in or into, when the noun which follows it Il fait chaud et humide. It is warm and damp.

is preceded by an article, or by a possessive, demonstrative, or Fait-il-du vent ou du brouillard ? Is it windy or foggy ?

numeral adjective ($ 142 (2)]. Il fait un temps bien désagréable. It is very disagrecable weather.

Le crayon est dans le pupitre, The pencil is in the desk.

Mettez cette lettre dans votre Put this letter into your trunk. VOCABULARY.

malle, Assemblée, f., assem- | Couvert, -e, cloudy. Manuscrit, m., manu. bly, party. Ecurie, f., stable. script.

6. En, after the verbs to be, to go, to reside, followed by the Bibliothèque,f.,library. Epais, -se, thick, Souvent, often.

name of a part of the earth, a country, or province, gives the Brouillard, m., fog. Foin, m., hay.

Veau, m., veal.

preposition to the force of in or into. Chambre, f., room. Gibier, m., game,

Vent, m., wind. Cinquante, fifty.

Notre ami est en France,

Our friond is in Franco.
Humide, damp. Volaille, f., poultry.

Vous allez en Italie,

You go to Italy.
EXERCISE 59.

7. The preposition à is used for the words at or to, in or into, 1. Quel temps fait-il anjourd'hui ? 2. Il fait un temps before the name of a town, city, or village, preceded by the superbe. 3. Fait-il très-beau temps aujourd'hui ? 4. Il fait verbs mentioned above. un temps couvert et humide. 5. Pleut-il beaucoup ce matin ? Il va à Paris le mois prochain, He is going to Paris next month. 6. Il ne pleut pas encore, mais il va pleuvoir. 7. Fait-il da vent ou du brouillard ? 8. Il ne fait pas de vent. 9. Le 8. The same preposition is used in the expressions à la cambrouillard est très-épais. 10. Combien de personnes y a-t-il à pagne, à la ville, à la chasse, à la pêche, etc. l'assemblée ? 11. Il y a plus de deux cents (Sect. XIX. 7) per. Nous allons à la campagne, We go into the country. sonnes 12. N'y a-t-il pas beaucoup de manuscrits dans votre Vous n'ailez pas à la ville,

You do not go to the city. bibliothèque ? 13. Il n'y en a pas beaucoup, il n'y en a que Je vais à la chasse et à la pêche, I go hunting and fishing.

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9. INDICATIVE PRESENT OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS. as well as her sister ? 28. She reads better than her sister, but

her sister reads better than I. 29. Is there any one at your CONDUI-RE, 4, to conduct. ECRI-RE, 4, to write. LI-RE, 4, to read. Je conduis, I conduct, J'écris,' I write, do Je lis, I read, do read. house ? 30. My father is at home. 31. Is your brother-in-law do conduct, or write, or am writing. or am reading.

absent ? 32. My brother-in-law is at your house. 33. There is conducting.

no one at home to-day.
Tu conduis.
Tu écris.
Tu lis.

SECTION XXXIV.-THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN ON, ETC.
Il conduit.
Il écrit.

Il lit. Nous conduisons, Nous écrivons.

Nous lisons.

1. The indefinite pronoun on has no exact equivalent in Vous conduisez, Vous écrivez, Vous lisez,

English. It may be rendered by one, we, they, people, etc., Ils conduisent, Ils écrivent. Ils lisent,

according to the context. On has, of course, no antecedent, and RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

seldom refers to a particular person [$ 41 (4) (5), § 113].
On doit honorer la vertu,

We should honour virtue.
Votre parent écrit-il bien ?

Does your relation write well ?
Il écrit assez bien et assez vite. Ho writes well enough and rapidly

On nous apporte de l'argent, Money is brought to us.
enough,

2. As may be seen in the last example, on is often the nomi. Nous avons assez de livres. We have books enough.

native of an active verb, which is best rendered in English by Nous sommes assez attentifs à nos We are attentive enough to our less the passive [$ 113 (1)].

leçons. Voilà la demoiselle dont vous There is the young lady of whom you

On dit que votre épouse est ici, They say that your wife is here. parlez.

speak.

On raconte des histoires singulières, Singular histories are related. Votre cheval n'est-il pas dans le Is not your horse in the field ?

On récolte beaucoup de blé en Much wheat is harvested (groun) in champ?

France,

France. Il n'y est pas, il est dans le jardin. It is not there, it is in the garden. 3. Avoir lieu answers to the English expression to take place. Allez-vous en France cette année ? Do you go to France this year ? Nous allons à Paris et à Lyon. We go to Paris and to Lyons.

Cela a lieu tous les jours,

That takes place every day. Où conduisez-vous ce jeune homme? Where do you take this young man ? 4. Au lieu de answers to the English instead of. The verb Je le conduis en Allemagne. I take him to Germany.

which follows it must, according to Sect. XX. 2, be put in the Demeurez-vous à la ville ? Do you live in the town?

infinitive. Nous demeurons à la campagne. We live in the country. Allez-vous souvent à la chasse ? Do you go often hunting?

Au lieu d'étudier, il joue,

Instead of studying he plays. Nous allons quelquefois à la pêche. Wo sometimes go fishing.

5. Devoir, to owe, is used before an infinitive, like the English VOCABULARY.

verb to be, to express obligation. Associé, m., partner. Italie, f., Italy. Suisse, f., Switzerland. Je dois lui écrire demain,

I am to write to him to-morrow. Campagne, f., country. Péche, f., fishing. Terre, f., farm, estate. Nous devons y aller demain, We are to go there to-morrow. Canif, m., penknife. Prusse, f., Prussia. Ville, f., town, city. 6. Recevoir des nouvelles means to hear from. Chasse, f., hunting. Rapidement, rapidly. Vite, quickly. Commis, m., clerk. Rend-re, 4, to return. Voyage, m., journey.

Devez-vous recevoir des nouvelles Are you to hear from your sister ? Fort, very. Si, ij.

de votre scur? EXERCISE 61.

7. Entendre parler answers to the English phrase to hear of or

about. 1. Écrivez-vous encore la même leçon ? 2. Je n'écris plus la

Entendez-vous souvent parler de Do you often hear of your friends! même, j'en écris une autre. 3. Votre commis écrit-il rapide

vos amis? ment? 4. Il écrit fort bien, mais il n'écrit pas vite. 5. N'avez

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. vous pas assez d'argent pour acheter cette terre ? 6. J'ai assez d'argent, mais j'ai l'intention de faire un voyage en France. 7. Que dit-on de nous dans la ville ? What do they say of us in the city? Voilà votre livre, en avez-vous besoin ? 8. Je n'en ai pas besoin: Ne mange-t-on

pas tous les jours ? Do not people eat every day? On ne parle pas de vous.

People do not speak of you. j'en ai un autre. 9. Avez-vous encore besoin de mon canif ?

On mange quand on a faim. People eat when they are hungry. 10. Je n'en ai plus besoin, je vais vous le rendre. 11. Notre On trouve beaucoup d'or en Cali. Much gold is found in California. cousin demeure-t-il à la ville ? 12. Il ne demeure plus à la fornie. ville, il demeure à la campagne. 13. Aime-t-il aller à la Dit-on quelque chose de nouveau ? Do they (people) say anything net? chasse ? 14. I n'aime pas aller à la chasse. 15. Il va tous On ne dit rien de nouveau. Nothing new is said, les jours à la pêche. 16. Notre associé est-il à Paris ou à A-t-on reçu des nouvelles de Has anything been heard from Rouen ? 17. Il est à Marseille. 18. Où avez-vous l'intention George ?

George? de conduire votre fils ? 19. Je vais le conduire en Italie. 20. On n'a point entendu parler de lui. Nothing has been heard of him. Demeurez-vous à Milan ou à Florence ? 21. Je ne demeure ni à On n'a point reçu de ses nouvelles. They have not heard from him. Milan ni à Florence, je demeure à Turin. 22. Votre ami | Je dois lui écrire demain.

Devez-vous écrire à notre ami ? Are you to write to our friend ?

I am to write to him to-morrow. demeure-t-il en Suisse ? 23. Il ne demeure plus en Suisse, il Le concert doit-il avoir lieu ce Is the concert to take place this demeure en Prusse. 24. Votre domestique est-il à l'église ? soir ?

evening? 25. Non, Monsieur, il est à l'école.

Il doit avoir lieu ce matin,

It is to take place this morning.

Je viens au lieu de mon frère. I como instead of my brother. EXERCISE 62.

Il danse au lieu de marcher,

He dances instead of walking. 1. Does your clerk write as well as your son ? 2. He writes

VOCABULARY. tolerably well, but not so well as my son. 3. Have you books enough in your library ? 4. I have not books enough, but I Afrique, f., Africa. Habits, m. pl., clothes. | Part-ir, 2, to depart, to intend to buy some more. 5. Here is your sister's letter, will Apport-er, 1, to bring. Malade, sick.

Alger, Algiers
Heure, f., hour, time. set out, to leave.

Prochain, -e, next. you read it ? 6. I intend to read it. 7. Does your son like to Demain, tomorrow.

Mois, m., month, Sav-oir, 3, ir., to know, go fishing ? 8. He likes to go fishing and hunting. 9. When Diamant, m., diamond. Or, m., gold.

Vente, f., sale. does he like to go fishing ? 10. When I am in the country. Fourn-ir, 2, to furnish. Os., m., bone.

Voyage, m., journey. 11. What do you do when you are in the city? 12. When I

EXERCISE 63. am in the city, I read and learn my lessons. intend to go to France this year? 14. I intend to go to Ger- 1. Vous apporte-t-on de l'argent tous les jours P 2. On no many. 15. Will you go to the city if it rains ? 16. When it m'en apporte pas tous les jours. 3. Vous fournit-on des habits rains I always remain at home [R. 1]. 17. How many friends quand vous en avez besoin ? [Sect. XXI.) 4. On m'en fournit have you in the city ? 18. I have many friends there. 19. Are toutes les fois (every time) que j'en ai besoin. 5. A-t-on besoin there many English in France ? 20. There are many English in d'argent quand on est malade ? 6. Quand on est malade, on en France and in Italy. 21. Are there more English in Germany a grand besoin. 7. Avez-vous reçu des nouvelles de mon fils ? than in Italy ? 22. There are more English in Italy than in 8. Je n'ai point reçu de ses nouvelles. 9. Ne dit-on pas qu'il Germany. 23. Is it fine weather in Italy? 24. It is very fine est en Afrique ? 10. On dit qu'il doit partir pour Alger. 11. weather there ? 25. Does it often freeze there ? 26. It freezes Quand doit-il commencer son voyage ? 12. On dit qu'il doit sometimes there, but not often. 27. Does that young lady read le commencer le mois prochain. 13. Ce rariage a-t-il lien

13. Do you

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