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while the other branch of the sense of taste is feeble. That The tongue of a ruminant is very long and flexible. It is which we call ravenous hunger in a dog or lion, is not the an- often twisted round the herbage to tear it up, or break it off ; easy feeling of privation, which we associate with excessive and the qualities which fit it for this use are manifested in the hunger, but is an all-engrossing desire to gratify the sense of highest degree in the tongue of the camelopard. This animal taste, and this is altogether distinct from a dainty apprecia- can extend by the length of this member its already great tion of flavour.
powers of reaching high, and thus hook down the branches of These animuls can endure privation from food for considerable the palm. Well might this animal suggest to Lamarck that its periods withont manifesting any signs of starvation; but the whole organism had been modified by a constant endeavour to smell, sight, and, most of all, the partial taste of flesh, excite reach higher and higher. them to eager, and even ferocious craving. Hence the popular The position of the large walled-round papillæ is very various notion of the dangerous nature of wild beasts which have once in different animals. The reader will have observed their positasted blood is a true one. On the other hand, when the food tion in the chimpanzee, in one long line of about twelve in is once obtained, it is torn to pieces, Aung to the back of the number down the middle of the tongue, with a few scattered mouth, and swallowed with a rapidity which altogether forbids ones on each side. In the pig, otter, and seal they have the the idea that these animals possess to any extent the faculty of V-shaped arrangement which they have in man, but are fewer in discrimination in their tastes.
number. In the sheep they form a thick, raised ridge on each This view of the question is also borne out by an inspection side at the back of the tongue. of the tongue. In the illustration, the reader will find a repre- One of the most singular uses to which the tongue is put in gentation of a cat's tongue. This tongue is long, and has but this class is manifested by the ant-eaters, whose long slimy fow round papillæ ; but it is covered with a dense pile of long, tongues are used to thrust into ants' nests, so that when they thin, pointed, overlapping projections (filiform papillæ), which are retracted into their long tubular mouths the ants are carried are directed backwards, and towards the mid line. The cir- with them, adhering to the mucus. cumvallate papillæ, again, are but four in number, two on each If this article had been headed “The Tongue," instead of side. It is this pile of pointed papillæ which makes the cat's "The Organ of Taste,” we should have a long task before ns to tongue feel rough when she licks. The covering of these describe the various shapes of the organ in toads and reptiles, papillæ is so denso, hard, and thick, when compared with that and also in snails and insects. The organ to which the word of our own, that we are justified in thinking them mechanical tongue has been applied has a wonderful diversity of form, and only in function ; and yet they cover the whole tongue almost many interesting peculiarities; but in most cases its main office to the exclusion of the other kinds.
is to seize or to masticate the food, and the function of taste is In the larger members of the cat family, these pointed papillæ subordinate to this. are quite like hard thoms or spines; and with them the lion, In birds the tongue is almost as diversified in form as the tiger, and leopard can rasp away the last adhering fragments of boak; but it is usually cased in horn at its fore part, and there flesh and ligament from the bones. A patch of these papillæ are only a few. papillæ above the air-hole. In parrots it is from the leopard's tongue are represented in the engraving. Aleshy ; and these birds seem to have more of the sense of taste They are two-lobed and rounded, and have from their back part than most birds, for they will turn a lump of sugar or a dat a single sharp spine running directly backward, and they are set about in their beaks for some time to test its qualities before in a very regular pattern, alternating in each row. On the eating it. It is certainly singular that birds, whose proper food summit of the leopard's tongue a number of papillæ were found is fruit, should be so little endowed with a sense to appreciate without spinos, as though worn off, or perhaps not developed, its delightful and delicate flavour; nevertheless, it seems as lest the palate should be injured by them.
though the tongue were only applied to test the softness, and In illustration of these remarks we may give an incident. A therefore the ripeness of the fruit. The tongue drawn to repregentleman had reared a tame leopard from a cub, and having sent that of the fieldfare, may be taken as the typical tongue of always fed it on bread, etc., the animal was very docile, and a bird. The small triangular tongue of the ostrich, supported showed no sign of savageness. It was often caressed by its on its slendor arch of bone, is given because of its singular master, and returned the blandishments after its manner. shape and shortness. The length of the tongue has but little While thus engaged, it one day took its master's hand into its relation to the length of the beak. Thus both the pelican and mouth, and began to lick it gently, but owing to the roughness the toucan have enormous beaks; but the former has a tongue of the tongue it caused some blood to flow. The gentleman, no as short as that of the ostrich, while that of the latter is very doubt feeling some pain, tried to withdraw his hand, but, to his long. The tongue of the woodpecker is a living harpoon. surprise, the beast for the first time in its life began to growl. In some reptiles there is evidence of a sense of taste, but it is With great presence of mind the gentleman relented from his doubtless inferior to that of higher animals. The tongue of the effort to release his hand, rang the bell, asked his servant for chameleon, given in the engraving, is of curious shape; and the his loaded pistol, and then shot his now dangerous favourite mechanism by which it can be darted upon a luckless dy is elabothrough the head.
rate and interesting ; but its description would be out of place In herbivorous animals, while the sonse is far less keon, so far here. In the toad and frog the tongue grows as the tail drops as the alimentary sensation is concerned, we have no reason to off. It sprouts from the inside of the lower jaw, and grows suppose that the distinguishing gustatory sense is in any degree backward, so that its bi-lobed end lies free in the mouth, and stronger
can be filliped forward out of that cavity. This is also rather The rain mass of the food of the ruminants is insipid. an organ of prehension than of taste. The forked tongue of the Freshnees is the strongest term that can be used to express its snake is familiar to every one. Its reiterated protrusion and desirability. A large bulk is required for but a little nutriment.vibration has led the vulgar to consider this action as a threat, Thus we find the ox occupies a considerable number of its and to believe that it is the sting of the animal. It, however, wakeful hours in grazing and chewing, and it feeds along the has no such function. It may have some power of tasting, bat pasture, tearing up the grass with but little discrimination. It it is more probable that it is an organ of touch; for this creature, is true that a cow will avoid noxious or disagreeable plants limbless and covered with hard scales, is greatly in need of a when they grow in clumps ; for a field, otherwise closely cropped, means of feeling outward objects. still presents long stalks of the common buttercup. It would Fishes' tongues have seldom any soft parts, and cannot theroseem, however, that this avoidance is rather due to instinct than to fore be organs of taste. They are not unfrequently furnished disgust. Many plants have very powerful, bitter, sour, and astrin. with teeth. In some fish a cushion of soft substance, well
gent principles, and they are intimately mingled with the grass; supplied with blood-vessels, is found on the roof of the mouth. i tot, as we seldom see a cow eject the food from its mouth, we All the higher orders of mollusca have an organ to which the I cannot suppose it to have any very delicato sense of taste. name of tongue has been given, and some authors have proposed From the fact that oxen ruminate, we might suppose that they to group together the head-walkers, belly-walkers, and wing. enjoy the sense of taste while chewing the cud. So doubtless footed classes under one sub-division, calling them odontophora, they do in a minor degree ; but the act by which the food is or animals which have a tooth-bearing tongue. This organ in returned to the mouth is probably quito involuntary ; and the spails (gasteropods) bears transverse rows of teeth arranged in lazy, dreamy way in which an ox ruminates contrasts strongly complicated and beautiful patterns, and is sometimes so long as with the avidity with which a carnivorous animal feeds.
to be called the lingual ribbon. As it is often used to file away
shells before devouring the animal contained within, its function Regierung, f. govern- Taucher, m. diver. Vertrau'en, to confide must be considered as other than that of taste.
in, to trust. The bee lieks up its honey with a very complex tongue ; but Keihe, f. row, range.
Waffen, f. arms, weaas this member is composed entirely of a horny substance and Sammeln, to gather, Uebel, evil.
pons. stiff hains, it cannot be used to taste the sweet compound elabo- collect.
Ucben, to exercise. Wagen, to venture, rated by the flowers. An internal cavity to hold food during Scharen, to hurt, in- unermeß'lich, immea- risk. the time necessary to its digestion is so generally present in jure.
Wind, m. wind. animals, that it almost serves as a character whereby to cut Selbst, self.
Un'gemach, n. affliction Zeigen, to show, exthem off from the vegetable kingdom. A prompting to fill this Slave, m. Slavonian. Ungdy'lig, innumera- hibit. cavity is of course always associated with the organ; but Strudel, m. whirl. ble.
Zusam'menzichen, to whether that prompting is automatic, instinctive, or rational, it pool.
Verbinden, to unite, contract, to draw is difficult to say. A sense that may be pleasurable or painful Stürzen, to plunge. combine.
together. seems to imply some power of reasoning to make it useful. A sense which is neither pleasurable nor painful may stir but a
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. blind instinct. There is, however, a lower impulse to action than Der Kaiser hielt sich lesten Winter The emperor remained in tho even this, in which both intelligence and sense may not be at in der Hauptstadt auf.
capital last winter. all involved. When the contact of food causes the sea anemone Der Spotter hält sich über Andere The derider sneers (finds fault to close its arms around it, and force them into its mouth, auf.
with) at others. it is probable that sense is no link in the chain of causes of this Das Volt emport fich gegen den The people rebel (riso) against act, but the whole process of ingestion is parallel to that part of König.
the king. the action of swallowing which takes place in us after the Die Füchse graben sich Höhlen. The foxes dig themselves holes. senses have done their work, and the throat seizes the morsel of Der tap‘jere Soldat'crivirbt' fic The valiant soldier acquires food and carries it down to the stomach by an involuntary act. Rubin und Ehre.
fame and honour. Automatic and consensual acts are often as violent as those Der Gei'zige freut sich über nichts, The avaricious (man) does not prompted by desire and reason, so that eagerness in foeding is obgleich' er sehr reich ist.
enjoy anything, although he ac infallible evidence of taste in the lower animals. We abstain,
is very rich. therefore, from describing those various and interesting organs &r fißt und hört dem Rauschen der He sits and listens to the roar. which lie in such a relation to the entrance of the alimentary Gewässer zu.
ing of the waters. canal of snails, flies, bees, etc., as to have been called tongues,
EXERCISE 70. as though they were organs of sense.
1. Alle Dünste und Dämpfe, welche bestandig von der Erde aufsteigen,
sammeln sich in der Atmosphäre, und indem sie sich berbinden, entsteht LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XX.
taraus Regen, Schnee, Nebel, und jede andere Verämterung in der Luft. SECTION XXXVII.-REFLECTIVE VERBS. 2. Derjenige, der sich in der Jugend an Arbeit gewohnt, braucht im Alter REFLECTIVE verbs (§ 86. 1, 2, etc.) are those that represent Reihe prachtvoller Paläste aus.
nicht zu Darben. 3. Die Ludwigstraße in München zeichnet sich durch eine the subject as acting upon itself, as :
4. Diejenigen Personen, welche sich selbft -Gr beslunt sich, he bethinks himself, etc.
loben, machen sich sehr oft lächerlich. 5. Die Söhne Karls des Großen
6. Der Verbs of this class are much more numerous than in English, mußten sich in den Waffen, im Reiten und im Suwimmen üben. and are variously translated, as :-Er macht sich über mich lustig, he tühne
Taucher wagt es (Sect
. XXXV. 4), rich in den tobenden Strudel
zu ftürzen. makes himself merry over me (i.e., he ridicules me). 6t hårmt Friedrich ter Große hielt sich oft zu Potsdam, im Schloffe Sanssouci,
7. Der Neitische schabet sich selbst mehr, als andern. Puch über seinen Verlust, he mourns over (or on account of) his loss. auf 9. Das Gute belohnt sich selbst. 10. Der Gläubige zeigt sich im Er freut sich über sein Glüdt, he rejoices at his prosperity. Gr wider. jeßt sich ben Befehlen des Tyrannen, he opposes (himself to) the com
Ungemach wie ein Fels im Mcere, wenn die Meereswogen um ihn toben. mands of the tyrant. Das Buch hat sich gefunden, the book has been 11. Das große, blaue Gewölbe, welches wir Himmel nennen, ist ein uner.
elchem die Grde, die Sonne, der Mond und unzählige found (active form, the book has made its appearance). Der meblicher Raum, in Şimmel bebedt sich mit Wolfen, the sky is covered with clouds. Soll sammenziehen und austehnen, ist sehr groß. 13. Viele Menschen eignen Platz
Sterne sich bevegen. 12. Die Kraft, mit welcher die Muskeln fich zulo ber freel sich vor unsern Augen vollenden ? shall the outrage be aocomplished before our eyes ? &r hält sich in Berlin auf. he (holds der Natur halten. 14. Gin Kind an der Hand seiner guten Eltern fürchtet
übel Gewohnheiten so leidenschaftlich an, baß sie dieselben für Bedürfnisse bimself ap) stops in Berlin. &r hat sich bei der Arbeit zu lange aufgehalten, he has (kept himself) remained too long at the work. fich nicht, --so der Mensch, der Vertrauen zu Gott hat. 15. Die Armee (Sce $$ 86, 87.)
jog fich zusammen, und bewegte sich dem Flusse zu. 16. Der Feind lagerte
17. Er zeichnete sich vor den andern durch sein tapferes criticise, to blame, as :-Gr hält fich immer über Kleinigkeiten auf, über die Worte meines Nachbars auf. Sit aufhalten über signifies to find fault with, to sneer at, to fich um die Stadt,
Betragen aus. 18. Er fürchtete sich vor Niemanden. 19. Er hält sich he is always finding fault about trifles (stopping over trifles). Er hält fich über Ihren Brief auf, he criticises your letter.
EXERCISE 71. Er hält sich über die ganze Gesellschaft auf, he sneers at the whole company.
1. The youth mourns at the loss of his parents. 2. Mother VOCABULARY.
was pleased when the letter from my sister was road to her. 3.
She consoled herself with the thought that she would arrive Darben, to suffer, Leiódenschaftlich, pas- soon. 4. Will you sojourn long in Italy? No, it is not my inAn'eignen, to approwant.
tention. 5. An honest man fears nothing. 6. The Slavonians priate.
Dunst, m. exhalation. Meereswoge, f. ocean- have rebelled against the Austrian government. 7. The English Atmophá're, f. atmo- Empoʻren, to rebel, to billow.
troops distinguished themselves at the battle of Waterloo by sphere.
make insurrection. Münden, n. Munich. their bravery. 8. He who rejoices at the downfall of another Auf-halten, to sojourn, Entfte'hen, to arise. | Musfel, m. muscle.
deserves not the approbation of the virtuous. 9. He who Gegen, against. Natur', f. nature. is vexed when another is praised in his presence, is a man who Aus rehnen, to extend, Gewoh'nen, to ac- Nebel, m, mist, fog. does not deserve to be loved and honoured. 10. He who rejoices expand custom.
Nennen, to name, to when his neighbour is loved is a good-natured man. Aus“zeichnen, to mark, Gewohn'heit, f. habit, call, to denomito distinguish custom.
SECTION XXXVIII.-REFLECTIVE VERBS—(continued). (one's self). Gewöl'be, arch, Oft, often.
Many verbs in German, as in other languages, especially when Betürfnis. n. want, vault.
Deft'reichisch, Austrian. used as reflectives, acquire in certain phrases a figurative sense Decessity.
Glåu'big, believing. Palaft“, m. palace. which deserves to be noted. Thus from idiđen, to send, we have Beloh'nen, to reward. Indem', while. Prachtvoll, splendid, the reflective sich schieten, to send or throw one's self into, s.e., to Befaanbig.continually Sarl, m. Charles. gorgeous.
adapt or conform to, as:—Der Mensch muß sich in die Zeit, in seine Bewe'gen, to move. Kraft, f. force, power. Raum,
Umstände lichiden, man must adapt himself to the times, to his cir. Damit. m. steam, Stühn, daring.
cumstances. Os sthidt sich nicht, das zu thun, it is not proper to do VAPOUZ. Lagerr, to encamp.
: Nogen, m. rain, that. So from fragen, to ask, we have fic fragen, to be questionta
Alter, i. age.
able, as :- -Gs fragt sich, ob er da war, it is questionable whether he made in Paris. Sie lassen ein Haus bauen, they are having a house was there. Sich zutragen, sich handeln, etc., are of the same cha- built. racter, as :- -Es trägt sich zuweilen zu, daß anhaltender Regen die ganze 1. Holen (Sect. XXV.) signifies to go for. The phrase holen Ernte verrirbt, it happens sometimes that continued rain destroys lassen signifies “to cause to go for;" that is, " to send for," the entire harvest. Gs hantelt sich nicht um Kleinigkeiten, it is not a as :-Ich lasse Aepfel holen, I send for apples. Ich habe sie ígon holen question (an affair) of trifles. (See also § 86. 6.)
lassen (Sect. XXIV. 7), I have already sent for them. VOCABULARY.
VOCABULARY. Ab'schlagen, to refuse. Ernsthaft, earnest, Rathen, to counsel.
Bahnhof, m. railway. Fehlen, to fail. Poft, f. post-office. Uchten, to respect. serious. Scheinen, to appear. station.
Roffer, m. trunk.
Ruhe, f. rest, repose. An'nehmen, to adopt, Fortern, to demand, Scherzhaft, facetious, Diener, m. servant. Lassen, to let, to Ruben, to rest. accept. require.
Weg, m. way. above.)
Sonntag, m. Sunday. Begeg'nen, to meet, | Fremdling, m.stranger, Un'gehorsam, disobe.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. happen, befall. foreigner.
Der Taucher holte den goldenen The diver brought the king's Bemü'hen, to fatigue, Froh, joyful, gladly. Vermeh'ren, to in
Becher des Königs aus bem golden goblet from the weary. Geboʻren, to belong,
whirlpool Vetrachtung, f. consi. to be fit.
Vermögen, n. wealth. Die Röchin holt Gemüse und Fleisch The cook is fetching vegetables deration, view. Gesche'ben, to happen, Widmen, to devote. von dem Markte.
and meat from the market. Bewußt'sein, n.
take place. Wirtlich, really. Das Gericht' läßt den Verbrecher The court causes the criminal sciousness. Heiligen, to hallow. Wissenschaft, f.science. enthaup'ten.
to be beheaded. Ginlatung, f. invita- Pflicht, f. duty, obli- | Zu“sehends, visibly. Dieser Mann laßt den Freund im This man leaves his friend in tion. gation.
the lurch. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
EXERCISE 74. To trifft sich zuweilen, taß unter It sometimes happens that
1. Was holt jenes Dienstmärchen? 2. Sie holt Wasser von dem Drunnen, einem unscheinbaren Kleite die under an unsightly garb the Holz aus dem Walte und Fleisch vom Markte. 3. Hat sie schon meinen schönsten Talen'te verbergen sind. most splendid talents are offer von dem Bahnhofe geholt ? 4. Ja, gleich nach dem Aufsteben
(Sect. XLI. 3) hat sie ihn geholt. 5. Wir lieben dem franken Manne Es trigt sich häufig zu, daß die It often happens that the men Männer, die sich um 018 Va'ter, who have rendered them- tie Poft tragen.
einen Arzt holen. 6. Er ließ mich den Brief abschreiben, und ihr dann auf
7. Ich lasse ed an nicht fehlen (§ 146. 1 d.) um Ihren land am meisten verricnt' gemacht' selves most deserving of Soln auf einen bessern Weg zu bringen. 8. Lassen wir uns durch dieses biben, gei'mathloß umher'irren. their (the) native country | Ereigniß nicht tauschen. 9. Man sollte den Totten ihre Ruhe lassen. 10.
wander about homeless.
Er ließ mich warten, obleich ich in Gile war. 11. Warum lieśct 3hr Meinem Neffen ist ein großes Unglüd A great misfortune has happened Euren kleinen Bruter nicht fommen? 12. Weil er den ganzen Nachmit
to my nephew.
tag in der Schule war. 13. Lassen sie Ihre Kinder Französisch lernen? Er erzähl'te mir dieses, als er mir He related this to me as he ac- 14. Nein, weil ich die englische Sprache für nüßlider halte. (Sect.
heute von un'gefähr auf der Straße cidentally met me to-day in LXVIII. 2.) 15. Der Major ließ seinen Diener mir den Weg nach dem begegénete.
Dorfe zeigen. 16. Der Herr, nach welchem Sie fragen, ließ ten HauptEXERCISE 72.
mann auf das Land fahren. 17. Für wen lassen Sie die Bücher holen? 1. Go fragt sich, ob wir morgen schönes Wetter haben werden.
18. Id laffe sie für meine jüngste Schwester holen, um sie italienisch zu 2. 68
Tehren. gehört sich, ten Sonntag zu beiligen.
19. Er ließ mich einlaten, in der nächsten Woche mit ihm zu 3. Es gchört sich, ältere Leute zu
reisen. ndten. 4. Man arbeitet viel froher, wenn man das Bewußtsein hat, etwas
EXERCISE 75. Mutes zu thun. 5. 6: ichidt fich nicht, die Einlarung abzusdhlagen. 6. Der wirklich fluge Mann wird, so viel (Sect. XXXIV. 4) es ihm möglich 1. Which of those physicians will you send for ? 2. I shall ist, sich bemühen, sich in vie Zeit zu ichiden. 7. 8 macht große Freute, das send for neither. 3. Let me be quiet, for I am not well. 4. Sute zu fördern. 8. (s schidt fich, daß ein jeder Fremdling die guten, Only cowardly soldiers leave their commander-in-chief in the aber nicht die üblen Sitten cines Volfes annimmt.
6. 9. Das Vermögen lurch. 5. Why did you not let your little sister come ? dicice Maernes vermehrt sich zusehende (§ 101). 10. 6s ithidt fich nicht she could not, for she was at school the whole morning. _7. für Kinder, ungehorsam zu sein. 11. 68 fragt sich, ob dieser Mann feine He has sent for a dentist to have a tooth extracted. 8. For Pflicht gethan hat. 12. Es trägt fich zuweilen zu, daß die Betrachtungen what have you sent your servant? 9. I have sent her for paper bei einer scherzhaften Begebenheit sehr ernsthaft sind. 13. Es trägt fich and ink. 10. Let us act humanely. 11. Pray let us go to häufig zu, daß tleine Veranlaffungen große Ereignisse herbeiführen. 14. school. 12. Let us not follow the examples of the wicked. Wer ist (§ 71. 1) Ihnen heute Morgen begegnet? 15. Mein Freund, der Capitän, ist mir begegnet. 16. Ist ihm auf der leßten Reise nichts Unangenehmes begegnet ? 17. Ja, es ist ihm ein großes llnglüd begegnet. LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXI. 18. Was ist Ihnen geschehen ? 19. Gs ist mir nichts geschehen. 20. Es gesticht ihm diese Strafe recht.
In our last lesson in Penmanship, in Copy-slip No. 57 (page
317), were given the elementary strokes of which the letter k is EXERCISE 73.
composed; and in Copy-slip No. 76, on the opposite page, the 1. It is proper that the children should respect their parents. learner will find this letter in its complete form. In writing the 2. It becomes not a wise man to follow the multitude. 3. Most letter k, a straight-stroke is first made, and then a stroke of young people wish to appear great in the world. 4. You should peculiar form is added to it, which somewhat resembles & under all circumstances say the truth. 5. It is questionable brace ~a, and which may be considered to be a modified form whether we shall accept your invitation. 6. It is questionable of the top-and-bottom-turn, made by turning the pen in to the whether you are right or wrong. 7. It happens sometimes that left just before reaching the line cc, and then, after forming a the best man fails. 8. The government asks obedience from its very small loop, out towards the right, and finishing as in the subjects. 9. The inhabitants of London increase enormously ordinary bottom-turn, as shown in Copy-slips Nos. 75 and 76. every year. 10. My brother devoted himself more to science In Copy-slip No. 77, in the word kafir, the letter k is shown than to pleasure. 11. Do you know to what extent your friend in conjunction with a letter that follows it. There is no necos. has counselled you? 12. He has counselled you to do that of sity for giving an example of the method of joining it to any which he spoke yesterday.
letter that precedes it, since, as it begins with a straight-stroke,
the method of connecting letters with others into whose comSECTION XXXIX.-PECULIAR IDIOMS.
position the straight-stroke enters, may be soen from Copy-slips Lasic is often employed in the sense of causing or ordering, Nos. 59 and 60 (page 261). It may be remarked, for the like the English verbs “have” and “get," as :-r läßt feine benefit and satisfaction of such of our readers who may not have Kiciter in Paris machen (Sect. XXXIII. 1), he gets his clothes met with the word before, that the “Kafirs" are a fine an' intelligent, but ferocious race of savages that are found in brought downwards in a slanting direction towards the left. Southern Africa, and who, at times, have given considerable On reaching the line bb, it is turned once more in a loop over trouble to our settlers and British troops in Cape Colony. The the fine down-stroke, and again carried along in a serpentine word “Kafir" is also spelt “Kaffir" and "Caffre.” Copy-slip form from left to right. In the second form the letter is com. No. 77 will also be found useful by the self-teacher, in showing menced in the same manner, but the down-stroke on reaching
z zo dra
COPY-SLIP NO. 78. -THE LETTER %.
COPY-SLIP NO. 79.—THE WORD zone.
Zl 28 A
COPY-SIP NO. 80.-THE WORD zebra.
him how the letter f is connected with letters that precede and the line bb is turned in a larger loop towards the right, and follow it when it stands in the middle of a word.
brought downwards towards and as far as the line h h, the The letter z is formed in two ways, as shown in Copy-slip letter being finished with a loop, resembling, in a great measure, No. 78. The first form consists chiefly of hair-strokes in the the loop of the letter j. In Copy-slips Nos. 79 and 80, examples shape of the italic printed letter z. It is commenced with a are given of the letter z in combination with other letters. hair-line a little below the line a a, which is carried along in a We will now say a few words in recapitulation of the instruc. serpentine form from left to right. The pen is then turned to tion in the art of writing, and the directions for forming the small the left in a loop over the first part of the stroke, and the line is letters of the writing alphabet that have been given in this and
the preceding lessons on Penmanship. In our first lesson, we enters into the composition of nine letters, namely, a, b, d, i, endeavoured to explain to students who are seeking to teach 1, q, t, u, and w. Of these i and u are formed of the bottomthemselves how to write, or trying to improve their handwriting, turn, without any modification; while t and I consist of the the proper position of the body, the hand, and the pen; and in bottom-turn slightly modified. subsequent lessons we showed how each letter was formed of 2. The “top-turn," which enters into the formation of three one or more simple elementary strokes and their modifications, letters of the alphabet, namely, m, n, and r. This elementary the proportions of each letter being regulated by horizontal stroke, unlike the bottom-turn, does not form a complete letter lines placed at certain distances from each other; thus creating without some other elementary stroke being joined to it. a system which has never before beon attempted in teaching 3. The "top-and-bottom-turn,” which enters into the comwriting, and which possesses the merit of enabling the self. position of six letters of the alphabet, namely, h, m, n, p, teacher to test by actual measurement how much he knows of V, and y. the regular proportions of the letters in relation to each other, 4. The “straight-stroke,” which enters into the formation of when he casts aside his leading-strings—as the lines within and three letters of the alphabet, namely, h, k, and p. on which copies are written may be appropriately termed-and 5. The letter o, which is a complete letter in itself without endeavours to write on a blank sheet of paper, with no other any addition, and which, as an elementary stroke, enters into the guide to the form, connection, and proportion of the letters than composition of four letters of the alphabet, namely, 2, g, d, q; that which is furnished by memory, of the copies he has written and in a modified form into the formation of four additional in lines for practice, and the instructions which have been given letters, namely, c, e, 8, and x. in our lessons.
6. The elementary looped form turned at the bottom, which The earlycopy-slips, numbered from
enters into the composition of three letters, namely, g, j, and 1 to 6, were traversed by fine diagonal
y; and in a modified form into the composition of z. lines running from right to left, in
7. The elementary stroke, that completes the formation of a downward direction. These lines
three letters, namely, b, V, and w, in combination with the served to show the proper slope or
to bottom-turn or top-and-bottom-turn. inclination of the letters for writing.
8. The elementary stroke that is added to the top-turn to They are inclined to the horizontal
form the letter r. linos crossing the paper from side
9. The elementary looped form turned at the top, which to side, at an angle of 60 degrees.
enters into the composition of the letter f, which is finished This inclination is shown in the
below the line bb, with the straight-stroke. In small-hand annexed diagram by the diagonal
writing, this form is used instead of the straight down-stroke line running upwards from the
for those portions of the letters b, b, and I, which extend above point b, in the left-hand column of
the line a a. letters, from left to right, and cross
10. The elementary stroke, that may be called a modification ing the perpendicular line on the
of the top-and-bottom-turn, added to the "straight-stroke," to right at a point between a and d, in
form the letter k. the right-hand column of letters,
The following table shows at a glance the formation of all The horizontal lines that cross
the letters of the alphabet in reference to the numbers attached the copy-slips from side to side, and which are shown at one to the recapitulation of elementary forms that has just been view in the accompanying diagram, are designed, as it has been given : said, to fix the proper proportions of the letters in height and
3.7 depth. Starting from the centre' line c c, the line a a above it, 6
.1.1.7 and the line b b below it, show the common level of the letters
5.5 that are written within these lines, and do not extend beyond d
3.6 them either above or below. The letters that are contained
52 within the lines a a, b b, are a, c, e, i, m, n, o, r, s, U, V, W, li
9.4 m . 2.2.3t
1 X, or exactly half the alphabet. Of the remaining thirteen,
2.3 six-namely, b, d, h, k, l, t-extend above the upper common lovel a a; five-namely, g, j, q, y, 2-extend below the lower common level bb, while the remaining two, p, f, extend both LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XI. above a a and below bb. Of the last-named thirteen letters, t is included between the lines dd, bb; b, d, h, k, l, between
DERIVATION: PREFIXES (continuod). the lines e e, 66; q, between the lines a a, 99; 8, j, y, 2, Meter, metro, with the signification of "mother," of Greek between the lines a a, hh;
f, between the lines k k, 99; and p, origin (untap, pronounced meet-ear, a mother), enters as the between the lines ff, 99. The student is advised to rule a piece first two syllables into the word metropolis (Tones, pronounced of paper in this manner, and write the alphabet upon it. He pol'-is, a city), a mother city, the capital of a country, the chief will then have all the letters together at one view, in their city of a province. relative proportions. The distances of the lines from the cen
“By consent of all churches, the precedency in each province was tral line cc, on either side of it, are shown by the numbers assigned to the bishop of the metropolis, who was called the first bishop. annexed to the diagram. Those on the left-hand side represent the metropolitan."— Barrow. the distances in sixteenths of an inch; those on the right-hand
Micro, of Greek origin (ulkpos, pronounced mi-kros, little), is side, in fractional parts of an inch. These are the proper proportions for large-hand writing ; but in small-hand, the space world), that is, a little world.
seen in microcosm (Greek, koouos, pronounced kos-mos, the between the lines a a, 66 is considerably reduced, while the loops and tails of the letters that extend above a a, and below
“ Because in the little frame of man's body there is a representatica bb, are greatly extended in proportion, as will be seen from our parts there, therefore was man called microcosmos, or the little world."
of the universal, and (by allusion) a kind of participation of all the future copy-slips in small-hand.
-Raleigh, “ History of the World." The width of the letters contained within the lines a a, b b, and indeed the width of all letters used in large text, except
Micro appears also in microscope (Greek, OKOTEW, Pronoanced i, m, and w, should be exactly one-half of that part of the skop'-e-o, I look at, see). diagonal line that is intercepted betweon them. In the annexed “ The works of art do not bear a nice microscopical inspection ; but diagram, the proper width of a letter in ge-hand is shown by the more helps are used, and the more nicely you pry into natural ine line intercepted between a in the left-hand column of letters, productions, the more do you discover of the fine mechanism of naand o, the point in which the line a a is crossed by the diagonal.
“ Siris." It measures exactly seven-twenty-fourths of an inch in width. Mid, of Saxon origin (compare middle), halfway, makes a part
The elementary forms of which the small letters of the writing of several English words, as midland, midnight, midday, mida alphabet are composed, in large-hand writing, are ten in number, ship, midsummer; the meaning of which is very plsin. Midrik namely:
(rif, rib, Saxon, division) is the diaphragm, the skin or membrane 1. The "bottom-turn,” which in its simple or modified form which separates the heart and lungs from the lower bolly.