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LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-XI.

describe a square that shall be equal in superficial area to the

squares described on these lines. First draw two straight lines PROBLEM XXVIII.—To draw a triangle of which the base, the of indefinite length, P Q, R 8, intersecting each other at right sumn of its remaining sides, and one of the angles at the base are angles in the point c. On c p and C s set off C D C E, each given.

equal to A, and on CR, CQ set off C F, C G, each equal to B. Let the straight line a represent the length of the base of the Complete the squares Ć D H E, C F K G, by Problem XVIII. roquired triangle, B the sum of its remaining sides, anl the angle (page 255) and join G E. Upon G E construct the square GEL M, c one of the angles at its basc. Draw any straight line, x y, of also by Problem XVIII. The square G E L M is equal in superindefinite length, and at any point, D, in it, make the angle ficial area to the squares C D I E, C F KG, described on the given

Y D E equal to the given straight lines A and B respectively.
angle c. Then set off Now at first sight it is difficult for any one who is endea
D F equal to A along DY, vouring by self-tuition to acquire a knowledge of practical geo.
and DG equal to B metry, whether for an agreeable change from other pursuits and
along D E, and join G F. a useful mental exercise,
At the point r in the or to aid him in the pur-
straight line G F make suance of his calling -
the angle G F H equal and there are many call.
to the angle D G F, pro- ings, such as those of
ducing F h, if neces- the carpenter, mason, gar-

sary, until it meets the dener, wheelwright, etc.,
Fig. 33.

side D G of the triangle in which a knowledge of

D G F in the point H. geometry is indispensable, The triangle H D is the triangle required, for its base, D F, if he who chooses any one is equal co the given straight line A, one of its angles F D H of them as the avocation is equal to the given angle c, and the length of its remaining by which he must earn his sides, D H, I F, taken together, is equal to B, for since the angle daily bread wishes rise AF G is equal to the angle G F, F is equal to u g, and among his fellows, and DG, or D 1+1 G, was made equal to B.

so deservedly command The position of the point h in the straight line D G may also the reward of his in. be found by bisecting F G in K, and drawing K L perpendicular dustry and intelligenceto PG, and cutting D G in n.

we say, seem PROBLEM XXIX.—To draw a triangle having its angles equal at first difficult to

Fig. 40. to the angles of a given triangle and its perimeter, or the sum of its perceive that the large three sides, equal to a given straight line.

square G ELM is exactly equal in superficial area to the two Let the straight line A B represent the length of the perimeter, smaller squares C D H E, C F KG, taken together. We will, or sum of the three sides of the required triangle, and C D E the therefore, first give him the means of proving to his satisfacgiven triangle to whose angles the angles of the required triangle tion, by the aid of his compasses and parallel ruler, that it is must be equal. At the extremity a of the straight line A B make so, and then endeavour, as in former cases, to deduce from a the angle BAF equal to the angle E D C of the triangle C D E, consideration of Fig. 40 several geometrical facts that may be and at its extremity B, make the angle A B G equal to the angle gleaned from this problem, without the necessity of treating CED. Bisect the angles B A F, A B G by the straight lines A H, them in separate problems. B K, and let these straight lines be produced far enough to inter- And first, for proof positive from ocular demonstration that sect in the point L. From the point L draw L M parallel to A F, the area of the large square G E L M is equal to the joint area of meeting a B in m, and L N parallel to B G, meeting A B in n. the smaller squares C F KG, C D H E. An inspection of the The triangle Lun thus formed is the triangle required, for it is annexed figure, which is drawn on rather a smaller scale than manifest that its angles at L, M, and w, are equal to the angles at Fig. 40, but in precisely the same proportions, will show the C, D, and of the triangle C D E, for the angle L MN, by Theorem truth of the assertion. The two larger squares are divided into 2 (page 156), is equal to the angle B A F, which was made equal their component parts in the following manner. Through c to the angle C D E, and the angle L Nm, by the same Theorem, is draw c T parallel to GM or E L, meeting G in T, in order to equal to the angle A B G, which was made equal to the angle C ED; fix the point t. Then through draw tu parallel to c E, and and if there be two triangles each one of which has two angles T v parallel to c G. Along T U set off to equal to C G, and

which are equal to through o draw o x parallel to t v or C G, meeting L M in x, and
two angles of the throngh v draw v w, parallel to T U or C E, meeting o x in w.
other, the remaining Next, for the necessary division of the square C D H E, through
angle of the one c draw c z, parallel to E G, and produce L E, to meet the straight
must be equal to the line D u in the point y. If this
remaining angle of figure be drawn on a piece of
the other, since the paper, and the squares C F KG,
three angles of CDI E be cut out and divided, and
every triangle, whe- the pieces put together on the u
ther great or small, square G EL M, so that the pieces

are together equal to numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, in the
Fig. 39.

180 degrees; and as smaller squares, be placed on the

in the triangle LMN divisions similarly numbered in there are two angles L MN, L N M, equal to the angles C D E, the large square, it will be found CE D of the triangle C D E, the remaining angle ML N of the that the area of the large square triangle L m n must be equal to the remaining angle D C E of is exactly equal to the joint area the triangle C D E. Now the side M L is equal to MA, be- of the smaller squares. cause the angle ML A is equal to the angle M A L, M L A being It will be noticed that the equal to L A F O H A F, because they are alternate angles, and straight lines P Q, R s in Fig. 40 I A F being by the construction equal to M A H. For the were drawn at right angles to each zame reason the side n L of the triangle L M N is equal to N B. other, and that the straight lines

Fig. 41. Therefore the perimeter of the triangle L M N, or the sum of its CG, C E, that were set off along eides L M, M N, NL, is equal to the given straight line A B. CQ, C 8 are at right angles to each other necessarily. This is the

PROBLEM XXX.-To describe a square that shall be equal in point in the construction on which the solution of the problem superficial area to the sum of the squares described on two given depends, whatever may be the length of A and B, and to effect it straight lines.

we have only to draw a line equal to A, and at right angles to Let A and B be the two given straight lines; it is required to one end make a line equal to B, and join the extremities of the

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lines which have been thus put together at right angles. The tri. them we find that the side E L of the triangle C El is equal to angle formed in this manner, as the triangle C EG in Fig. 40, is a the side E G of the triangle G H E, each being also a side of right-angled triangle; and as in the case of this triangle it has been the square G EL M, and that the side c E of the triangle CEL shown practically that the square G E L M described on G E, the is equal to the side E a of the triangle G H E, each of them side which subtends the right angle E CG, is equal in superficial being also a side of the square CDH E; and the angle c EL, area to the squares C FK G, C D H E, described on the sides G C, contained by the sides C E, E L of the triangle c E L, is equal to C E, which contain the right angle E C G, so it is true that in any the angle G E a contained by the sides G E, E = of the triangle and every right-angled triangle the square described on the side G H E, for each of these angles is composed of a right angle and which subtends the right angle is equal to the squares of the the angle C E G, which is common to both, the angle C E L being sides by which the right angle is contained.

composed of the right angle L E G and the angle G E C, while But there are yet other facts that may be gathered from an the angle G E H is composed of the angle G E C and the right examination of Fig. 40, and a consideration of the dotted lines angle C E H. Here, then, we have two triangles, each having that are drawn in the figure. First, through the point c the two sides of the one, namely, G E, E 1, equal to two sides of the straight line c n is drawn parallel to Q u or E L, intersecting other, L E, E C, and the angles contained by these sides equal, the straight line E g in the point t, and dividing the square namely, the angle GE to the angle C EL; and this being true, it GEL M into the unequal rectangles (see Definition 27, page 53) is plain that their bases or third sides are also equal, namely, TELN, TGM N. Of these the rectangle TEL N is equal to 1 G to C L; and the areas of the triangles are equal, as we may the square CDH E, and the rectangle T N M G equal to the prove practically by cutting out the triangle C E L, and turning square C G K F, as we will proceed to show.

it, as on a pivot, round the point E, until it rests on the triangle The reader will remember that in Problem XXIV (page 308) G H E. But the square CDH E has been shown to be double of it was shown that triangles on the same base and between the the triangle G H E, and the rectangle E L N r has been shown to samo parallels are equal to one another, and that triangles on be double of the triangle C E L, and as things which are double equal bases and between the same parallels are also equal to of equal things must be equal to one another, the rectangle one another, Now in the trapezoid (see Definition 31, page 53) E LNT must be equal to the square C D A E. In the same way GDHE, of which the sides G D, H E are parallel, there are two it may be shown that the rectangle G TNM is equal to the square triangles, DIE, G I E. These triangles stand upon the same CF K G, and the learner is recommended to work out the proof base E, and between the same parallels G D, H E, and are of this as a useful exercise. therefore equal to one another. But the dotted line D E is a diagonal of the square C D H E, and divides it into two equal

READING AND ELOCUTION.-XI. parts; therefore the triangle D I E is equal to the triangle C D E, or, in other words, the square C D 1 E is double of

ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE (continued). the triangle D H E, and as the triangle D H E is equal to the

VII.-RIGHT EMPHASIS. triangle G H E, the square C DHE is also double of the triangle EMPHASIS distinguishes the most significant or expressive G H E; and this brings us to the fact, that when a square and a words of a sentence. triangle happen to be on the same base, and between the same It properly includes several functions of voice, in addition parallels, the area of the square is double the area of the triangle. to the element of force. An emphatic word is not unfrequently

Now let us turn to the trapezoid C EL N, of which the sides distinguished by the peculiar "time," "pitch," "stress," and ON, E L are parallel, and which contains the rectangle, or rect. “inflection” of its accented sound.' But all these properties angular parallelogram E L NT within its limits. In this there are partially merged, to the ear, in the great comparative force are also two triangles, C E L, E L N, standing on the same base, of the sound. Hence it is customary to regard emphasis as E L, and between the same parallels, the parallel sides E L, C N, merely special force. This view of the subject would not be of the trapezoid CEL N, and these triangles are consequently practically incorrect, if it were understood as conveying the equal to one another. Now the rectangle E L NT is divided idea of a special force superadded to all the other characterinto two equal parts by the diagonal E N, and the triangle E LN istics of tone and emotion, in the word to which it applies. is therefore equal to the triangle E TN, or in other words, the Emphasis is either “absolute “ relative." The foriner rectangle E L NT is double of the triangle E L N, and as the tri. occurs in the utterance of a single thought or feeling, of great angle E L N is equal to the triangle C E L, the rectangle E LNT energy; the latter, in the correspondence or contrast of tica is double of the triangle c E L. And this teaches us that when

or more ideas. a rectangle or right-angled parallelogram and a triangle are “ Absolute" emphasis is either “impassioned' distinc. upon the same base, and between the same parallels, the area tive.” The former expresses strong emotion, as :of the rectangle is double the area of the triangle.

False wizard, AVAUNT ! * And as it is true that when a square and a triangle, or a rectangle and a triangle, are upon the same base and between the But the latter designates objects to the attention, or distinsamo parallels, the area of the square or rectangle, as the case guishes them to the understanding, as :may be, is double that of the triangle, so it is equally true that The fall of man is the main subject of Milton's great poem. when a square and a parallelogram, or a rectangle and a paral

“Relative” emphasis occurs in words which express comparilogram, are upon the same base and between the same parallels, son, correspondence, or contrast, as :the areas of the square and rectangle, or the areas of the rectangle and the parallelogram, thus situated, are equal to one

Cowards die many times; the brave but once. another, as may be seen by drawing the straight line n o through

Rules on Emphasis. H, parallel to E G, when we have the square C D H E, and the Rule 1.-Exclamations and interjections usually reqnire parallelogram 0 H E G on the same base E H, and between the “impassioned ” emphasis, or the strongest force of utterance, as same parallels 1 E, G D, equal to one another; and by drawing in the following examples :the straight line L v through , parallel to E c, when we get the

Woe! to the traitor, WOE! rectangle ELNT and the parallelogramcELV equal to one another.

UP! comrades, UP! Parallelograms also on the same base and between the same

AWAKE! ARISE! or be for EVER FALLEN! parallels are equal to one another, and when a parallelogram

Ye icefalls ! and a triangle are on the same base, the area of the parallelo

Notionless torrents! silent cataracts! gram is double the area of the triangle; and more than this, as

Who made you glorious as the gates of heaven, triangles on equal bases and between the same parallels are Beneath the keen full moon ?equal to one another, so also rectangles and parallelograms on God! GOD! the torrents, like a shout of nations, equal bases and between the same parallels are equal to one

Utter : the ice-plain bursts, and answers, GOD! another.

The silent snow-mass, loosening, thunders, GOD! But to proceed to show that the rectangle E L N T is equal to

Three degrees of emphasis are usually thus denoted in type : the the square C D H E, let us look at the triangle G H E, which was

first by Italic letters; the second, by small capitals; and the third, by proved to be equal to half the square C D I E, and the triangle large capitals. Thus, “You shall DIE, BASE DOG! and that before CE L, which was proved to be equal to half of the rectangle yon cloud has passed over the sun!"-Sometimes a fourth, by Italia ELN T, and compare their sides and angles. On inspecting capitals, thus :-Never, NEVER, NEVER!

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HEART.

Rule 2.—Every new incident in a narration, every now object religion. He must avoid everything which may look like moroseness in a description, and every new subject in a didactic passage, and gloom. He must cultivate a cheerfulness of spirit. He must eu. requires " distinctive" emphasis, or a force of utterance saffi. deavour to show, in his whole deportment, the contentment and cient to render it striking or prominent.

tranquillity which naturally flow from heavenly atjections, from a mind at

peace with God, and from a hope full of IMMORTALITY, Examples.

The spirit which Christianity enjoins and produces is so widely

different from the spirit of the world, and so immensely superior to it, Their frail bark was, in a moment, overset, and a watery grave : that, as it cannot fail of being noticed, so it cannot fail of being seemed to be the inevitable doom of the whole party.

admired, even by those who are strangers to its power. Do you ask in The eye rested with delight on the long, low range of beautifully what particulurs this spirit shows itself ? I answer, in the exercises of tinted clouds, which skirted the horizon.

humility, of mockness, of gentleness; in a patient bearing of injuries; in a The power of faith was the subject of the preacher's discourse.

readiness to forgive offences; in a uniform endeavour to orercome evil with Rule 3.-All correspondent, and all antithetic, or contrasted 'good; in self-denial and disinterestedness ; in universal kindness and words, require a force sufficient to distinguish them from all the courtesy; in slouness to wrath; in an unwillingness to hear or to speak evil other words in a sentence, and to make them stand out pro.

of others; in a forwardness to defend, to advise, and to assist them; minently. When the comparison or contrast is of equal force in loving our enemies; in blessing them that curse us; in doing good to

them that hate us. These are genuine fruits of true Christianity. in its constituent parts, the emphasis is exactly balanced, in

The Christian must "let his light shine before men, by discharging the words to which it is applied : when one of the objects com- in a faithjul, a diligent, and a consistent manner, the personul and partipared or contrasted is meant to preponderate over the other, the cular duties of his slation. emphasis is stronger on the word by which the preponderance As a member of society, he must be distinguished by a blameless and is expressed.

an inoffensive conduct; by a simplicity and an ingenuousness of character, Examples.

free from every degree of guile; by uprightness and fidelity in all his

engagements. The gospel is preached equally to the rich and to the poor.

As a neighbour, he must be kind, friendly, and accommodating. His Custom is the plague of wise men, and the idol of jools,

discourse must be mild and instructive. He must labour to prevent The man is more KNAVE than fool.

quarrels, to reconcilo those who differ, to comfort the afflicted. In short, Erercises in Relative" Emphasis.

he must be "ready for every good work ;” and all his dealings with others

must show the HEAVENLY PRINCIPLE which duells and torks in his VIRTUE || is better than riches. Study | not so much to show knowledge, as to acquire it.

Exercise.The Benefits of a Popular Government.
They went out from us, but they were not of us,
He that cannot bear a jest, should not make one.

The real glory and prosperity of a nation does not consist in the hereIt is not so easy to hide one's faults, as to mend them,

ditary rank or titled privileges of a very small class in the community; in I that denied thee gold, will give my heart.

the great wealth of the few, and in the great poverty of the many; in the You have done that you should be sorry for.

splendid palaces of nobles, and the wretched huts of a numerous and halfWhy beholdest thou the mote || that is in thy brother's eye, but con. famished peasantry. No! such a state of things may give pleasure to sidorest not the beam || that is in thine own eye ?

proud, ambitious, and selfish minds, but there is nothing here on which As it is the part of justice || never to do violence, so it is the part of the eye of a patriot can rest with unmingled satisfaction. In his molety | never to commit offence.

deliberate judgmentA friend || cannot be known is in prosperity, and an onemy il cannot be

Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a prey, hidden || in adversity.

Where wealth accumulates, and men decay ; Emphatic clauses (those in which every word is emphatio) are

Princes and lords may flourish or may fade; sometimes pronounced on a lower, sometimes on a higher key,

A BREATH can make them, as a breath has made;

But a BOLD PEASANTRY, their country's pride, bat always with an intense force.

When ouce DESTROYED, can NEVER be supplied."
Examples.

It is an intelligent, virtuous, free, and eatensive population, able by Heaven and earth will witness

their talents and industry to obtain a competent support, which conIF ROME FALL—that we || are innocent.

stitutes the strength and prosperity of a nation. This state had then not one ship-NO, NOT 'ONE' WALL,

It is not the least advantage of a popular government, that it brings

It is But youth, it seems, is not my only crime : I have been accused l of into operation a greater amount of talent than any other. ecting a THEATRICAL part.

acknowledged by every one, that the occurrence of great events awakens As to the present miuistry, I cannot give them my confidence. the dormant energies of the human mind, and calls forth the most Pardon me, gentlemen : Confidence is a plant of slow growth.

splendid and powerful abilities. It was the momentous question,

whether your country should be free and independent, and the declaraGeneral Remark.-Young readers are commonly deficient in tion that it was so, which gave to you orators, statesmen, and genorals, emphasis, and hence feeble and unimpressive, in their style of whose names all future ages will delight to honour. reading. Students should exert much vigilance on this point. The characters of men are generally inoulded by the circumstances in At the same time, an overdone emphasis is one of the surest which they are placed. They seldom put forth their strength, without indications of defective judgment and bad taste. Faults which

some powerfully exciting motives. But what motives can they have to result from study are always the most offensive.

qualify themselves for stations, from which they are for ever excluded

on accouut of PLEBEIAN EXTRACTION ? How can they be expected to Exercise.The Duty of a True Christian.

prepare themselves for the service of their country, when they know

that their services would be REJECTED, because, unfortunately, they The true Christian must show that he is in earnest about religion. dissent from the established religion, and have the honesty to avow it ! In the management of his worldly affairs, he must let it clearly be

But in a country like OURS, where the most obscure individuals in seen, that he is not influenced by a worldly mind; that his heart is not society may, by their talents, virtues, and public services, rise to the most upon earth; that he pursues his worldly calling from a principle of

honourable distinctions, and attain to the highest ojices which the people DITT, not from a sordid love of gain; and that, in truth, his treasures

can give, the most effectual inducements are presented. It is indeed are in HEAVEN, He must, therefore, not only "provide things honest

true, that only a few who run in the race for political honour, can in the sight of all men;" not only avoid everything which is fraudulent obtain the prize. But, although many come short, yet the exertions and and unjust in his dealings with others; not only openly protest against the progress which they make, are not lost either on themselves or society. those iniquitous practices which the custom of trade too frequently coun

The suitableness of their talents and characters for some other impor. tenances and approves ;--but, also, he must “let his moderation be known unto all men.'

tant station may have been perceived ; at least the cultivation of their He must not push his gains with seeming eagerness, minds, and the effort to acquire an honorable reputation, may render Even to the utmost LAWFUL extent. He must exercise forbearance. He

them active and useful members of the community. These are some of must be content with moderate profits. He must sometimes even

the benefits peculiar to a POPULAR gorernment; benefits which we have forego advantages, which, in themselves, he might innocently take, long enjoyed. best he should seem to give any ground for suspecting that his heart is secretly set upon these things. Thus, also, with respect to worldly pleasures : he must endeavour to

LESSONS IN MUSIC.-VI. convince men that the pleasures which RELIGION furnishes, are far FOR Exercise 15, in the following page, the pupil will pitch his greater than those which the world can yield. While, therefore, he conscientiously keeps from joining in those trifling, and, too often,

own key-note as indicated in the title. If, however, he has not projane amusements, in which ungodly men profess to seek their happi: got a tuning-fork, let him take doh at a rather low pitch. A stroke Als, he must yet labour to show, that, in keeping from those things, beneath two or more notes shows that they are to be sung to one be is, to respect to real happiness, no loser, but even a GAINER by syllable of the words, or“ slurred.” The comma after a note gives

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it a quarter of an aliquot; the dot and comma, three quarters. it to the words “one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight; one, Be careful in singing this correctly. Exercise yourself in singing two, three, four, five, six, seven,” etc. As you know these words the two notes, first with a dot only, and then with a dot and very familiarly, your attention will not be distracted by them comma between them.

The tune is Mr. Burnet's copyright. (as it might be by other words), while you try to strike the It may be found harmonised for four voices in “People's Service intervals correctly, without that help to the memory which the of Song." All the early exercises in this course are given in sol-fa syllables give. You may afterwards sing the words ; but two-part harmony, because we are persuaded that, by two-part remember that this tune must be sung with spirit (abrupt deci. harmony, the ear is best taught to understand that which is sion), or not at all. A curve over or under two or more notes, more complex. These exercises should be sung by “equal | indicates a slur. In previous exercises we have had a black voices ;” that is, by two male voices, or by two female or note (crotchet) to correspond with an aliquot or pulse of the children's voices. It will not sound quite so well if the air (or measure. In this tune we have used an open note (a minin upper part) being sung by a female voice, the lower part is sung for the aliquot. We prefer using the crotchet as the standard by a male, for the male and female voice are naturally an octave aliquot; but, as it is not always so used, we have made this apart, and the intervals cannot be so “ close" and sweet. change to indicate that fact. It makes no difference to the

When you have traced and sol-faed this tune from the modulator | musio. There are still four pulses to the measure, and they perfectly, your next step will be to “figure” it; that is, sing | move at the rate indicated by the metronome.

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The proper management of the voice in singing is of great im. teeth ; and his lips should have the position most easily esportance, and will require a few suggestions from us. First, plained by referring to that of a gentle smile, but really expressnotice that a sound of the voice in singing is distinctly hela and ing no smile, and giving no emotional expression. Some continues the same from the beginning to the end. It is thus teachers require a small cork of the thickness of a little finger distinguished from the speaking voice, each sound of which has or the little finger itself, to be placed between the back teeth a change in it called an “inflection." A sound of the singing during the earlier exercises. We have a friend who, to improve voice is commonly called a “note"-though the word note is his voice for speaking, used to read aloud for half an hour before more properly limited to the mark upon paper--the sign of a breakfast every morning with a large cork between his front sound. With a violin you can produce either a “note" or an teeth. Of course this did not cultivate his enunciation-his “inflection.” Press your finger steadily on the upper part of a words were curiously pronounced — but it strengthened the string, while you draw the bow, and that will give you a clear larynx and lungs, and prevented his over-exertion of the throat, and beautiful note. But if, instead of that, you move your so that he could speak in public with the greatest case, and finger up or down the string, while you draw the bow, that will without the slightest fatigue of voice, as we have had ample give you an inflection. You perceive, therefore, that a note proof, nearly a whole day long. ought to have nothing of the inflection about it-no "scraping” The pupil who would learn to sing without fatigue, should up or down as some sing—but it should be clear, steady, and practise, for a few minutes every day, the taking a full inspirzdistinct.

tion into the lungs, and then giving out the air very slowly To produce a good note, the singer should be in an easy and steadily. This will give him command of the muscles of posture, with his head upright and his shoulders back, so as to the chest. He will be surprised, at first, to discover the diffiallow the muscles of the chest and the larynx (that little box in culty of a slow and steady expiration. But let him persevere

, the throat which we can feel with our fingers) to have free making this the first of his exercises for the improvement of his movement. His mouth should be moderately open. His voice, every morning. The next of his morning exercises should tongue should lie down, just touching the roots of the lower be in singing the chord and scale, holding the notes as long and

ste-dily as possible, and ascending as high as his voice will allow the rest. This habit is important to comfort and pleasure in (with the cork, if necessary, to keep his mouth open), and with singing, and absolutely necessary for expression and refinement. the most careful observance of the following directions. Expand The medium voice of one person is, of course, different from the ribs, so that they press against the dress at the sides, and, that of another, according to the size of the larynx and the by drawing in the muscles of the lower belly, keep the ribs thus strength of the lungs. srpanded. This will allow free and easy play to the lungs. The suggestions given above must be kept constantly in mind For courses of exercises on these subjects, see the two small | in every daily practice. If you enjoyed the advantage of a books named in Lesson V.

private teacher, such points as these would be constantly in his The sounds of the voice, in singing, should be delivered mind, and he would see to it that you observed them. Indeed, promptly and easily. If the voice is given out carelessly, it one of the chief uses of a private teacher is to keep us to our comes roughly through the throat, and is called guttural ; and work. The self-educator, however, must summon to his aid if produced in a forced manner, it is driven through the nose, i sturdy determination and steady perseverance. A lady went to and so becomes nasal. Correctness in singing depends upon a distinguished teacher of singing, to receive a course of costly mental effort, for it is the mind which commands the delicate lessons in the art. For a large proportion of these lessons, in muscles of the larynx and throat. Lazy singing is always flat the early part of the course, he did not permit her to sing a and miserable ; hence we always sing musically better when our single note, but made her simply pace the room, expanding her hearts are most engaged in the song.

lungs, and taking breath in every way which was required to A note may be loud or soft. The loudness or softness of the give her command of the material of which voice is made. We voice is called its force. It is very important to cultivate the have heard that even the great public singers do not think of habit of using a medium force of voice, so that it may be always omitting the daily practice of the scale and chord in long easy to sing a note or strain more loudly or more softly than holding” notes, as we have recommended.

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EXERCISE 16.-LEYBURN. KEY B. M. Crotchet = 66, beating only twice in a measure. (An old English Ballad Tune. Words by M. A. Stodart, from “ Poetry” by the Home and Colonial School Society.)

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If your friend gives you "pattern” with an instrument, tell / words. Indeed, no song is rightly learned till both tune and him to play in the key of B fat (with two fats), or in that of B words are learned “ by heart." You will observe the various (with five sharps), whichever he prefers; one is as easy as the "signs of repetition which are explained in the preceding other to you. Take care to point on the modulator without lesson. A second line of words is given, in each case, for the book, and to "figure” the tune (one, two, three, fo-ur, five, si-s, repetition of the music. The tune is harmonised with a bass in seven; one, two, three, fo-ur, five, six, etc.) before you sing it to "School Music.”

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