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Gigen, own, particu. Gesell'schaft, f. society. Secfisch, m. gea-fish. 24. Unter den Einwohnern find manche sehr wohlhabend. 25. Haben Sc lar.
Gewähren, to grant, Seltjam, strange. nicht auch schon manches Seltsame erlebt? 26. D ia, ich habe schon Finanter,
manches Merkwürdige erfahren. 27. Manch tapferer Soltat mußte in ter other.
Gewiß', certain, cer. Stählen, to steel, Schlacht sein Leben lassen. 28. Hat dieser Shriftsteller nicht viele gute Ginmal, once. tainly.
Bücher geschrieben? 29. Gewiß, manche davon sind vortrefflich. 30. Gin'rohner, m. inha- Größe, f. size, magni. Sturm, m. storm. Haben fich tie beiden Freunde über diese Sache verständigt ? 31. Ja, in bitant. tude.
Theils, partly. cinigen Punften sind sie miteinander übereingefommen. 32. Einige eng. Erfahren, to experi. Hantling, f. action, Thorheit, f. folly. lische Stiffe gingen bei tiesem Sturme unter. 33. Etliche Fluge Männer
Heberein kommen, to zogen sich aus ter Versammlung zurüd. 34. Alle Ginwohner der Stadt Erle'ben, to live to see. Hegen, to cherish.
flüchteten sich bei der Annäherung der Feinde. 35. Manche Mensden brin. Grstau-nenémurtig, as- Herrlic, glorious. Versammólung, f. meet- gen ihr ganzes Leben mit Nichtsthun zu. 36. War das Ihr Bruter, der tonishing Hervor'rufen, to call
gestern den ganzen Tag in Ihrer Gesellschaft war? 37. Nein, es war mein Glimer, several, forth.
Verständigen, to agree, Neffe, ter mich alle Jahre einmal besucht. 38. Welch eine Größe hat tie some, a few.
Knochen, m. bone. to come to an ex. Erde, und wie viel fleiner ist sie rennoch, als die Sonne! 39. Welche Vor: feinbeit, f. delicacy. Macht, f. power.
züge hat der Mensch vor ten Thieren? 40. Was für eines Vogels Feder şirinament', n, firma. Mancher, many a. Verwen'ten, to em- ist dics? 41. Ist der Schüler fleißig, so lernt er etwas. ment. Meinung, f. opinion. ploy, apply.
Vorzug, m.advantage. 1. Many a learned man has been misunderstood. 2. Oh, what Efühi', n, touch, feel. Musif', f. music. W.13für,what kind of. folly does man commit in his life! 3. With what kind of ing,
Nachwelt, f.posterity. Werf, n. work. society have you associated ? 4. Many an industrious merGemüth'
, n. mind. Nichtsthun, n. inac- Wohl'habend, opulent. chant has been ruined by an imprudent speculation. 5. Full Etenus'. m. enjoy- tion.
Zubringen, to spend, many a flower is born to blush unseen (blühet im Verborgenen]. 6. ment. Nothwendigkeit, f. ne- pass.
Every leaf, every twig, and every drop of water, testifies infinite Feichenf', n. present, cessity.
Zurüd ziehen, to retire, wisdom and power. 7. Every one must give an account of him. gift. Punft, m. point. withdraw.
self. 8. The whole environs of Coblentz are romantic. 9. All RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
are well (wohl] at home. 10. The conversation with such per
sons is instructive. 11. I have never heard of such an accident. Was für einen Camera'ten past What kind of a companion have 12. It is beautiful weather to-day, but somewhat colder than Du? you?
yesterday. 13. I have had already many a pleasure. 14. I Was für cin fantemann bist Du? What countryman are you? wish to have some lemons, 15. He came somewhat too late. Held ein Ricje!
What a giant !
LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XI. nicht.
not. Ginen solchen Sturm habe ich noc Such a storm I have not yet SECTION XXI.-ON THE NATURAL ORDERS OF FLOWERING
PLANTS. nicht erlebt'.
experienced. Sold' ein Kaiser fonnte Fich so Such an emperor could thus In these papers we shall not enter on the consideration of cryp. te'müthigen! humble himself.
togamic plants until we have noted the peculiarities that distinSelf' schönes Wetter tommt selten. Such beautiful weather comes
guish the different natural orders of flowering plants. Those seldom.
which possess fowers are far more likely to arouse the young Gr prach fo leise, daß ich ihn nicht He spoke so softly, that I could botanist's attention; they are more useful, and are those memwerste'hen fonnte. not understand him.
bers of the vegetable world which botanists know most about. Mander Traum der Jugent schwin. Many a dream of youth disap. Ranunculacem, as the one first to be considered. Let us seo,
We shall select the Crow-Foot trsbe, termed by botanists bet mit ten Jahren.
pears with the years. Danch schönes Buch habe ich schon Many a beautiful book have I then, in how few words a botanist defines the characters of gelesen. already read.
Ranunculaceæ :Nach einigen Minuten fehrte er After minutes he re
RANUNCULACEÆ. zurüd'. turned.
Characteristics.-Calyx polysepalous; petals hypogynous, in Der Glephantist etwas stärfer, als The elephant is somewhat form various, sometimes absent; stamens ordinarily numerous; taNasbern.
stronger than the rhinoceros. anthers usually adnate; carpels one or numerous, never comDer un'erfahrene Raufmann fann The inexperienced merchant bined ; ovule reflexed; embryo dicotyledonous, small, at the base leicht all sein Vermòʻgen verlieren. may easily lose all his for- of a horny albamen; fruit apocarpous. tune.
A very pretty collection of hard names, is it not ? and suffiEr war das ganze Jahr franf. He was sick all the year. ciently unintelligible. Nevertheless, the reader, we are sure, In großen Städten fieht man alle In large cities one sees some- will admit that if the characters of the Ranunculus, or CrowTage etwas Neues. thing new every day.
Foot tribe, admit of description in so few words, it is worth
while to learn the meaning of these words. Well, then, let us EXERCISE 76.
set about it; let us analyse the definition clause by clause. 1. Was für Wetter ist es heute? 2. G: ist heute schönes Wetter, aber First then: calyx polysepalous; what is the meaning of that ? etwas lälter, als gestern. 3. Was für eine Meinung hegt er von dieser The reader, by this time, knows the meaning of calyx ; it is the Sache? 4. Seine Meinung darüber ist nicht die beste (Sect. XXXV. 3). outside greenish-yellow whorl of which the buttercup flower is 5. Meine Gesellschaft ist ihm die angenelymfte von der Welt
. 6. Was für composed, and being made up of several parts (sepals, and the Fische sind dies ? (Sect. XXXV. 3.) 7. Es find Scefische. 8. Mit was Greek word, movs (pol-use], signifying many), i se calyx is denofür Arbeiten beidjastigt er sich? 9. Er beschäftigt sich theils mit Schreiben, minated polysepalous, a somewhat important caracteristic thus theild mit Lesen. 10. Welch eine Macht hat die Musit über tat Vemüth easily conveyed in one word. Now for the second clause, Bes Penschen! 11. Welch ein hoher Genuß ist es, die Welt zu sehen : petals hypogynous. As for the word petal, the reader knows its 12. Welch einen herrlichen Anblick gewährt das Firmament mit seinen in, meaning already; but hypogynous, what is the meaning of that zabligen Sternen! 13. Jeter Stern am Himmel biltet eine eigene Welt. term ? Complex words, like complex plants and complex ani. 14. Der wahre Tugenthafte veriventet jeten Tag seines Lebens tarauf, seine mals, require dissection. Hypogynous being dissected into hypo žehler immer mehr abzulegen. 15. Hat nicht jeter Ihrer Freunte cinen and gynous, we shall soon arrive at its meaning. In the first (olden Sut? 16. Nein, ein Jerer hat einen andern. 17. Soldie Minner place, hypo is an Anglicised form of the Greek word n fint nothwenrig, um tog uterland zu retten. 18. Haben Sie jenen (hu’-po), under; and gynous is evidently a derivation from another Plinten geieben, ter cine Feinheit tes Gefühles besist, die erstaunens Greek word yuvn (gu'-ne), signifying woman. When, therefore, mártig in? 19. Jiz, ich habe ihn gesehen. 20. Der Geber eines joiden it is said that the petals are hypogynous, the sense meant to bo steidenfes ift zit loben. 21. Die Beschwerten einer solchen Ricije stiblen conveyed is, that they spring from underneath the carpels or ten Körper.
22. Solche Handlungen werten tie Bewuntering ter Nich female parts of the flower. A very slight examination of a dis. tweit hervorrufen. 23. Šo angenehme Srunden ħabe icy linge nicht gehabt. | sected buttercup will show that the arrangement of petals is as
described; or, if the reader do not happen to possess a flower Thus we have almost got through our analysis of the various of this kind, he may convince himself of the truth of this de terms applied to designate the natural order Ranunculaceæ. scription by reference to the accompanying diagram (Fig. 121), The reader will admit each term has had a meaning, and that, in which the little central bodies, marked c c c, are the carpels, when understood, these terms are very expressive. Perhaps he or female parts of the flower; the little thread-like things, P p, may think that the remarks concerning the manner of adhesion being the stamens, or male parts of the flower; the curved lines, and the number of the petals are all well enough, but he may, mm, representing the position of the corolla, and the lower curved at the same time, think that the microscopic examination of the lines, n n, that of the calyx. Hence the meaning of the term hypo- seed and its fruits are a little far-fetched. Nevertheless, the gynous petals will now be evident, for the curved lines, m m, the reader will find, when his botanical studies have been a little representatives of their position, are evidently below the little further prosecuted, that the shape and disposition of the embryo carpels, C C C. Stamens ordinarily numerous; anthers usually constitute some of the most reliable distinctive marks of various adnate. The general term stamen, the reader already knows, orders. We admit, however, that these microscopic signs are, is applied to each of the little threads, P p, together with its for the most part, unavailable to the botanical student, who appendages; the anther is the mace-like knot at the upper must content himself with broader characteristics. extremity of the stamen. We have, therefore, to consider the Fruit apocarpous. This is a proper opportunity for making meaning of the term adnate, which is derived from the Latin ourselves acquainted with certain general facts in botany, not ad, to, and natus, grown, which, therefore, signifies grown to a necessarily connected with the Ranunculaceæ, but which a memthing by its whole surface ; for example, in the buttercup the ber of that family of plants may serve to illustrate. Referring anthers adhere to their filaments in the manner represented in to the carpels, or the central or female parts of the flower, these the accompanying diagram (Fig. 122). Here the anther consists will be found scarcely to alter in appearance, except in size, of the little projections a and b;
from the first period of infloresevidently they are attached to
cence to the last, when the the filament, s, by their whole
perianth or floral envelopes fall surface, and not a portion of
off, and the fruit is developed. the same. Carpels one or nu
This fruit, in point of fact, conmerous, never combined. This
sists of nothing but ripe carpels. is shown by the figure, ccc,
Hence, without any other where the numerous carpels aro
addition, the fruit of Ranuncuquite unconnected with one
laceæ furnishes us with the another.
simplest conditions under which Ovule reflexed. Let us begin
a fruit can exist. All fruit by getting exact ideas respect.
may be defined in strict botaniing the ovule; we will then treat
cal language to be the matured about its reflection afterwards.
carpel; but in by far the maThe casual observer of a butter
jority of instances of what are cup would take the little central
popularly called fruits, the real protuberances or carpels as they
fruit is masked by the attach122 exist in a ripened flower for
ment of other appendages. For seeds. They are not seeds, but
example, the carpels, or real fruits; v very small, but stillfruits.
fruit, bear a very small proporIf the student possesses a mag
tion to the absolute size of an nifying glass, he may, on cutting
apple or pear.
In these by far a ripened carpel or fruit open,
the greater portion of the fruit, find the real seed inside, present
in the ordinary acceptation of ing an appearance of which Fig.
the term, consists of a highly 123 is a magnified representation.
developed and succulent caly. Now, if the fruit be so small,
Referring to our buttercup what must the real seed be ?
again, the carpels were observed Nevertheless, by the aid of a 121. BOTANICAL SECTION OF THE RANUNCULUS. 122. ADNATE ANTHERS to remain quite distinct; they good magnifying glass, all its OF THE BUTTERCUP. 123. FRUIT OF THE BUTTERCUP.
never adhere; hence the fruit various parts may be rendered
125. REFLEXED OVULE OF THE BUTTERCUP, of a buttercup is said to be evident. Fig. 124 is its mag.
apocarpous (Greek, ano, ap'-o, nified appearance. When the seed of a buttercup is cut open, from, in the sense of apart; and Kapros, karpos, fruit), or nonthe observer will perhaps at first see nothing but a mass of adherent. Had the carpels been united, then a syncarpous white flesh, termed by botanists albumen ; but if the seed has (Greek, ovv, sune, together, and captos, fruit) fruit would have been accurately divided from top to bottom, a little thing will resulted. be observed at a; this is the embryo, and, small as it seems, Several other distinctive signs of the natural order Ranuncuthis embryo is the portion of the seed which represents the future laceæ might be mentioned; but even fewer than those already plant. The albumen of the plant is really only so much food enumerated might serve pretty clearly to separate it from all for the young embryo to eat before it has grown big enough to others. These essential characteristics are the hypogynous shift for itself. The embryo consists of a radicle, or represen- stamons and apocarpous fruit. If the student meets with any tative of the root, and two cotyledons or rudimentary leaves. plants having these characteristics, no matter how different the This the reader might have predicted, without finding these general appearance of such plant may be from the general apcotyledons, from a consideration that the leaves of buttercups pearance of the buttercup, no matter whether the size is different, are reticulated, not straight-veined, from which circumstance the shape or colour of the flower different, still it is almost sure they must belong to the dicotyledonous division of plants. to be a Ranunculus. But what is the use of this classification?
Still, we have not arrived at the reason why the ovule is said the reader may ask. Take a supposed case. You are ship to be reflexed; and, indeed, this determination belongs so com- wrecked on some unknown island, or you are a farmer in somo pletely to microscopic botany, that we should scarcely have unexplored land, and you meet with some gay-looking flowers and explained the meaning of the term, were we not desirous that tempting-looking herbs; the fruit is apocarpous and the stamens no expression should appear useless or unmeaning. This reflected are hypogynous; take care of such plants, neither eat them por state of the ovule the reader will scarcely see even by the aid permit your cattle to eat them. They are, most likely, poisonous, of glasses. The word, however, which is derived from the Latin this being a leading physiological characteristic of the tribe; and re, back, and flecto, to bend, means bent suddenly back upon and in certain species the poisonous principle is so extremely itself, as represented in Fig. 125. At the base of a horny albu. virulent that death would speedily result from swallowing a sma!!
If the reader refers to Fig. 123, he will see that the portion. Such knowledge constitutes the really useful part of embryo really rests at the base of the albumen, as described; botany, not a mere classification of plants without reference to and inasmuch as this albumen is very hard, it is termed horny. ! the properties of the members falling under each group.
OF THE BUTTERCUP.
Having thus studied the general characteristics of the Ranun- educated oye, however, the affinity is evident. The circum. calus order, taking the buttercup as our standard of comparison, stance in reference to which the term larkspur is given depends let us see how far general appearances may alter without tho upon a curious formation of one of the sepals of tho calyx, essential characteristics being interfered with.
something like the spur on a bird's foot; but it is a conWhat plant is apparently more unlike the buttercup than the dition of less botanical importance, thus assisting to indicate clematis ? Nevertheless, it will be found on dissection to present a genus, not an order; and colour is of still less botanical imthe essential characteristics of a ranunculaceous plant.
portance. Inside the sepals or calyx of a larkspur are four How seemingly different, again, from the buttercup are the petals strangely shaped, two of them having long tails. Thus hepaticas! Yet their structure at once points out the family the larkspur wears a complete mask; but the botanist at onco to which they belong.
recognises the order by the essential signs of apocarpous fruit But the Larkspur tribe, including the Delphinium, differ and hypogynous stamens; and once recognised, once referred to so greatly in appearance from the yellow buttercup, that none Ranunculaceæ, larkspurs would be justly held in suspicion as but the botanist can see any alliance between them. To his poisonous plants, a character which they richly deserve.
COPY-SLIP NO. 81.-AGINUOUET, 1415.
Bathurst in Mfrien Canada uudiseovered, 1
COPY-SLIP NO. 82.- BATHURST IN AFRICA.
COPY-SLIP NO. 83.-CANADA WAS DISCOVERED, 1497.
Pavenport, tureyad denk yanda
COPY-SLIP NO. 84.-DEVONPORT, A ROYAL DOCKYARD IN DEVON.
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXII.
composed. The learner should practise writing each capital by
itself in order to gain facility in forming them, as the sweeping Is our new and advanced series of Copy-slips, in addition to thu curves of which these letters are composed differ materially small letters of the writing alphabet in four different sizes, the from the somewhat stiff and regular succession of up-strokes mader will find examples of all the various kinds of capital and down-strokes, all on the same inclination or slope, that he letters in general use, as well as the forms of the numerals or has hitherto been in the habit of making. Instead of giving symbols used to denote numbers. It is impossible to classify our readers a simple name or word to copy in the larger hands, the different elementary forms of which the capital letters of or a precept or proverb in the smaller hands, as is generally the writing alphabet are composed, as we did in the case of the done in copy-books, we have endeavoured to set before him in small letters given in our first series in large text; but it will be each copy-slip some fact that he will do well to bear in memory. seen, on comparing the different capitals, that the prevailing Thus, after copying Copy-slip No. 81 some dozen times, he will strokes are the long curved up-stroke with which the letter A is never forget when the battle of Agincourt took place ; whilo commenced, the thick down-stroke with which it is completed, Copy-slip No. 82 will, in all probability, causo him to turn to the thick down-stroke with which the letters B and D are his “Gazetteer” or “Atlas," if he have one, to find whether commenced—a stroke which enters into the composition of the there be any more Bathursts on the world's surface besides that majority of the capital letters and the curved down-stroke which happens to be the principal settlement in the British turned at the top and bottom, of which the letter c is mainly I colony, at the mouth of the river Gambia, in Western Africa.
ways, and the alien nuisance became greater than ever. The
kingdom swarmed with the countrymen of the queen, and with SIMON DE MONTFORT, AND THE FIRST ENGLISH PARLIAMENT.
other foreigners. The Bishop of Valence, of the house of Savoy, On the 12th of December, 1264, a great act was done for England, was made chief adviser of the crown, and another Savoyard was though by the hand of a rebel. Simon de Montfort, Earl of made primate. The English nobles were nowhere, and in deep Leicester, son of that stern, capable soldier, and inexorable disgust they would not come to court. bigot, who commandod the crusade against the dissenting Bitter and deep was the exasperation of the English, nobles Albigenses in 1206-8, took upon himself to recognise the existence and otherwise; and the irritating method adopted by the king of a power that was being rapidly developed in this country, to defray the expenses of his extravagant court, and of his namely, the power of the towns and townsmen. He wrote liberality to the strangers, served to heighten it. He exacted letters in the king's name to all the barons and high clergy, loans from private persons whom he never repaid; and he leviod bidding them assemble in Parliament, or in Grand Council, as taxes and imposts quite regardless of the Great Charter which Parliament was then called, and for the first time he invited the he had ratified, and which forbade him to do so without con. counties and all the important towns to send representatives to sent of Parliament. He was so driven for money after an unLondon, in order to confer with the lords and the clergy upon successful French war in which he lost Poitou, that he had to the affairs of the kingdom. It is much to be regretted that sell his jewels and plate to the citizens of London. But things none of these letters are extant. Few historical documents grew ever worse and worse. The clergy were at length dis. could possess more interest for a people who have for 600 years gusted, as well as all other ranks, for the king filled those recognised a political constitution with king, lords, and com- English benefices which he could control with Italians and mons, than the writs by virtue of which borough members first Frenchmen. His chaplain, a foreigner, had seven hundred took their seats.
livings at one time. But how came the Earl of Leicester to write the letters on his At length the people, backed up secretly by the nobles, took own responsibility, though in the king's name? and what was the the matter in hand. They resisted the exactions of the royal object which the earl sought to attain when he sent the writs officers, and they burned the estates of the foreigners, and the out? The writing happened on this wise. Ever since the king, knowing who were behind them, was afraid to punish. beginning of the young king's (Henry III.) reign, in 1216, But resistance unchecked is fatal to authority, as Henry found there had beon a perpetual succession of political troubles. To out. The barons, who had hitherto kept in the background, begin with, the king at that time being only nine years old, it and had contented themselves with keeping aloof from the became necessary to appoint a council of regency, a fruitful court, and so discouraging the king's practices, now came to the source of jealousy and heart-burning at all times, and especially front, having a strong force to support them, in the shapo of an so in days when men were wholly swayed by a passionate pride, angry and jealous town population, besides their own tenantry which was but too ready to take offence, and a spirit of revenge and dependents. They had attempted, some years before, to ful restlessness which forthwith made them take up arms upon get the appointment of the Chancellor, and of the Grand Justhe faintest appearance of real or imaginary slight.
ticiary (this office is now extinct, but at this time it was the From this regency sprang the never-ending commotions known highest in the kingdom), into their hands, but they had not as the Barons' wars. The barons were too nearly equal in rank succeeded : now they revived the proposition with additions to and power to admit of one set being in the government while it, and wished to take all power, direct‘and indirect, out of the the others were excluded, and the matter was made worse by the king's hands. In unmeasured terms they reproached him in ill-advised proceedings of those in power, who availed themselves Parliament for his extortions and his misconduct, and fatly reof the opportunity to annoy and oppress their peers. Besides fused to give him any money till he should have sworn once these causes of disunion, there was another in the fact that the more solemnly to observe the Great Charter. They were not French Dauphin (the eldest son of the French king was always to be taken in by a sham request for the supply under the plea called so, from Dauphiné, of which he was Count) claimed the of the king's intention to go to the Crusades. Henry had to crown by virtue of an invitation he had received from some of swear in the presence of the assembled prelates and barons that the barons, when King John misgoverned the land. The dis- he would govern according to the charter before he could contented among the English barons made use of the Dauphin touch a farthing of the money of which he stood in so grcat for a time, till the growing unpopularity of the French inter- need. ference obliged the prince to quit England, which would not have Chief among the barons who resisted the king was Simon de him at any cost.
Montfort, Earl of Leicester. Something has been said of him In order to put a bridle into the barons' mouths, for they at the beginning of this notice ; let us now look more closely on were not disposed to render allegiance to Rome, the Pope de- the man, and fill in the details which are wanting. His father clared Henry to be of full age when he was but fifteen, just was a French count, whose name is too well known in the history after the Great Charter, which John had given, had been con. of religious persecution ; his mother was a Montmorency; and firmed by the regent and the barons in a council at Oxford. he himself, the child of French parents, was also born out of Soon after this Henry was persuaded to claim the Duchy of England, so that in no sense was he an Englishman except by Normandy, which his father had lost for the English crown; and adoption. The adoption of England as his country came about the French king (Louis VIII.), who had won it, very naturally in this way. Simon's paternal grandmother was Petronilla, refusing to give it up, war was declared, and a campaign fol sister and co-heiress of Robert Beaumont, last Earl of Leicester lowed, which nearly had the effect of losing for England the of his house. The English barony thus devolved, in default of remainder of her French provinces, Poitou, Gascony, and issue born to Earl Robert, upon the descendants of Petronilla. Guienne; and this, of course, did not tend to make Henry's Simon de Montfort the elder was thus Earl of Leicester, in government more popular. But, to make things worse, just at addition to his other honours, and he did homage for it, and the this time (1231) Henry, who was now twenty-four years old, lands belonging to it, to King John. In consequence of some began to commit an error which Englishmen have never for dispute with that king, he lost both title and lands, and though given in their kings. He began to cherish foreigners and to ho afterwards got back the lands he never recovered the title. neglect his own people.
When Simon died, his eldest son Amauri succeeded him; bat This conduct in the king was soon resented by the English the English king refused any longer to receive a homage half barons, who, for a time, laid aside their intestino quarrels, and of which was owed to the King of France, and Amauri, there, openly declared their intention to dethrone Henry unless he fore, was obliged to come to an arrangement by which he should dismissed his foreign friends. Divided counsels among the be the liegeman of the King of France, while his younger brother confederates, however, helped Henry, and he took occasion to Simon was admitted to homage for the honour and lands punish some of the rebels, and to bestow their property on the of tho barony of Leicester. Another fact contributed to make Frenchmen, till the Archbishop of Canterbnry (like his prede. him more and more tho Englishman and less the Frenchman. cessor Becket), in the interests of liberty, threatened to excom- He married, clandestinely it is said, the widowed Countess of municate him and his unless he acted differently. For a time Pembroke, sister to Henry III., and the prominence which this Henry submitted, and allowed the Primate to rule; but marrying, alliance gave him forced him to take his place in the ranks of in 1236, the daughter of the Count of Provence, and the arch. English nobles, with an English nobleman's responsibilities and bishop dying in the meantime, the king returned to his former interests.
But the marriage, clandestine or not, of a princess of the ever hearing from the other side of the Channel maxims of blood-royal with a foreigner did not, under the circumstances government and ideas of royal authority which were utterly in. already mentioned, pass sub silentio. The barons were furious applicable to the actual state of his own kingdom.” that their consent had not been first sought; the people beheld The straits to which this policy, vehemently opposed as it was in the marriage one more notable instance of the king's partiality by the English barons, brought the king has been partially for foreigners; and the clergy professed to be scandalised at the shown. To the council at which Henry has been represented as marriage of one who, after the death of her husband, had vowed having to ratify the Great Charter before he could get a supply, to remain single, and had betaken herself to a convent as a reli. the barons came armed, and with armed followers. Simon de gicuse. On the bursting of the storm off went Simon de Mont. Montfort was the guiding spirit among them, and his influence fort to Rome, and, by dint of strong personal applications, and, was all powerful. Acting upon his suggestions, they demanded, his enemies said, by the free use of his money, obtained the in addition to previous requirements, that the government of Pope's consent to what he had done. He came back, was the kingdom should be entrusted to a council of twenty-four received with great joy by the king, and in 1239 was created barons, who should continue to govern until the flagrant abuses Earl of Leicester in his own right. Then came disgrace, for which had crept in should have been reformed; and Henry, reasons upon which it is difficult to speculate; indeed, there unable to say “No” with effect, was obliged to listen while the seems at the present day to have been so little reason that it is barons fixed the 11th of June (1258) at Oxford for the time and not unwarrantable to attribute the disgrace to the caprice of the place of a meeting at which arrangements should be made for king. Simon de Montfort left the country, and continued carrying this resolution into effect. In the interim De Montfort to reside abroad for several years. One lesson, and a useful and his friends seized the Cinque Ports (Dover, Hastings, Hythe, one, he had learned during his short experience of political life, Romney, and Sandwich), as a precaution against the king's namely, that he should not put his trust in princes. He foreign friends; and when the 11th of June came they apnever forgot that lesson, and the fact that he had to learn it peared at Oxford in arms, as their fathers had appeared at Run. loosened considerably the ties which bound him to the king, nymede when they presented the Great Charter for signature. though it does not appear to have diminished his sense of the This council, for it was not a parliament, in the modern personal duty he owed him. Thus we find him lending his acceptation of that word, has been called “the mad parliament," sword-he "whom the Gascons feared as the lightning”-to for no other reason that one can discover than because the Henry during the short and inglorious campaign which that king measures agreed to by the members were of a more revolumade against Louis IX. (Saint Louis) in 1242, and in the course tionary and “thorough” character than were usually debated of which De Montfort, by his own prowess, saved Henry from in such assemblies. Henry was obliged to submit, and the being taken prisoner.
barons proceeded to draw up their resolutions, called the ProFor six years after this the Earl of Leicester lived almost all visions of Oxford, to the observance of which they required the his time abroad. To him, as to the fittest mar, was committed oath of every lord. By these provisions it was declared that the government of Gascony, and the arduous task of fighting four knights from each county should attend the next parliament and subduing the professional rebels who dwelt there. In spite in order represent grievances; that there should be three of gross neglect on Henry's part, in spite of lack of money and sessions of the parliament in a year; that the election of sheriffs men, the earl succeeded in breaking the heads and the spirit of (officers having much more power then than now) should be the Gascons; and when he had recovered the province for annual, and by the votes of the freeholders ; that the power of Henry, and laid it once more at his feet, it was only to be re- the sheriffs should be curtailed ; that no new forests should be Farded with charges of dishonesty and malversation in his office made; that the revenues of the counties should not be farmed; as seneschal, or governor. De Montfort had obliged the king and last, not least, that no foreigner should be guardian of any too much, served him too well, and the king resolved therefore to English ward, or be allowed to hold any English castles. It was crush him and his claims to gratitude together. But for the also arranged, as previously determined, that a council of twenty. unanimous voice of the barons against the step, the earl would four barons, with the Earl of Leicester at their head, should take have been sent to the Tower, and probably thence to his death; upon themselves temporarily the government of the kingdom. bat Henry, thwarted in this, abused the earl before the whole The royal power was completely subverted. court for his misconduct. De Montfort replied by reminding Had the barons only chosen to act unitedly, and with a single the king of his great services, and of the broken promises with eye to what they had undertaken, they would have had the which they had been requited.
popular feeling wholly with them, and would have been the ** I will never keep promises made to a traitor,” said the king. means of conferring å lasting benefit on their country. But Whereupon De Montfort, unable to control himself, gave him the the old divisions sprung up again, the old jealousies and the old lie, and told him that but for his royalty he shonld not have hatreds were revived, and the cause which the barons had in lived to repeat the word. “ Who can believe that you are a hand was well-nigh lost on the rock on which the friendship of Christian ?" he continued. “ Have you ever confessed ?" the Earls of Leicester and Gloucester split. Instead of carrying “Certainly,” replied Henry.
out the much needed reforms, the barons wasted the precious "To what end have you done so, since you havo neither re- time in striving, after the old fashion, which should be the pented nor made amends ?”
greater. The king was unkinged, and the twenty-four kings "I never repented of anything so much,” returned the king, who proposed to reign in his stead could not arrange how they “as of suffering you to set a foot in England, or to hold land or should do so. De Montfort was disliked because he was a honour in the realm."
foreigner, and because he was too clever for his companions, Thas a great gulf was fixed between Henry and his powerful though as regards his alien origin he set a good example to subject, a gulf which, as will be seen, could not be bridged over other aliens by being the first to give up the English castles during their respective lives. De Montfort went his way and which had been committed to his care. Unable to settle matters Henry went another, and the former waited for an opportunity with the other lords, he threw up in disgust and went abroad. to settle his accounts with his debtor. Something has been said In his absence things grew worse. Little was done by the of the way in which Henry went. Read what an eminent council of government after the first six months, and the people writer and reviewer (Edinburgh Review for January, 1866) says began to tire of them and to pity the sorry plight to which of it:—“He aimed at making the crown virtually independent Henry was reduced. After three years the king was so strong of the barons. The sons of the men who had extorted the Great in friends that he determined to resume his authority, and the Charter were told that it was their business to find money for barons, deprived of the Earl of Leicester's influence and ability, every rash enterprise which the interests of the king's Conti- were without the means of thwarting him. The Pope, too, was nental relations and advisers might suggest; but that they must induced to annul the Provisions of Oxford, or rather he released not presume to demand the resignation of one officer of state, or from the obligation of their oaths all who had sworn to respect to murmur if the most important castles of the realm, and the them; and, armed with these powers, Henry, in the early part first places in the state, were committed to the hands of aliens. of 1262, resumed his authority by means of a sort of coup de In all this his connection with Louis IX., whose brother-in-law he main. became, was certainly a misfortune to him. In France the royal Simon de Montfort refused to accept the terms offered by the power had during the last fifty years been steadily on the ad- king when he returned to power, and accepted by the majority rance; in England it had as steadily receded; and Henry was of the barons. His rival, the Earl of Gloucester, having died