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many times,

there?

avez-vous

arrived. 33. When did he arrive? 34. He arrived yesterday, 20. J'ai l'intention de l'emmener. 21. Qu'avez-vous apporté de at nine o'clock in the morning.

France ? 22. Nous avons apporté de magnifiques soieries, des

draps fins et des chapeaux de Lyon. 23. Avez-vous amené SECTION XLIII.-IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS. 1. Combien de temps corresponds with the English expression 25. Vos frères nous ont apporté des livres.

votre fille à pied ou à cheval ? 24. Je l'ai amenée en voiture. how long. Combien de temps avez-vous de- How long did you live in Italy?

EXERCISE 82. meuré en Italie ?

1. How long did your son live in London? 2. He lived there 2. Combien de fois answers to the English how ofte how ten years. 3. How far is the physician gone? 4. The physiciad

is gone as far as Cologne. 5. Has he taken his son with him ?

6. He has not taken him. 7. How have you brought your two Combien de fois y avez-vous été ? How many times have you been little girls ? 8. I brought one in a carriage, and my wife carried

the other. 9. Is she too little to walk ? 10. She is not too small 3. Jusqu'où is used for how far, what distance, etc.

to walk, but she is ill. 11. Have you brought your horse ? Jusqu'où avez-vous été ? How far have you beon ?

12. We have brought two horses. 13. Have you brought the 4. Jusqu'à quelle heure, till what hour, means also how late.

books which you have promised me? 14. I have forgotten to

bring them. 15. Has that lady brought her eldest son ? 16. Jusqu'à quelle heure How late did you wait ?

She has brought all her children. 17. How did they come ? attendu ?

18. They came in a carriage. 19. Which way did your brother 5. D'où means whence ; par où, which way, in what direction. come from Germany ? 20. He came by Aix-la-Chapelle and D'où venez-vous, mon ami ? Whenco do you come, my friend ?

Brussels. 21. Do you intend to take your son to school this Par où votre ami est-il allé ? Which way is your friend gone?

afternoon? 22. I do not intend to take him there, it is too cold. 6. Mener ($ 49), porter, to take, to carry; amener, apporter, and I intend to carry him. 25. Why do you not take him in a

23. Is that child too ill to walk ? 24. He is too ill to walk, to bring, to take with one; emmener, emporter, to take, to carry carriage ? 26. My brother has taken my horse away.

27. Have away. We use mener, amener, emmener, for to take, to bring, to take away, in the sense of conducting, leading, guiding, on foot you brought the physician ? 28. I have not brought him, no or in a vehicle. Porter, apporter, emporter, mean to carry, to 30. I have another, I do not want it. 31. Have you taken my

one is ill at our house. 29. Will you take this book to church? bring, to carry away, etc.

letter to the post-office ? 32. I have forgotten it. 33. How late Menez votre sour à l'école, Take your sister to school.

did you write ? 34. I wrote until after midnight. 35. Whence Portez ce livre à votre soeur, Take this book to your sister.

do your sisters come ?. 36. They come from Paris.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Jusqu'où votre frère est-il allé ? How far is your brother gone?
Il est allé jusqu'à Paris.
Ho is gone as far as Paris.

HISTORIC SKETCHES.-XII.
Combien de temps va-t-il y rester? How long is he going to stay there ?
Il va y rester jusqu'au printemps. He is going to stay there until spring.

THE PROTECTOR OF THE COMMONWEALTH. Combien de temps avez-vous de- How long did you live in London ?

Ar the Royal Palace of Whitehall, on the 3rd of September, 1658, meuré à Londres ? Nous y avons demeuré six ans. We lived there six years.

a man lay dying. Eight days before he felt so confident of life Jusqu'où avez-vous été ? How far did you go?

that he told his wife not to think he should die, as he felt sure Nous avons été jusqu'aux Champs We went as far as the Champs Ely of the contrary. Now he was speechless, sinking; and the last Elysées. sées,

thing about which he had seriously troubled himself was a Jusqu'à quelle heure avez-vous How late did you write ?

curious metaphysical one. Tell me," he said to Sterry, 3 écrit ?

minister who stood by him, " is it possible to fall from grace ?" J'ai écrit jusqu'à minuit. I wrote until midnight.

“ It is not possible," said the minister. “Then," exclaimed the D'où viennent ces Allemandes ? Whence come those German ladies ?

dying man, “I am safe; for I know that I was once in grace." Elles viennent d'Aix-la-Chapelle. They come from Aix-la-Chapelle.

And then he prayed, “Lord, though a miserable and wretched Par où sont-elles venues ? Which way did they come ?

creature, I am in covenant with thee through thy grace, and Elles sont venues par Bruxelles. They came by Brussels. Menez-vous cette petite fille Do you take (lead) that little girl to may and will come to thee for thy people. Thou hast made me l'école ? school!

a mean instrument to do them some good, and thee service. Je ne l'y mène pas, je l'y porte; elle I do not lead her there, I carry her Many of them set too high a value upon me, though others

est trop petite pour marcher. there; she is too small to walk. would be glad of my death. Lord, however thou disposest of Amenez-vous vos enfants ? Do you bring your children!

me, continue and go on to do good for them. Teach those who Portez-vous une lettre à la poste? Do you take a letter to the post-ofice? look too much upon thy instruments, to depend more upon thy. J'emmène mon cheval, j'emporte I bring away my horse, I bring away self, and pardon such as desire to trample upon the dust of a ma moutre,

my watch,

poor worm, for they are thy people too." VOCABULARY.

The attention of all England was riveted on the sick room at Ainé, -e, eldest. Ici, here.

Promis, from pro. Whitehall, with keen and sincere interest. From the lips of Apport-er, -1, to bring. Loin, far.

mett-re, 4, ir., pro- many went forth earnest prayers that God would be pleased to Bruit, m., noise. Magnifique, magnifi- mised.

spare the invalid's life; in the hearts of many there were fears Drap, m., cloth. cent. Quitt-er, 1, to leave.

and misgivings as to what would come in the event of that Elève, m., pupil. Midi, noon.

Soieries, 1.pl., silk goods. prayer being rejected; in other hearts there were joy and exultaFils, son. Minuit, midnight. Voiture, 1., carriage.

tion over the death of a sinner; while in others, that should Fin, -e, fine. Pied, m., foot. Voyageur, m., traveller.

have been kindly disposed, there was a certain sort of assurance EXERCISE 81.

that there is something in the misfortunes of our greatest friends 1. Le jeune homme est-il allé loin ? 2. Il n'est pas allé bien which is not displeasing to us. A frightful wind-storm raged, loin, il n'est allé que jusqu'à Paris. 3. Vos enfants font trop rooting up trees in the park, and tearing off the roofs of houses de bruit, pourquoi ne les emmenez-vous pas ? 4. Ils sont in London. The friends of the dying argued that God was malades, ils ne pouvent marcher. 5. Comment les avez-vous giving warning of his intention to take to himself the great soul amenés ici ? 6. Je les ai amenés en voiture. 7. À quelle heure of the sufferer ; his enemies argued that "the princes of the amenez-vous le médecin ? 8. Je l'amène tous les jours à midi. powers of the air" were holding fearful revels amid the storm. 9. Combien de fois par jour menez-vous vos élèves à l'église ? driven clouds in honour of the prospect of seizing on a great 10. Je les mène à l'église deux fois par jour. 11. Combien de offender's soul. fois y avez-vous été ? 12. J'y ai été plusieurs fois. 13. Par où The dying man was Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of Eng. ces voyageurs sont-ils venus ? 14. Ils sont venus par Amiens land and Ireland, the man who for ten years had governed the et par Rouen. 15. D'où apportez-vous cette nouvelle ? 16. Je kingdom in a right kingly way, and made it stronger and more l'apporte de Cologne. 17. D'où avez-vous amené ces superbes respected by all foreign powers than it had been since the days chevaux ? 18. Je les ai amenés d'Angleterre. 19. Si vous of Henry V. and Agincourt; the man who had subverted the quittez la France, avez-vous l'intention d'emmener votre fils ? | subverters of the monarchy, and had yet annihilated monarchy

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itself in the person of his own king, by bringing him to a public whom he could relieve himself of the great burden of public and trial and a public execution; the man who had overcome all private care which came upon him daily in the singularly exceprivals, punished all rebels against his own authcrity, and seated tional position in which he found himself placed. himself firmly on the throne of kings (having been originally but increased he suffered more and more from the chilling wind of a country gentleman), though he had refused, and refused reso isolation, and seemed to yearn after that rest which the weary lutely, the name and emblems of royalty.

love. Yet the spirit of duty within him, the duty which he It was the 3rd of September, the day Cromwell was wont to believed he was called to discharge in England, strove to prevent call his fortunate day. On a 3rd of September he overcame the his wish to depart; he saw his work all unfinished, and he knew Scots' army at Dunbar, when, looking at the position of his army that he had no fit successor ; he believed—some say affected to in a military point of view, he was committed to certain destruc- believe—that his work was God's work, and he wished to do it tion at their hands; on a 3rd of September he had fought the to the utmost of his power. For duty's sake and religion's, and battle of Worcester, “the Lord's crowning mercy to him," as he because it was “God's high gift," he guarded his life "from called it, when the royalist cause was lost in England, so long as scathe and wrong," and his hold on life was not a little strengthCromwell could move a regiment or man a ship. His wife and ened by the natural dread a man has of loosening it thronghe his friends hoped much from this circumstanoe, that the worst of sudden violence and deadly malice. Such a dread had Cromwell the fever seemed to come upon him on this his fortunate day. for a companion, in addition to his load of carking cares and Fortunate indeed if he could realise in his own case the assertion weighty troubles. Plots to assassinate him were continually of the wise king, that the day of one's death is better than the being made, and were only baffled by the most watchful energy day of his birth; fortunate too, still, if he could feel that death and the most exemplary punishments. The knowledge of their was but the entrance into life, the outlet from a world of which, existence, and the consciousness that at any moment he might and of the people and things in which, he was heartily tired and fall a victim, contributed to make a man whose mind was weary ; the means by which, and by which only, he could enter already overladen, a man who had a religious or superstitions into rest.

dread of being sent to his account suddenly, “disappointed, In this last sense surely the 3rd of September was still Crom- unaneled," without any reckoning made, excitable and nervous well's fortunate day, for if ever a man was weary of life and to an almost unbearable degree. ansions to be quit of the cares of it, Cromwell must have been In August, 1658, he was at Hampton Court Palace, watching that man.

the sure progress of disease in the body of his best beloved Whether he was to be blamed or not for the part he had taken child, Elizabeth Claypole. He was, and had been for some time, in the recent troubles—whether he was the murderer of the far from well, but the absorbing attractions of his daughter's king, or whether in putting him to death he had done but a state made him oblivious or indifferent to his own ills. On the solemn act of justice the result to him was the same: the 6th of August the strongest link of affection that bound him to weight of the government pressed heavily upon his shoulders, the world was snapped; Elizabeth Claypole died, and then the and he found at the end of ten years that all he had for the Protector found out, what other men had known long since, labour which he had taken under the sun was vanity and vexa- that he was very ill. For a time he distracted himself by tion of spirit. Fatigue of body and mind, continuous and severe, the sad cares of the last offices for his daughter, whom he occasioned by conses acting from without, were supplemented caused to be buried with imperial pomp among kings and latterly by a spring of bitterness welling up within, sapping the queens in Westminster Abbey; but this done he had leisure to strong men's energy, gnawing away at the very vitals of his find out that he was mortal. At the moment of his daughter's strength, overwhelming him with a dreadful sense of responsi. death he was confined to his bed with gout, and upon that fever bility and fear lest he had striven in vain and in the wrong supervened. His pulse became intermittent, but his physicians direction. Once he had felt no hesitation about what he should did not seem to be anxious, and he, on his wife expressing her do, and believed that his decision was an inspiration direct from fears as to the issue of his illness, bade her be sure he should the Spirit of the Almighty; now he doubted whether all things not die, since he knew he should not “from better authority were lawful or expedient unto him. Once he had felt no difficulty than any which you can have from Galen or Hippocrates. It is: in telling his troopers, by way of assurance against their fears the answer of God himself to our prayers ; not to mine alone, sa to the propriety of offering personal violence to the king, “If but to those of others who have a more intimate interest in him. I should meet the king in battle, I would shoot the king ;” now than I have.” he was uneasy in his mind when even his favourite daughter, For sake of the change he had moved from Hampton Court Mrs. Claypole, suggested to him doubts as to the integrity of his to Whitehall, where he took to his bed, and within a month of conduct in the sight of God. Even his old friends, the men who his daughter's decease he had followed her to her long home had stood by him through good report and evil until his genius Thurloe, his faithful secretary and most devoted friend, eclipsed them and turned them into rivals and opponents, these announced the event to the Deputy of Ireland in a letter too had forsaken him, and left him alone in the state like a lodge wherein he said of Cromwell, “He is gone to heaven, embalmed in a garden of cacumbers. Then he found how, without being with the tears of his people, and upon the wings of the prayers: bitter, a man's household may be among his foes. His mother, of the saints.” a homely woman, quite incapable of realising the magnitude and With a magnificent ceremonial, copied from that which was the difficulties of her son's position, disquieted him in return for used at the funeral of the Spanish King Philip II., in 1598, the his filial devotion to her with the expression of her convictions Republican Government laid the body of Oliver Cromwell in that they and the like of them had no business in the royal Westminster Abbey, where it remained with those of princes and palaces. His children were incapable, excepting perhaps Henry, senators till the restoration of the monarchy, when the spirit of of appreciating his statesmanship and his motives, and were revenge wreaked itself on the corpse of the spoiler of kings by therefore divided from him by a great gulf of want of sympathy; causing it to be exposed on the gallows at Tyburn, and then buried While some of them, if the accounts of those times are to be in a hole like the carcase of a dog. To Cromwell himself it could trusted, actually reproached him for what he had done for the scarcely have mattered much where they laid his body or what country. On one side, a numerous and implacable enemy, burn. they did with it after he had done with it; the splendid funeral ing with desire to revenge the unpardonable death of the royal at St. Peter's was as little in accordance with his habits and martyr," and the losses they had incurred in his behalf-on ways as the ignominious barbarity at Tyburn. He was beyond another side, a formidable array of enemies who had once been the reach of honour and dishonour, insensible to flattery as to friends and associates; the hatred of foreign nations, only kept blame ; but to those who remained these two ceremonials sigfrom finding expression by the fear inspired by his sword; chronic nified something. What had Cromwell done that gave signi6 rebellion at home; within the camp lukewarm allies, ready to cance to them? fall away like water as soon as they should “perceive the least In order to answer this question it is necessary to take a rub in his fortunes ;" his own kith and kin not with him, and survey of the life of the man, as the history of it is presented to uneasy in his own mind about grace and acceptance ; doubtful, us in the records of his time, and by the light of dispassionate, too, as has been said, whether or not he had striven in vain for truth-seeking inquiry instituted since then. the ultimate good of his country-what comfort could he have Oliver Cromwell was born on April 25, 1599, at Huntingin living? He was alone, and he felt it keenly; the still strong don, and was the son of a country gentleman of moderato man felt the need of some sympathy, some divider of cares with estate, who was of the same family as that Thomas Cromwell,

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Cardinal Wolsey's favourite secretary, who was made Earl of not now to follow him through all his military achievements Essex by Henry VIII., and was afterwards beheaded by him. prior to the death of the king : sufice it to say that he was Oliver was sent to the University, where he made but small incessantly employed, retaining by stratagem his seat as a proficiency in his studies, and fell, it is said, into some wild member of Parliament the while, and that he figured in all the courses. Reforming his mode of life, however, on a sudden but great battles of the war, including Naseby, June 14, 1645, and sincere conviction that it was a wrong one, Cromwell married, always was attended by success. and at the same time warmly embraced the puritanical faith, Thoroughly persuaded of the dishonesty of the king ; conwhich was then beginning to acquire great influence throughout vinced that, unless he were completely overthrown, the last the country. For reasons of economy he gave up housekeeping state of England would be worse than the first; persuaded also as a country gentleman, and farmed some land which he took that there was not any man, or any set of men on the Parlianear St. Ives; but his operations in this direction were not mentary side, who could prevent this except himself, he detersuccessful, the duties of the farmer being probably neglected mined, about the time King Charles was given up by the Scots, for those of the religious politician. In conjunction with his with whom he had taken refuge, to gather up the reins into his kinsman, John Hampden, he formed a project of emigrating to own hands, and to drive the chariot of the state along the only America, believing that there alone he could live in the enjoy- road which in his opinion was a safe one. Firmly, harshly, ment of that freedom of conscience and of political action which perseveringly, prayerfully, he addressed himself to his task, was denied to him and his brethren here. How that project was which was to overthrow the power--namely, the Parliamentfrustrated by royal order, on the very eve of completion, has which had overthrown the king, to subject the king utterly, been already shown at length in No. VII. of the present series even by death if need be, and to bring under obedience those rival of Historic Sketches (page 222).

chiefs and commanders, who, he foresaw, would never tolerate Soon after the veto was put on his emigration, Cromwell was quietly the assumption of power by one whom they looked on sent to Parliament as member for the town of Cambridge, and as their equal or inferior. though he seldom spoke, and when he did, not in a way to cap. It was by Cromwell's orders, or at least with his concurrence, tivate or lead the house, his vote was invariably to be found in that Cornet Joyce, with a strong party of cavalry, made a sort the lists of those who had maintained the popular right against of raid on the captive king's guard at Holdenby, in Yorkshire, the kingly power. He did not take a prominent part in the where he was on his way to be given up to the Parliament, and political and domestic matters which brought about 3e rupture snatching the king from the hands of the Scots' and Parliamenbetween the King and the Parliament, but he made good use of tary commissioners, brought him to the head-quarters of the his time, and of his great powers of observation and reflection, army. The army at that time was in open quartel with the to make up his mind thoroughly both as to the righteousness of Parliament on the subject of the limitations which that body the common cause, and as to the integrity and capacity of the had thought fit to place upon the authority and influence of the men engaged on both sides of it. Having formed very strong military. The Parliament itself was divided into many factions, opinions upon the most important questions of the day, he all pulling a different way, none of thom seeking the general cleaved to them as a strongly persuaded man does with uncom- good, but only the advancement of their own petty interests. promising intensity ; and the shape of the quarrel in the state, Cromwell, whose influence with the army was at this time paraand the peculiar habit of his mind, caused him to see plainly a mount, resolved to crush the rival but divided power, and knowgreat gulf fixed between what he believed to be on one side the ing the immense importance of the possession of the king's cause of God himself, and on the other the cause of God's person, gladly acquiesced in, if he did not order, the violent enemies.

taking of Charles from the custody of the Parliamentary comIn all important points before the breaking out of civil war we missioners. find him voting on the popular side, lending whatever weight his Immediately he heard of the king's re-arrest he left London, influence had to the cause of liberty; and when by the flight of hastened to the army, and putting himself at its head, marched the king from London, and by the rearing of the royal standard to St. Albans, where he opened negotiations with the Parliament at Nottingham, August 25, 1642, war became inevitable, in London. The nation looked on approvingly, being disgusted Cromwell, then in his forty-third year, was among the first to with the way in which the Houses had used their power, with offer his sword to the Parliament, and he was forthwith com. the taxes they levied, the harsh laws thoy enacted, and the missioned to raise a troop of horsemen to serve in the Parlia- tyramnical manner in which the executive was carried on; and mentary army. This troop, which he soon increased to a regi. though London held out in favour of the Parliament, the army ment, he raised from among the yeomen and well-to-do farmers marohed up and demanded admittance, which was conceded to in Cambridgeshire and the neighbouring counties, ensuring them without show of resistance. This was in June, 1647. thereby a certain amount of education among his men, and a On November 11, in the same year, King Charles, who was a large admixture of that free spirit which cannot grow but in an sort of prisoner at large at Hampton Court Palace, fled to the independent atmosphere. He severely disciplined his recruits Isle of Wight, where he was detained at Carisbrook Castle by the till they became the famous “ Ironsides," dreadful in battle; he governor, Colonel Hammond. Meantime the army, represented prayed with them, preached to them, fought with them, and by by Cromwell, had completely overawed the Parliament, which cool courage and fervent zeal succeeded in inspiring them with a was allowed, however, still to exist till the dictator had used belief that a prophet had risen up among them.

thom for his purposes. The negotiations between it and the First at Gainsborough, and then at Horncastle, in Yorkshire, king having proved futile, Cromwell summoned a council of the Cromwell displayed his military ability as a general, by de principal officers of the army to devise some means of settling feating with severe loss some divisions of the Royalist army the nation. At this council it was resolved, after much prayer under the Marquis of Newcastle; and soon afterwards, in 1644, and much deliberation, to bring the king to trial for having com. he was appointed second in command of the Parliamentary mitted treason against the people by levying war upon them. army operating in the Eastern counties under the Earl of Man. Plots and counterplots now took place, some having in view chester. In conjunction with Fairfax and Lambert, the Earl of the overthrow of the officers, some of the Parliament, some the Manchester, having been victorious in the east, marched to York restoration of the king, the result being that a second civil war and besieged it, the issue being the battle of Marston Moor, broke out, aided by the Scots, and England was ablaze again where the cavalry and infantry under the command of Oliver from end to end. Promptly, skilfully, successfully, Cromwell Cromwell broke the serried ranks of Prince Rupert, and carried and his friends crushed the rebellion and the invasion ; and that the day “for God and the Houses."

being done, they resolved to bring the king to punishment for At Dennington Castle, near Newbury, where King Charles the part he had had in them. The Parliament resisting, the had left his baggage and artillery after the rout of his army at army came to London; and the Honses having still declared their the latter place, a difference arose between Cromwell and the willingness to treat with the king, and their entire disapproval of Earl of Manchester which first showed the firmness and domi- the course taken by the army, Cromwell resolved to coerce them nancy of the spirit which actuated the future Protector. Crom. still more, and on the 6th of December, 1648, "purged" tho well was for taking the castle and the guns, the earl was for House by seizing some two hundred of the members inimical to marching elsewhere, and upon this question the two men split, his interests, and allowing no more than some sixty of the most Cromwell thereafter taking his own independent line across the partisan-like to remain. It was by a High Court of Justica difficult country of postics which was before him. It matters appointed by this “ Rump" Parliament that King Charles Was

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brought to trial in Westminster Hall, and by a sentence of that in the race, with admiration by those who loved their country court, signed, amongst others, by Oliver Cromwell, he was more than themselves, and prized the objects for which England publicly executed " in the open space before Whitehall,” on the had struggled and fought; loved by very few, unhappy in him. 30th of January, 1648-9. There was no other way in the state to self, Cromwell sank to rest; and enough has been said here to which things had come; it was war to the knife, and so wide make it intelligible why to many of his countrymen a funeral had become the difference in political and religious feeling and a tomb less than the most splendid seemed all unworthy of between the opposed parties, that the intolerant absolutism of him, and also why, when Charles II. was restored to his father's one of them was inevitable.

throne, there were found men to suggest and approve the senseFor four years after this event the government of England less barbarity which led to the exposure of his dead body on Fes nominally republican, and really a sort of parliamentary Tyburn gallows. Perhaps even these men, after “the merry executive under the control of the army. The prime mover,

monarch" had reigned a few years, might have looked back and though he kept himself in the background, was Oliver Crom: said—when they saw the Dutch in the Medway, the French all. well, whose will made itself law, and whose policy guided the powerful through money, the Spaniards insulting the English state. Ireland, the state of which was more wretched and flag in all places in the world, and the revenues of the kingdom deplorable, perhaps, than at any other time in her history, was squandered on mistresses and frivolity, while the servants of the to be "tranquillised,” and Cromwell marched through it in state died of hunger—that sombre, harsh, ungenial as Cromwell inexorable fashion, putting whole garrisons to the sword, burn. might have been, he never allowed an Englishman to have cause ing, killing, and destroying, in pursuance of what his stern, to blush for his nationality, never made the state interests substrong nature conceived to be the only efficacious way of servient to his own, never gave the people such provocation as dealing with her. Ireland was tranquil in the sleep of death, did the restored line of princes, that in less than thirty years and never again was able to trouble the sister island with her after the day of their unfortunate restoration they hurled them espirations after life. It was an awful opiate the Puritan off the throne, and forbade firmly and for ever their re-accession leader gave her, and deadly and bitter was the hatred with which to it. she woke from the effects of it. With no worse malediction can an Irishman curse to-day than with “ the curse of Crom'ell."

SYNOPSIS OF EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF OLIVER CROMWELL, The Dutch were punished for the aid they gave to the king's

LORD PROTECTOR OF THE ENGLISH COMMONWEALTH. cause by a naval war, which was singularly brilliant, and in

Oliver Cromwell, who virtually held supreme sway over which the names of De Ruyter, De Witt, Van Tromp, Blake, England from the surrender of Charles I. by the Scotch in 1647, Ayacne, Venables, and Monk, shine out in bold relief. Scotland, was the son of a gentleman of Huntingdonshire, and grandson which had espoused the cause of Charles II., and had proclaimed of Sir Henry Cromwell, of Hinchinbrook. By his wife, Elizabeth him king, was overrun by the same irresistible man who had Bourchier, daughter of Sir John Bourchier, he had two sons crashed the opponents of the Commonwealth and Puritarism and six daughters. in Ireland. At Dunbar, at Stirling, and then at Worcester, whither the Scots' army had penetrated in order to be over

Born at Huntingdon April 25, 1599 "Long Parliament" ended
Elected Member of Parlia-

by Cromwell thrown, the strong hand and wise head of Oliver Cromwell pre

April 20, 1653

ment for Huntingdon 1628 Blake defeats the Dutch off vailed, and the royal cause was irretrievably lost.

Prevented from emigrating to

the North Foreland, June 2, 1653 In 1653 it became obvious to the army, or to the man who New England by Charles I. 1637 Blake defeats the Dutch off commanded it, that parliamentary government must cease in Elected Member of Parlia- the coast of Holland, July, 1653 form as well as in reality. The exceptional state of England ment for Cambridge 1640 Cromwell made Lord Prorendered it impossible to have a divided government, and in Civil War between the King tector , December 16, 1653 divisions and petty squabbles the Parliament, mutilated as it

and Parliament began Expedition under Blake gent was, was only strong. Every day the civil and the military

August 25, 1642 against the pirates of the
Mediterranean

1654 powers were coming into collision. In the face of smouldering (Por. Events and Battles in war at home, avowed hostility abroad, and the still unsettled Members expelled from the

Civil War, seo page 122.]

War declared against Spain , 1654

Defeat of Penn and Venables state of the realm, this sort of thing would not do. Cromwell

House of Commons by

at Hispaniola, or Hayti resolved to take the helm himself, and alone to steer the “Pride's Purge". Dec. 6, 1648 Capture of Jamaica ship of the state. On the 20th of April, 1653, he dismissed the “Rump" or Barebones' Para Cromwell refuses the Crown . 1657 sham Parliament, over which Praise God Barebones presided, and liament.

1648 Destruction of the Spanish was forthwith made Protector of the Commonwealth of England. Charles I. executed. Jan. 30, 1649 Fleet at Santa Cruz by From that moment England rose to be a first-rate power in Temporary abolition of House Blake

April 20, 1657 Europe. The Dutch were ruinously beaten in a two days' naval

of Lords

1649 Capture of Dunkirk June, 1658 battle, in which Van Tromp, their great admiral, was killed. Proclamation of Charles II.

Cromwell goes to Ireland 1649 Death of Blake . August 27, 1658

Cromwell dies at Whitehall Spain, the greatest power in Europe, was victoriously with.

by the Scots

1649

September 3, 1658 stood, and lost, among other possessions, the island of Jamaica ; Execution of Montrose, May 21 1650 RICHARD CROMWELL, LORD France, under Cardinal Mazarin, was glad to be well with the Battle of Dunbar . Sept. 3, 1650

PROTECTOR. Republic of England; and Portugal received condign punish- Charles II. crowned at Scone Born at Huntingdon

1625 ment for some assistance she gave to the exiled king. At home

January 1, 1651 Became Lord Protector, a firm and disinterested rule served to heal many of the Battle of Worcester, Sept. 3, 1651

September 3, 1658 wounds from which poor England bled ; and with a commerce Navigation Laws enacted, Deposed by Army, protected afloat, and industry encouraged on shore, the English

October, 1651

April 22, 1659

Dutch Admiral Van Tromp Restoration of Charles II. people grew prosperous, wealthy, and in some sort contented.

defeats the English Fleet

May 29, 1660 Now and again the royalists, and those enemies of theirs who

in the Channel Nov. 29, 1652 Richard Cromwell were enemies of the Commonwealth also, gave the government Blake defeats the Dutch Fleet at Hursley, Hampshire, trouble; and it was seriously proposed, in order to put an end to off Portsmouth, Feb. 18-20, 1653

July 17, 1712 their hopes, that Cromwell should make himself king, and found a new dynasty. In 1657 the crown was actually offered to him,

SOVEREIGNS CONTEMPORARY WITH OLIVER AND RICHARD bat he firmly refused it, and accepted instead “the humble peti.

CROMWELL. tion and advice,” wherein were laid down rules for his guidance Denmark, King of. Portugal, Kings of. Sweden, Sovereigns of. in the government, and in which his authority was defined. Frederick III.

John IV..

1640 Christina III. For twelve months he continued to carry on his work, hoping

Alphonso VI. 1656 Charles X.
France, King of.

Charles XI. 1660 against hope that it might be an abiding one; welding the dis- Louis XIV.

Rome, Popes of integrated masses of English society into a strong, united com

Germany, Emperors of. Innocent X..

Turkey, Sultan of. munity; striving to do justice to all, though many would not Ferdinand III. . Alexander VII. . 1655 Mahomet IV. 1049 suffer him; making the country he had been called upon to Leopold I.

United Provinces govern prosperous at home and respected abroad. Space fails

Russia, Czars of
Poland, Kings of.

of the Netherlands, to tell of all he did, or to seek out a knowledge of the intentions John II. (some

Alexis .

Sladlholders of. he was not allowed to fulfil. Regarded with respectful hatred

styled

Spain, Kings of. William II., . 1647 by the royalists, with envy by those whom he had outstripped Casimir V.) . 1649 | Philip IV, 1621] Interregnum

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9

LESSONS IN BOTANY.—XII.

sometimes prolonged into vertical plates, at other times filiform ;

fruit, capsular; seed, dicotyledonous and albuminous. The reader will now begin to understand the general principles Such are the botanical characteristics of this natural order on which a natural classification of vegetables is effected. In succinctly expressed. Some of the terms employed the reader the first place, we divide them into cryptogamic and phænoga- I will understand; but those which have not come under his mous; then we divide the latter into endogenous

notice before, we will explain before we proceed. and exogenous. Next we proceed to establish

The first new word that requires explanation is orders, from a consideration of such characteristics

caducus, used to describe the peculiarity of the as the position of stamens, nature of fruit, cha

sepals. These the reader will remember are the racter of seed; and, as we have already seen, we

component parts of the calyx, and form the green usually give to each order a name derived from

envelope of the poppy-bud which bursts asunder some leading genus or sub-division. Thus, our

when the flower is ready to open. Soon after the principal genus in the Ranunculus order is the

flower has opened the sepals fall off, and for this Ranunculus or Crowfoot; hence the generic name

reason they are called caducous, from the Latin Ranunculaceæe is given; and we subdivide this

caducus, which is derived from cado, to fall

. genus into species by the addition of terms which

Æstivation is the manner in which the sepals and consideration will render obvious. For example,

petals are fitted together before the flower expands, there is one species of Ranunculus which is more

from the Latin æstiva, summer quarters. Here poisonous than the rest ; botanists, therefore,

they overlap each other, as one tile laps over another apply to this species the appellation of wicked,

on the roof of a house. The Latin for a gatter-tile or sceleratus ; hence, when the expression Ranun.

or roof-tile is imbrex, so all that is meant by the culus sceleratus is met with, the reader is made

term imbricated in æstivation is, that before the acquainted with the following facts in the follow

lower expands the sepals or petals overlap each ing order :- The plant is a lowering plant, is an

other at the edges. The ovary or seed-vessel is exogenous plant, belongs to the order of Ranun.

termed unilocular because it is “one-celled," er culaceæ, to the genus Ranunculus, and is a

has only one cell, from the Latin unus, one, and member of the species designated sceleratus. 126. CAPSULE OF THE POPPY. loculus, a cell, the diminutive of locus, a place. In More than one poisonous principle abounds in the

the fruit are found the parts to which the seeds are Ranunculaceæ, but of these the alkali, termed by chemists aconi- ; attached, which are called placentas. These placentas are tine, is the most violent. It is a white substance, something like flattened, and derive their name from the Greek adat, genitive iour to look at, and so frightfully poisonous that the twentieth anakos (plax, plak'-os), a term applied to anything flat, such as part of a grain, or even less, is a fatal dose. Of all the various a plate or flat cake. They grow out or project from the inside species of aconitum, that termed Aconitum ferox is the most of the ovary, or as it were from the wall of the ovary, therefor dangerous. This plant grows in the Himalaya Mountains, and they are called parietal, from the Latin paries, a wall. was on one occasion used by the Nepaulese as a means of ridding The reader may provide himself with a red corn-poppy 28 A themselves of us, their invaders. A few leaves of this Aconitum specimen of the flower, and a white poppy.capsule, procurable ferox being thrown into a well, poisoned all the water to such at the draggist's, as a sample of the fruit. Like buttercups, an extent that men or beasts drinking

poppies will be seen on examination of it were almost infallibly killed.

to have a great number of stamens ; Many of the most beautiful and

these stamens, moreover, are below striking flowers in our gardens belong

the carpels, or are hypogynous. Thus to the order of Ranunculaceæ. In

far, the resemblance of the Poppy our last lesson we mentioned some

tribe to the Ranunculus tribe is com. of these—the Hepaticas; the Lark.

plete. But when we come to examine spurs, short and tall; and the Delphi.

the fruit, what a difference is there! niums of all shades and tints of blue,

In the Ranunculaceve the carpels refrom the brilliant azure of the Del.

main distinct, and the fruit is, owing phinium cærulescens to the dark indigo

to that circumstance, denominated tint of the Delphinium grandiflorum.

apocarpous; in the Papaveraceæ the Anemones, those pretty flowers with

carpels unite together and constitute their variously-coloured petals and

one capsule, the poppy-head of the drooping flowers—these, too, belong

shops. This, then, is the grand broad to the order of Ranunculaceæ, as also

distinction between the two natural do the large showy peonies and the

orders. The carpels have all grow Monk's Hoods or Aconites, flowers

into one common ovary, but what has which have also the characteristics

become of the stigma or upper espan. of the Ranunculaceæ, as the student

sion of the styles? These may be who examines them will not fail to

seen at the extremity of the poppy recognise.

capsule, as represented in the accom. Our space does not admit of more

panying diagram (Fig. 126) where being said concerning the order Ra

they may be observed forming a sort nunculaceæ. We must conclude,

of crown. If the capsule be now therefore, by stating that their fruits

opened it will be found to consist are denominated by botanists achania,

of one cell, into which numerous little or follicles, terms which have been

Aattened plates project; the latter explained in a former lesson.

are termed placentas or placenta, a SECTION XXII. PAPAVERACEÆ,

term of which a full explanation has OR THE POPPY TRIBE.

already been given above; they are Let us now commence the study

the parts of the fruit which give of another natural order, the Papave

attachment to the seeds. raceæ, or Poppy Tribe, bearing some

127. THE DOUBLE POPPY,

Such are the mechanical condi. nffinity to the order Ranunculaceæ,

tions, if we may 80 term them, but differing from it by certain characteristic signs, which are in which the Papaveracea differ from the Ranunculaceæ ; but described in botanical phraseology as follows:

there is a well-marked physiological difference also. Plante Characters : Sepalstwo, rarely three, caducons ; petals belonging to the Ranunculus tribe are supplied with a waters, bypogynous; their number double or quadruple that of the acrid, poisonous juice ; whereas in plants of the Poppy tribe the cepals; imbricated and crumpled in æstivation ; stamens juice is milky, and usually contains opium.

The substance bumerous, hypogynous; ovary unilocular, placentas parietal, known as opium in the shops is derived from the whito poppy,

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