Imágenes de páginas

horned poppy

by making cuts on the ripe capsules, and allowing the juice to rose or a strawberry flower in this manner, we shall soon find it exude. After exposure for a while to the sun, the juice, at first impossible to remove the sepals of which the calyx is composed milky, boon thickens into a dark waxy-looking mass. This is without at the same time removing all the stamens. This dis. opiam, the active principles of which are numerous, but that tinctive characteristic was known to Linnæus, and embodied by termed morphia is the chief.

him in the distinction between his Icosandria and Polyandria, Just as the characteristics of the Ranunculus tribe become as the reader will observe if he turns to page 305. veiled in the larkspur, anemone, clematis, and peony, so are the This peculiarity in the insertion of the stamens in flowers of Poppy characteristics obscured in certain plants belonging to the Rose tribe is shortly indicated in botanical language by the this natural order. For example, on some parts of the sea.coast term perigynous. We have already seen that the term hypogythere grows a plant termed the "horned poppy," on account of nous means below the carpel; therefore the reader will now be prethe peculiar appearance of its fruit, which, instead of being pared to understand that perigynous means around the carpel ; round like the fruit of a

and this is expressive of the common red or white poppy,

mode of growth of stamens is shaped something like a

in the Rose tribe. Had we born. The form may be par.

not proviously explained the tially explained as follows.

nature of the strawberry In the fruit of the ordinary

fruit, that point would have poppy numerous carpels are

to be explained now; but the apited together, and thus a

reader is already aware that globular body results, just

the real botanical fruits of as the orange presents a

the strawberry are those little globular aspect on account

seed - like things scattered of the assemblage of so

over the surface of the part many easily divisible sec.

we eat. tions; but supposing many

Very nearly allied to the of these sections removed,

strawberry in their botanical then the orange would 70

aspect are the Cinquefoil or longer be globular, bat elon.

Potentilla plants. Their gated. It is thus with the

flowers are almost exactly Its fruit,

like those of the strawberry, like the ordinary poppy, is

but strawberries, noverthesyncarpous; that is to say,

less, do not result. The compounded of carpels united

torus, which becomes juicy together ; but their number

and delicions in the strawbeing fewer-only two-the

berry, remains hard in the resulting fruit is necessarily

potentilla. more elongated.

Raspberries and brambles The Celandine (Chelido.

are also members of the Rose nium majus) is another plant

tribe, with which they agree of the Poppy tribe, in which

in the easily-recognised esthe fruits are elongated. All

sential characteristic of perithese species of Papaveraces.

gynous stamens. There is a are characterised by having

sort of general resemblance, a milky jnice, by the pre

too, between the fruits of the sence of which, taken in con.

raspberry, blackberry, and nection with hypogynous

the edible portion of the stamens and syncarpous

strawberry; yet the botsfroits, the various members

nical distinction between of this tribe may always be

raspberries and blackberries discriminated. The milky

on the one hand, and strawjuice of the celandine will

berries on the other, is the

very clear. The very part called warts.

we eat in the strawberry is SECT. XXIII. ROSACEÆ,

the portion we throw away OR THE ROSE TRIBE.

in the raspberry and blackThis is a very extensive

berry. The fleshy and deli. natural order of plants, com


cious torus or receptacle of prehending not only the

the strawberry becomes in the 128. THE WILD ROSE OR DOG- ROSE. (1.) THE FLOWER-BUDS AND LEAVES. (2.) roses proper, but almonds, VERTICAL SECTION OF FLOWER. (3.) CARPEL.

latter a white,insipid,spindle

(4.) FRUIT. (5.) SECTION strawberries, apples, pears,

shaped core, whilst the edible OF CARPEL, SHOWING SEED, and many other plants.

part is a real fruit, or rather Characteristics : Calyı monosepalous, asnally in five divi- | an assemblage of real fruits, matured ovaries. How are we to sions ; sometimes adherent to the ovary; imbricated in æsti. know this ? the learner will ask. Simply thus :-Did he never vation ; petals five, alternate with the sepals free, inserted on observe that each of these little berry-like elevations is sur. the calyz, imbricated in æstivation, sometimes absent; sta. mounted or terminated by a sort of hair ? Now these hairs are mens almost always indefinite, inserted like the petals ; pistil, nothing more than the styles of carpels, the lower portions or Farions ; ovale, reflected ; seeds, dicotyledonous ; leaves alter- ovaries of which have expanded in order to become fruit. Date, usually compound, with stipules. All these botanical In the illustration on this page the reader will find a good terras have already been explained.

representation of the wild rose or dog-rose, the Rosa canina of Perhaps the best specimen for affording the general charac- Linnæus, which is to be found in almost every hedge-row in the teristics of the Rose tribe is a strawberry flower. Supposing country, and which furnishes excellent stocks on which to engraft the reader to have provided himself with one of these, he will at the different varieties of garden roses by budding. The smaller first be struck with a general resemblance to a buttercup flower. cuts, immediately below the engraving of the rose itself, with In both the carpels and the stamens are numerous, but the fol. its Aower buds and glossy dark-green jeaves, will help him in lowing leading distinction between them may at once be seen. distinguishing the component parts of the flower when dissecting In the buttercup the stamens do not grow from the caly, so it, as No. 2 exhibits an accurate sketch of a vertical section of the that the latter may be altogether removed without in any

respect fower, and Nos. 3, 5, and 4, the carpel, the seed within the carpel, disturbing the former, if, however, we attempt to dissect a and the outer envelope in which the carpels are contained.




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Examples of Circumflex.

Tons of Mockery.—I've caught you, then, at låst !

Irony.-Courageous chief !--the first in flight from pain !

Punning.--And though heavy to weigh, as a score of fat sheep, “ INFLECTION in elocution signifies an upward or downward

He was not, by any means, heavy to sleep. "slide" of voice, from the average, or level, of a sentencë.

Example of Monotone.--Ave and Horror. There are two simple “inflections” "slides,"-the upward or “rising," and the downward or “falling." The former is

I could a tale unföld whose lightest word usually marked by the acute accent [%]; the latter, by the grave

Would härrow up thy soul, freeze thy young blood, accent [^].

Make thy two eyes, like stārs, start from their spháves,

Thy knotted and combined locks to part, The union of these two inflections, on the same syllable, is

And each particular häir to stand on ēnd, called the “circumflex," or wave.

When the circumflex com

Like quills upon the frētful pòrcupine. mences with the falling inflection, and ends with the rising, it is called the "rising circumflex,” marked thus [!]; when

Rules on the Rising Inflection. it begins with the rising, and ends with the falling, it is called Rule 1.-—The “intensive” or high rising inflection expresses the “falling circumflex," marked thus [^].

surprise and wonder, as :When the tone of the voice has no upward or downward

Há! laugh'st thou, Lochiel, my vision to scórn ? slide, but keeps comparatively level, it is called the

monotone," marked thus [-1.

Rule 2.-The “moderate" rising inflection takes place where Examples.-Rising Inflection,

the sense is incomplete, and depends on something which

follows: “ Intensive," or high, upward slide, as in the tone of As we cannot discern the shadow moving along the dial-plate, so we gurprise

cannot always trace our progress in knowledge. Há! Is it possible !

Note.Words and phrases of address, as they are merely In the usual tone of a question, that may be answered by introductory expressions, take the “ moderate rising inflection,” Yes or No:Is it really so?

Friends, I come not hera to talk. “Moderate” rising inflection, as at the end of a clause which Sir, I deny that the assertion is correct. leaves the sense dependent on what follows it:

Sóldiers, you fight for home and liberty ! If we are sincerely desirous of advancing in knowledge, we shall not Exception.--In emphatic and in lengthened phrases of address be sparing of exertion.

the falling inflection takes place, as :The “slight" rising inflection-marked thus [-], is used On! ye bràve, who rush to glory or the grave! when the voice is suddenly and unexpectedly interrupted :

Sòldiers ! if my standard falls, look for the plu upon your king's

helmet! When the visitor entered the room

My friends, my followers, and my children! the field we have The last-mentioned inflection may, for distinction's sake, be entered, is one from which there is no retreat. marked as above, to indicate the absence of any positive

up: Fourth upon his throne will not profit by a victory more than you.

Gentlemen and knights-commoners and soldiers, Edward, the ward or downward slide, and, at the same time, to distinguish it from the intentional and prolonged level of the "monotone." Rule 3.-The “suspensive,” or slight rising inflection, ocour

when expression is suddenly broken off, as in the following Falling Inflection.

passage in dialoguo :" Intensive,” or bold and low downward slide, as in the tone

Poct. The poisoning dames of anger and scorn :

Friend. You měanDown, ruthless insulter !

P. I don't.

F. You do. The “full” falling inflection, as in the cadence at a period :

Note. This inflection, prolonged, is used in the appropriate All his efforts were in vàin.

tone of reading verse, or of poetic prose, when not emphatic, The "moderate" falling inflection, as at the end of a clause instead of a distinct rising or falling inflection, which would which forma complete sense :

have the ordinary effect of prosaic utterance, or would divest Do not presume on wealth; it may be swept from you in a moment. the expression of all its beauty. The horses were hårnebsed; the carriages were driven up to the

Examples door; the party were seated : and, in a few moments, the mansion was left to its former silence and solitude.

Here waters, woods, and winds in concert join. The “suspensive," or slight falling inflection, marked thus

And flocks, woods, streams around, repose and peace impart. [ - ], as in the members of a “series,” or sequence of words

The wild brook babbling down the mountain's side; and clauses, in the same syntactical connection :

The lowing herd; the sheepfold's simple bell; The force, the size, the weight of the ship, bore the sch oner down

The pipe of early shepherd, dim descried below the waves.

In the lone valley ; echoing far and wide, The irresistible force, the vast size, the prodigious weight of the

The clamorous horn, along the cliffs above; ship, rendered the destruction of the schooner inevitable.

The hollow murmur of the ocean tide ; The “suspensive ” downward slide is marked as above, to

The hum of bees, the linnet's lay of lóve,t distinguish it from the deeper inflection at the end of a clause,

And the full choir that wakes the universal grove. or of a sentence.

White houses peep through the trees; cattle stand cooling in the TABLE OF CONTRASTED INFLECTIONS.

pool; the casement of the farm-house is covered with jessamine and The Rising followed by the Falling.

hóneysuckle ;t the stately greenhouse exhales the perfume of sammer

climates. Will you gó, or stày ? Will you ride, or walk ?

Rule 4.-A question which may be answered by Tes or No, Did he travel for health, or for pleasure ?

usually ends with the rising inflection, as :Does he pronounce corréctly, or incorrectly ?

Do you see yon cloud ? Is it the rising, or the falling inflection ?

Exception.—Emphasis, as in the tone of impatience, of extreme The Falling followed by the Rising.

earnestness, or of remonstrance, may, in such cases as the above, I would rather gò than stáy.

take the falling inflection, as :I would rather walk than ríde. He travelled for health, not pleasure.

* Shouting tone. He pronounces correctly, not incorrectly.

+ The penultimate inflection of a sentence, or a stanza, usually rises, It is the falling, not the rising inflection.

so as to prepare for an easy cadence.

upon it.

Can you be so infatuated as to pursue a course which you know will Exception 1.-Emphatic, abrupt, and disconnected series, end in your rùin ?

may have the "moderato" or the "bold" downward slide on Will you blindly rush on destruction ?

every member, according to the intensity of expression, as :Would you say so, if the case were your own ?

His succèss, his fàme, his life, were all at stake. Rule 5.—The penultimate, or last inflection but one, is, in

The roaring of the wind, the rushing of the water, the darkness of most sentences, a rising slide, by which the voice prepares for the night, all conspired to overwhelm his guilty spirit with dread. an easy and natural descent at the cadence, as :

Eloquence is action, nòble, sublime, godlike action.

The shore, which, but a few moments before, lay so lovely in 'its The rocks crumble, the trees fàll, the leaves fáde, and the grass

calm serenity, gilded with the beams of the level sun, now resounded withers.

with the roar of cànnon, the shouts of battle, the clash of arms, the Exception.—Emphasis may sometimes make the penultimate curses of hàtred, the shrieks of agony. inflection fall, instead of rising; as the abruptness of that slide gives a more forcible effect:

Exception 2.-Light and humorous description gives the

“moderate " upward slide to all the members of a series, as :They have sushed through like a hürricane ; like an army of locusts, they have devoured the earth; the war has fallen like a waterspout, Her bóoks, her músic, her pápers, her clothes, were all lying about and deluged the land with blood,

the room, in "most admired disorder." Rules on the Falling Inflection.

Exception 3.—The language of pathos (pity), tenderness, and Pule 1.—The “intensive, downward slide,” or "low,” falling beauty -- whether in verse or prose--takes the “suspensive,” inflection, occurs in the emphasis of vehement emotion, as :

or slight rising inflection, except in the last member of the

"commencing and the last but one of the “concluding Ox! 'ON to the just and the glorious strife!

series,” which have the usual "moderate” rising inflection, Rule 2.—The “full ” falling inflection usually takes place at as :the cadence, or close, of a sentence, as :

No mournful flowers, by weeping fondness laid, No life is pleasing to God, but that which is useful to mankind.

No pink, no róse, drooped, on his breast displayed. Exception.- When the meaning expressed at the close of one

There wrapt in gratitude, and joy, and lóve, sentence is modified by the sense of the next, the voice may

The man of God will pass in Sabbath noon. rize, instead of falling, as :

There (in the grave), vile insects consume the hand of the artist, We are not here to discuss this question. We are come to act the brain of the philosopher, the eye which sparkled with celestial

fíre, and the lip from which flowed irresistible eloquence. Gentlemen may cry "peace, péace !" But there is no peace,

Note 2.-All series, except the plaintive-as by their form of Rule 3.—The “moderate" falling inflection occurs at the end numbers and repetition, they partake of the nature of “climax," of a clause which forms complete sense, independently of what or increase of signification-should be read with a growing follows it, as :

intensity of voice, and a more prominent inflection on every Law and order are forgotten: violence and rapine are abroad: the member, as :golden cords of society are loosed.

The splendour of the firmament, the verdure of the earth, the Exception.—Plaintive expression, and poetic style, whether in varied colours of the flowers which 'fill the air with their fràgrance, the form of verse or of prose, take the "slight" rising inflection, and the music of those artless voices which mingle on every trče; all in its prolonged form :

conspire to captivate our hearts, and to swell them with the most

rapturous delight.
Cold o'er his limbs the listless langour grew;
Paleness came o'er his eye of placid blue;

This remark applies, sometimes, even to the rising inflection,
Pale mourned the lily where the rose had died;

but, with peculiar force, to cases in which the language is And timid, trembling, came he to my side.

obviously meant to swell progressively in effect, from word to

word, or from clause to clause, and which end with a downward The oaks the mountains fall: the mountains themselves decay slide, on every member, as in the following instance :with years; the ocean shrinks and grows again; the moon herself is lost in héaven; but thou art for ever the same, rejoicing in the

I tell you, though you, though all the world, though an angel brightness of thy course.

from H'EAVEN, should declare the truth of it, I could not believe it. Rule 4.—The “suspensive,” or slight falling inflection, takes

Rule 5.-All questions which cannot be answered by Yes or place in every member but one of the "series,” or successive No end with the falling inflection, as :words and clauses, connected by the same conjunction, ex- When will you cease to trifle ? pressed or understood.

Where can his equal be found ? Note 1.-A succession of words is termed a “simple series ;”.

Who has the hardihood to maintain such an assertion ? a succession of clauses a “compound series." A succession of

Why come not on these rictors proud ? words which leave sense incomplete is termed a "commencing

What was the object of his ambition ? series ;” that which leaves complete sense, a “concluding series."

How can such a purpose be accomplished ? A “commencing series" is read with the "suspensive,” or slight

Exception. The tone of real or affected surprise throws such falling inflection, on every member but the last; a concluding questions, when repeated, into the form of the rising inflecseries, with the “suspensive” slide on every member, except tion, as :the penultimate, or last but one.

How can such a purpose be accomplished ! “Simple commencing series :"

To the diligent all things are possible. The air, the earth, the wāter, teem with delighted existence. "Simple concluding series :"

LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC. XXII. Delighted existence teems in the air, the čarth, I and the water. I

MEASURES OF SURFACE OR SUPERFICIES. " Compound commencing series :"The fluid expanse of the air, the surface of the solid earth, the

6. Definition.—A square is a four-sided figure, of which the sides liquid element of water, teem with delighted existence.

are equal, and the angles right angles.

Surfaces are measured by means of square inches, square feet, “Compound concluding series :"

square yards, etc., i.e., by squares the sides of which are respec. Delighted existence teems in the luid expanse of the air, the surface tively 1 inch, 1 foot, 1 yard in length, etc. of the solid earth, t and the liquid element of water. I

7. To find the magnitude of a Square, the length of its side

being given. * Rising slide, for contrast to the following clause.

Raise the number expressing the number of linear units +"Penultimate” rising inflection, preparatory to the cadence, or (inches or feet, etc.) in the side to the second power. This will closing fall of voice, at the end of a sentence.

give the number of square units of the same kind in the square. “Full” falling inflection, for the cadence of a sentence.

For instance, a square, of which the side is 4 inches, contains

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16 square inches ; a square, of which the side is 5 feet, contains 10. To find the magnitude of a Cube, the length of an edge 25 square feet. The truth of this will appear from the following being given. diagram

Raise the number expressing the number of linear units in the Draw a square, each of the sides of

edge to the third power. This will give the number of cubio which suppose to be 4 inches long; divide

units of the same kind in the given cube. the sides into lengths of 1 inch, and com

For instance, a cube of which the edge is 4 inches long conplete the figure by drawing parallel lines,

tains 64 cubic inches ; a cube of which the edge is 5 feet long as in the margin. This divides the square

contains 125 cubic feet. into small squares, each of whose sides is

The truth of this will appear from the following diagram :an inch in length. Now, in any one row,

Take a cube, as in the diagram, such as we have indicated by the figures,

of which the edge is supposed to there are 4 such squares, and there are 4

be 4 inches long, and divide each

Fig. 1. rows. Hence, there are 16 square inches

edge into lengths of one inch. in the given square.

Then, by drawing parallel planes, Suppose that two opposite sides be lengthened to 6 inches, so

as indicated in the figure, we can that the figure is no longer a square, but a rectangle. Dividing

divide the cube into a number of the figure as before into square inches, we see that there are

cubes, each of which is & cubic necessarily six rows, each containing 4

inch. Now, any one slice such as square inches. Hence the number of square

3 4

that which is shaded clearly coninches in a rectangle, two of whose sides

tains 4 X 4, or 16 cubic inches, and there are 4 such slices. are 4 inches long, and the other two 6 2

Hence the cabe contains 4 X 4 X 4, or 64 cubic inches. inches, is 6 X 4, or 24 square inches. The

11. Definitions.-A rectangular parallelepiped is a solid figur same method is evidently true for any

contained by six rectangular figures, of which every opposite other rectangle, so that, to obtain the

two are parallel. number of square units in any rectangle,

This differs from a cube in the fact that the length, breadth, we must multiply the number expressing

and thickness are not equal. the number of linear units in the length by

The volume of (i.e., the number of cubic units in) a parallelethe number expressing the number of linear

piped is obtained by multiplying the numbers together which units in the breadth.

express the number of linear units in the length, breadth, and The same is true if the lengths of the

Fig. 2. thickness respectively. sides be fractional parts of the unit of

This will perhaps be sufficiently apparent from the acconlength. For instance, to find the area of a rectangle of a foot panying diagram of a rectangular parallelepiped, of which the long and } a foot wide. Referring back to Fig. 1, suppose now length, breadth, and height are supposed to be 6, 5, 4 inches that it is a square, each side of which is 1 foot. Then, dividing, respectively. as in the figure, each foot into 4 parts, the square contains 16 square parts, each of which, therefore, is to of a square foot. Now the dotted line encloses a rectangle, one side of which is

and the other or of a foot, and this rectangle contains 6 of the 16 parts into which the square is divided; or the area of % of a square foot, i.e., ix by of a square foot.

Obs.-It must be observed that, in multiplying together the numbers, fractional or otherwise, which express the number of units in the sides of a rectangle, only one denomination must be used. The fact is, that we cannot talk of multiplying two geometrical magnitudes together. We cannot, for example, talk There will evidently be six such slices as that we have shaded, of multiplying 3 feet by an inch, by 2 feet; but we can

each containing 5 X 4, or 20 cubic inches. multiply two numbers together which indicate the lengths of the

The volume of the solid will therefore be 6 X 5 X 4, or 120 two lines, with reference to some one standard unit, and then cubic inches. deduce the geometrical result which corresponds to the numerical result thus obtained.

1728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot, written 1 c. ft. 8. The following table of Square Measure is by the above

27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard 1 c. yd. principle deduced from that of the Measures of Length. The

This measure is used in estimating the magnitude of timber, learner is recommended to do this for himself.

stone, boxes of goods, the capacity of rooms, ships, the solid SQUARE MEASURE.

mass of earth in railway cuttings, etc. 144 square inches (sq. in.) = 1 square foot

written 1 sq. ft.

For example, 42 cubic feet are defined to be one ton of 9 square feet = 1 square yard

1 sq. yd. shipping. 304 square yards, or 1 square rod, perch,

For liquids and dry commodities other systems are adopted, 272 square feet or pole

which we will give after we have explained the measures of square perches = l rood

weight. 4 roods 640 - 1 square mile

1 sq. m.

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXIV. The acre contains, as will be found by calculation, 10 square chains, or 100,000 square links, or 4,840 square yards.

ALTHOUGH it is not possible to give a detailed scheme of Flooring, roofing, plastering, etc., are often calculated by a elementary forms of which the capital letters of the writing “square" of 100 square feet.

alphabet are composed, as was done with regard to the small A hide of land is 100 acres.

letters, it may be as well, for the benefit and instruction of the MEASURES OF SOLIDITY OR VOLUME.-CUBIC MEASURE. each of the capital letters.

self-teacher, to make a few remarks on the method of forming 9. Definitions. - A solid figure is that which has length, In the capital letters of the writing alphabet the letter I is breadth, and thickness. A cube is a solid contained by six the key, and forms the principal part of most of the letters; it squares, of which every opposite two are parallel. The sides of consists of a nicely tapering black stroke, commencing with a the squares are called the edges of the cube.

hair-stroke, and ending in a hair-stroke with a full point or a All solids, or spaces which could be filled by solids, are scroll. The head or top of this letter is variously made; a measured by means of the number of cubic inches, cubic feet, etc., common form is seen in the capital letters in page 357; somewhich they contain, i.e., by cubes, the edges of which are times the head is formed like that of the capital J, which is the respectively 1 inch, 1 foot, etc., in length.

same letter in writing, with the black-stroke and the bottom The magnitude of any solid figure is sometimes called its hair-stroke carried below the level and terminated in a loop to volume.

the left.





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