Imágenes de páginas

hobbled away.

sent in some birds is shown by the fondness of parrots for tickling; which was blind when caught had obtained its food so well by but it may be stated that the great activity of birds makes them the aid of this that it was quito in good condition. Barbules are rely on their far-ranging senses rather than on the circumscribed well adapted to the purpose of touch. If in any other way indications of the sense of touch.

nerves were conveyed through the scaly covering and exposed, The cold blooded animals (reptiles and fish) differ from the these delicate structures would be liable to be injured by the warm-blooded (mammals and birds), in having for the covering impact of hard external bodies, which would be crushed between of their bodies no non-conducting or heat-rotaining substances. | them and the hard and underlying scales; but since the main Hairs and feathers are admirable retainers of heat; but scales nerve of these barbules accompanies a cartilaginous core, and and scutes, though good to resist blows and pressure, allow heat since it springs from a single point to be spread upon a flexible to pass out or in without much resistance. This, of course, is pillar which hard bodies would drive before them, the chance of associated with the fact that reptiles and fish have but little having the nerve crushed is much reduced. Barbules are for beat to lose. It does not follow, however, that because the the most part found on the jaws of grovelling fishes like sturbody of a fish or lizard is entirely defended by scales, whose free geons and barbels, which feel along the bottom for all kinds of edges overlap the insertions of those next behind them in a garbage which may have sunk there. manner which is called “imbricated,” that therefore they are The mollusca have received their name from their general entirely without the sense of touch. The scales are developed character of softness; mollis being the Latin adjective for soft. much as the human nails are, and we know that these are them. This name was given them by Cuvier to contrast them with tho selves insensible; yet they are so intimately connected with hard-coated insects and crustacea which belong to the subthe sensitive parts by which they are formed, that the nails are kingdom articulata. Hence in those species which are not prothe conductors of acute, and even morbid sensation. The quick vided with a shell, and in the exposed parts of those species of the nail is proverbially sensitive to pain; witness the common which have this protection, there is a soft, sensitive skin. The phrase of being wounded, or cut to the quick. Reptiles, how skin, however, in this sub-kingdom has often superadded to the eter, slongh at certain seasons, and the old skin, dissevered functions which it possesses in vertebrata the functions of respi. from the cutis, adheres to them for some time-in fact, until a ration and of locomotion. Even those parts where the sense is new and complete armour is formed below. During such periods, more or less localised have so many other offices to which the and inferentially at all times, the sense of touch cannot be sense is secondary or subservient, that it would lead us too far acute. Scaled reptiles may be alive to blows or pressure, but from our subject to describe them. It is true that the gasterohardly to those sensations of soft touch which convey the most poda havo horns as special tactile organs; but we find in the distinct impressions of all to us. These remarks apply with yet cephalopods the sense of tonch is intimately combined in the more force to the hard, stony, surface of the backs of crocodiles. arms with the elaborate apparatus for grasping and holding their The under side of the body of crocodiles is leathery rather than prey; and in the brachiopods the sense is united with the organs stony, and has fower stony masses on its surface, and this is for breathing and keeping up currents in the water.

We must, therefore sensitive. Sir Emerson Tennent gives an amusing therefore, avoid going into details in reference to them. It may account of a cayman, which he surprised before it could make be stated generally, that the slower an animal moves, and the its retreat. The Ceylon crocodile threw itself on its side, and more fixed its station, the more will its sense of touch be devefeigned death ; but when it was tickled under its arm it found loped in proportion to the other senses. Hence the sense of the process too much for its gravity, and finally got up and touch is well developed throughout this sub-kingdom. Soft

As we before remarked in the article on taste, bodies are ill-suited to energetic motion; but soft bodies are the tongue is made use of by serpents and lizards to touch well adapted to receive tactile impressions. In those animals objects with; and this is probably its main, if not its only use of this sub-kingdom which are wholly fixed, the organs of tonch In conformity with the assertion that nocturnal animals often are multiplied, and in the lowest class of all there is a horsehave specially modified organs of touch, we find that certain shoe-shaped or circular serios of tentacles round the month, noctarnal tree-snakes have their snouts prolonged into tactile which are extremely sensitive. This arrangement of feelers organs.

around the mouth is so general a character of fixed animals, Tho large majority of fish aro completely closed in by plates that there is a striking similarity between the outward form of and scales. With few exceptions even the lips aro hard and these lower molluscs and the fixed animals of the sub-kingdom dry, so that they need to have some special organs of touch. calenterata, although the essential organs are quite different. Sometimes certain rays of the fins are detached from the oar- The articulata (though some of them are soft-skinned) are for like parts, and becomo long styliform organs of touch. When the most part covered with a hard, horny covering, which is as this is the case, they are clothed with soft parts, which are well resisting as plate-armour. It is therefore necessary that these supplied with nerves. Thus, in the gurnet three soft rays are animals should have special organs of touch. We have already told off from the front of the pectoral fin, to form feeling referred to those of the lobster and its tribe in a former number. fingers. It is curious that in a creature so far removed from Insects havo, developed from their heads and mouth-organs, man we have the samo parts modified to the same use, though jointed rods, which have nerves of tonch running to them and in almost all the intermediate animals this part has a different up into them. These jointed rods are covered with hard, horny function. In the angler two rays detached from the back fin, matter, liko the rest of the body; but sometimes the last joint and situated on the top of the head, have this function, but the exposes a naked membrane, and where this is not the case, the tise to which he puts these feelers is remarkable. Ono of the jointed and therefore flexible nature of the organs make them feelers has at its end a flattened, shining, and flexible adjunct, capable of receiving impressions of touch, and of measuring the and this is used as a bait, just as a silver strip is used by the dimensions and resistance offered by external objects. The troller. The angler is rapacious, but sluggish; he therefore normal number and position of these organs will be seen in the lies on the bottom, with his huge, ugly mouth wido open, and illustration. There are two long, many-jointed ones jutting from stirs up the mud with his fing to conceal himself, while he the head; these are called the antenne. Another pair (or pairs) drops his sensitive bait before his mouth and keeps twitching it spring from the lower lateral jaws; they are called the maxillary about, until he feels some hapless fish begin to nibble, when he palpi. Another pair (or pairs) spring from the sides of the makes a forward rush and closes his mouth upon him. The lower lip; these are called the labi palpi. The soft-skinned whole of cach of the four limbs of the lepido-siren are converted spiders have no antennæ or labi palpi, but their maxillary palpi into organs of touch. For the most part, however, the limbs of are so long and large as to look like legs. fish which correspond to our legs and arms are entirely devoted The echinoderms, or sea-archins, are so enclosed in their more to locomotion, while quite new structures are developed for them or less spherical boxes of hard shell, that a casual observer would to feel with. These special tactile organs are called barbules. suppose them to be unfeeling wretches, capable of inflicting They are placed on the head, and generally at the fore part of wounds with their long spines, but insensible to softer emothe jaws. When on or under the lower jaw they may be single ; tions. This is not the case, however, for they can protrude but they are more often, and when on the upper jaw always, in through the small holes which perforato the shell and occupy five pairs. Two instances are given in the illustration : the ono double meridional bands of their globular boxes, a multitude of shows how they occur in an eel-like fish, and the other in an soft, tubular, sucking fect, to each of which there runs a nerve. ordinary-limbed fish. The single medial barbule under the jaw The sea-anemone, with its streaming feelers, lives by feel. of the cod is a familiar example. It is supposed that a cod ing; and the whole sub-kingdom to which it belongs is

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characterised by animals with largely developed and multi- Now these three forms of speech which I have just given tudinous feelers.

stand in Latin, thus :Finally, those animals which we call protozoa, on account of

Pater est doctus the simple condition of their bodies, can manufacture, from their


Father is learned. jelly-like substance, any number of long feelers. These they

Pater est doctior often render so branched and long as to give to the animals the


Father is more learned, name of " rhizopods,” or “root-footed,” because the feelers,

Pater est doctissimus

Superlative which also perform the function of feet, look like the branching

Father is most learned, roots of a tree.

Look at the terminations of the adjective. In the first case

it is us; that is the positive, or ordinary form of the adjective, We haro now set before our readers the principal facts con

In the second case, it is ior; that is the comparative. In the nected with what are called in popular phraseology the “five third case, it is issimus ; that is the superlative. You thus see seuses;” and we have given, as far as the discoveries of physio- that what in the English is expressed by more is in Latin exlogical science extend in the present day, a description of pressed by ior; and what in the English is expressed by most the organs with which an all-wise and beneficent Creator has is in Latin expressed by issimus. Remember, then, ior is the furnished his creatures, from the protozoa, the first link in the form of comparison, issimus is the superlative form. You great chain of the animal kingdom, up to man, who stands might thus obtain for yourself the rule, and say that to the but "a little lower than the angels,” to enable them to see, hear, stem of the positive add ior, and you have the comparative; and smell, tasto, and touch-five great powers wonderfully contrived to the stem of the positive add issimus, and you have the super. to adıninister to our pleasure and gratification, as well as to lative. Such in reality is the rule. These two endings, ior m. enable us to discharge the several functions that form the work and f., ius n.; and issimus, a, um, are to be added to the stem which He has allotted to each on earth.

of adjectives and participles, in order to convert the positive To enable the unscientific reader, and those even who can do degree into the comparative and the superlative. I subjoin some little more than read, to follow us step by step, and appreciate instances :and understand all that has been advanced, the description of each organ, its difference of formation in man and the lower


Superlative. animals, and the various purposes for which it serves,

Læt-us, joyful læt-ior, more joyful has been

læt-issimus, most joyful. given in language which we have carefully sought to render Inbecillous, weak

Pudic-us, modest pudic-lor, more modest pudic-issimus, most modest.

imbecill-ior, weaker imbecill-issimus, weakest. as plain and clear, and as free from technical terms as possible. Lev-is, light lev-ior, lighter

lev-issimus, lightest, When, however, it has been found absolutely necessary to use, fruitful fertil-ior, more fruitful fertil-issimus, most fruitful. technical names, which are applied by scientific men for the Dives

}rich divit-ior, richer sake of brevity of expression, and a ready means of distinguish- Divit-is

divit-issimus, richest. ing one animal or organ from another, by reference to some

Prudens prue prudent-ior, more pru. prudent-issimus, most pru

dent peculiarity that it possesses, the explanation of these terms has Prudent-is | dent

dent. been supplied directly or indirectly in the papers in which they

Amant-is )

loving amant.ior, more loving amant-issimus, most loving. The illustrations, too, that accompany the description Felix of each organ of sense, will be found as useful by our readers in


felic-ior, happier felic-issimus, happiest, enabling them to understand all that has been said of their formation, etc., as the map of a country, or the chart of a sea

If, however, the adjective ends in er, rămus is used instead is to him who would become acquainted with the physical con- of issimus, for the sake of sound, as :figuration of the former, or the heights and abysses that lie hid

Miser, unhappy, miserable; miser-ior, more unhappy; miser-rimas, from view beneath the waters of the latter. It may be as well most unhappy; pulcher (pulchr-i), beautiful; pulchr-ior, more beautiful; to remind our readers that, in order to arrive at a thorough pulcher-rimus, most beautiful. comprehension of everything that is advanced in our lessons on Animal Physiology, they should be studied and mastered con

In like manner, vetus (gen. veter-is), old; veter-rimus, oldest secutively from the first to the last. Under the diagrams that the comparative veter-ior is rarely used); also nuper-us, late accompany the lessons are given the technical names of the (no comparative); nuper-rimus, latest. different parts of each organ under consideration.

The six adjectives which follow take lămus in the superlative, In future lessons we shall enter on other branches of this

namely great subject as interesting and important in every respect as Facil-is, easy. [ficult. Simil-is, like.

Gracil-is, thin. that which has been treated in the present series.

Difficil-is, not easy, dif- | Dissimil-is, unlike. Humil-is, huinble.

thus :

Facil-is, easy; facil-ior, casier ; facil-limus, easiest, etc.

There are some compound adjectives which form their com-

paratives and superlatives by endings different from these: When two objects are compared together, the ideas involved in Such adjectives are those which in the positive end in dicus, the words more and most come into prominence. Thus we say, ficus, and volus ; for instance, maledicus, magnificus, benevõlus. " the father is more learned than the son;" “ Cicero was the have called these compound adjectives, because they are commost learned of the Romans.” The question which we have to posed each of two words. Maledicus is formed from male, answer is, how are such forms of thought expressed in the badly (in an evil manner), and dico, I speak; and consequently Latin ? Observe that at the bottom of more learned and most denotes an evil-speaker; magnificus is formed from magnus, learned is the quality learned ; for no one can be more learned great, and facio, I do, and consequentiy denotes a great doer ; or most learned without being learned. This ground quality is benevolus is formed from bene, well, and volo, I wish, and something positive, a real definito quality. Hence in grammar consequently denotes a well-wisher. To form the comparative it is called the positive degree. It is the first step. A higher of these, add to the stem entior; and to form the superlative, step is indicated by our word more; and the highest by most. add entissimus ; thus :You thus see that besides the positive there are two other de.


Superlative. grees, of which the one is the higher, and the other the highest Maledic-us, abusive maledic-entior, maledic-entissimus, most of the three. The higher is called the comparative degree,


abusive, and the highest is called the superlative degree. Accordingly, Magnific-us, magnific magnific-entior, more magnificentissimus, most there are three degrees of comparison, the positive, the compara



benevol-entior, more benevol-entissimus, most tive, the superlative. It has been denied that the positive is a Benevol-us, benevolent


benevolent. degree of comparison. The term may net be rigidly correct, but it is in use, and no better substitute has been offered. Our business is not so much to criticise as to explain ; and conse- regular way, from such nouns as maledicens, magnificens, and benevolens,

• These comparatives and superlatives are evidently formed in the quently only then must we enter into criticism when it smooths two of which, at least, are in use in the language, and have the same the way to explanation,

meaning as the other positives above given.

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In full,



In Latin as well as in English, some adjectives depart from Ratio, -ōnis, f., reason (E. R. ratio). Simplex, simplycis, simple. the usual modes of comparison. As we say, positive, good ; Res secundæ, favourable things, that Simulatio, -ōnis, f., simulation, comparative, better; superlative, best; so the Romans said, is, good fortune.

pretence, hypocrisy. bonus, good ; melior, better; optimus, best. Carefully learn by Sapientia, -<, f., wisdom (E. R.' Sol, solis, m., the sun (E. R. solar). heart the following

sa pient),

Sonitus, -ūs, m., a sound,

Secundus, -a, -um, favourable (E. R. | Syracuse, -arum, f., Syracuse. IRREGULAR FORMS OF COMPARISON.

to second).

Valeo, 2, I am strong, I am worth Simia, -æ, f., an ape.

(E. R. valid).

[similitude). Positive.


Superlative. Bonns, good melior, better

Similitudo, -Inis, likeness (E. R. Velox, velocis, aicift (E. P. velocity).

optimus, best. Malus, bad pejor, worse, pessimus, worst.

EXERCISE 45.- LATIX-ENGLISH. Magnus, great major greater

maximus, greatest,

1. Nihil est naturw hominis accommodatius quam beneficentia. 2. Parvus, little minor, less minimus, least.

Nihil est amabilius quam virtus. 3. Lux est velocior quam sonitus. (plus (n), more Multus, much

4. Nihil est melius quam sapientia. 5. Multi homines magis garruli plures (m, and f.)

plurimus, most.

sunt quam hirundines. 6. Pauperes sæpe sunt muniticentiores quam

divites, 7. In adversis rebus supe sunt homines prudentiores quam Many Latin adjectives do not take any of these forms of in secundis. 8. Divitissimorum vita sæpe est miserrima. 9. Simu.

latio amoris pejor est quam odium. 10. Nihil est melius quam ratio. comparison. Such are adjectives which have e before the ter

11. Sol major est quam terra, 12. Luna minor est quam terra. 13. mination us; as idone-us, fit. These are formed by prefixing Omnium lieatissimus est sapiens. 14. Homerus omuium Græcorum magis, more ; and maxime, most ; as, magis idoneus, more fit; poetarum est veterrimus. 15. Adulatio est pessimum malum. 16. maxime idoneus, most fit: so, pius, pious ; magis pius, more Urbs Syracuse maxima et pulcherrima est omnium Græcorum urbium. pious ; maxime pius, most pious. In the same way, form nearly 17. Pessimi homines sunt maledici. 18. Omnium hominum maledi. all adjectives and participles ending in îcus, îmus, inus, ivus, centissimi sunt fratres tui. 19. In amicitia plus valet similitude oras, undus, andus, and bundus.

morum quam affinitas. 20. Soror tua amabilior est quam mea, In the English meanings added to facilis above, I have given

EXERCISE 46.- ENGLISH-LATIN. the forms easy, easier, easiest. Here you see changes made at the end of the positive, similar to those you have just been great. 3. The sun is greater than the moon.

1. Nothing is worse than the pretence of love. 2. The sun is very

4. The life of men is instructed to make in the Latin. First, the positive easy is

very short.

5. The richest are often the unhappiest. 6. The poorest changed into easi, and then to this, as the stem, we add er are sometimes the happiest. 7. The labour is very easy. 8. My for the comparative, like the Latin ior, and est for the super- labour is easier than yours. 9. The customs (character) of men are lative, like the Latin issimus. This similarity of forms indicates very unlike. 10. The king is very free in giving. 11. The worst men in the two languages a sameness of origin. As too, in English, are not often happy. 12. Good men are happy. 13. Very good men we use more and most, so do the Latins use magis and maxime, are happiest. 14. God is the happiest of all. 15. The best men are

16. The health of my friend is very to denote the comparative and superlative. Magis and maxime sometimes despised by the worst. must be used for this purpose, in the case of adjectives which garden is more beautiful. 19. The labour is very difficult.

weak. 17. Thy father's garden is very beautiful. 18. Thy son's

20. The do not admit the termination forms.

walls of the city are very low. 21. Most (plurimi) men love their Besides expressing the formal degree of comparison, the native country. 22. Nothing is better than virtue. 23. The port is Latin superlative signifies a very high

degree of the quality in. very much visited. 24. God is the greatest, best, and wisest of al'. volved in the positive, as doctissimus, very learned ; pater tuus 25. The customs (or character) of the Lacedemonians were very est doctissimus, thy father is very learned. So in English, simpie. 26. The horse is very swift. 27. Ravens are very black. Milton uses wisest:

Thy father is very benevolent and very liberal. 29. Thy brother The wisest heart

builds a very beautiful house. 30. A very beautiful house is built by Of Solomon he led by fraud, to build thy brother. 31. Virgins must (dobeo) bo very modest.

32. Thy His temple right against the temple of God."

sister is more modest than thy brother. 33. The ape is like men. 34.

Is the ape very much like men ? 35. Of all animals the ape is most Latin comparatives are declined like adjectives of two termi- like men. 36. Nothing is sweeter than friendship. 37. The Lacede. nations, and according to the third declension. Thus, positive monians were very brave. 38. Light is very quick. 39. Light is altus, high, makes comparative altior, higher ; altior is masculine quicker than sound. and feminine, the neuter is altius.

The Key to Exercises in Lessons in Latin, XII., will be given in No. 28,

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M. Y.

Casos, M. F.



N. altiores



To give a detailed account of the additions that have been D. altiori


made year by year to our stock of information respecting Africa Ac. altiorem

Ac. altiores

altiora by travellers and explorers in all parts of the continent since V. altior

V. altiores

altiora the discovery of the principal embouchure of the Niger by the Ab. altiore (i)


brothers Richard and John Lander, would require more space

than that which we have at our command, as it is necessary now VOCABULARY.

to bring our sketch of the progress of geographical discovery to Accommodatas, -2, -um,

suited | Hirundo, birundinis, f., a swallow. a close, and proceed with those portions of the subject which (E. R. accommodate, commodious). Homěrus, -i., m., Homer.

treat of the earth’s position in space as one of the members of Adulatio, -ōnis, ., fattory (E. R. Humilis, -e, humilis, low.

our solar system; the great physical features of its surface ; adulation).

Labor, -öris, m., labour [nian, Affinitas, -ātis, f., relationship Lacedæmonius, ..., m., a Lacedemo- and its political division into states, empires, kingdoms and

republics, and their various subdivisions. All we can do is to (E. R. affinity).

Liberalitas, -atis, f., liberality. Amabilis, -e, worthy to be lored Luna, æ, f., the moon (E. R. Tunar). touch briefly on the principal expeditions that have been set on (E. R. amiable). Lux, lucis, f., light.

foot to effect explorations in Africa since 1830, and to mention Amor, -oris, m., love (E. R. amorous). Mos, moris, m., custom ; in the the discoveries that have been made, first in Soudan or Nigritia, Beatns, -a, -um, happy.

plural, character (E. R. morals). by Drs. Barth, Overweg, and Vogel ; secondly, in the interior Beneficentia, •æ, f., well-doing, kind Munificus, -a, -um, free in giving, of Southern Africa, by Dr. Livingstone and his companions ; action (E. R. beneficence).

liberal (E. R. munificent).

and thirdly, in the eastern part of the belt of land that extends Beneficus, well-doing, beneficent. Murus, -í, m., a vall (E. R. mural). ten degrees north and south of the equator, by Burton, Speks, Brevis, -e, short (E. R. brevity). Natura, -e, f., nature. Celeber, bris, bre, sought after, Niger, 'nigra," nigrum, black (E. R. Grant, Baker, and Petherick. visited (E. R, celebrity). negro).

In 1841, the British Government having resolved to effect a Contempo, 3, 1 despise, contemn. Nihil (not declined), nothing.

further exploration of the great river of Western Africa, the Corvus, -i., m., a raven.

Non nunquam, adv., sometimes. Niger, and the densely populated countries through which it Crus, cruris, n., the leg (from the Odium, i, n., hatred (E. R. odious). flows, sent out an expedition consisting of three steamers, the les to the ankle).

Pauper, panperis, a poor man Albert, Soudon, and TVilherforce. To ressc's reached the prin. Garrulus, -2, -om, takatire (E. R. (E, R, panpier).

cipal morth of the Niger in August, and the ascent of the river garrulity). Quam, conj., than.

was commenced forthwith. The malaria, howover, arising from

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the marsh lands and tangled jungle by the river-side, combined | Linyanti in June, 1853, accompanied by Sekeletn, the chief of with the intense heat of the climate, proved fatal to the success the Makololo, and a number of his people, Dr. Livingstone proof the expedition. Fever broke out among the crews of the ceoded to explore the upper course of the Zambesi, which is vessels, and they were compelled to return and abandon tho called the Leeambye above the Victoria Falls, a cataract not far enterprise after going northwards up the stream as far as Egga, from its junction with the Chobe. In his first journay from a large and populous town on the right bank of the Niger, about Linyanti he went northwards as far as the junction of the Leeba 325 miles froin the sea, measuring in a direct line from tho and the Leeambye, passing on his way Nariele, the chief town of mouth of the river Nun, the principal channel by which the the Barotse. In his secund expedition from Linyanti, in Novemwaters of the Niger enter the Gulf of Guinea.

ber, 1853, he ascended the Leeba, reaching its source, a small Since that period the most notable journeys of exploration lake called Dilolo, in February, 1854. This lake is also one of that have been undertaken on the western side of Africa have the sources of the river Congo, or Zaire, whose principal head. been the travels of M. Paul B. du Chaillu in 1856-59 in the stream is the Kasai. From this point Livingstone struck out equatorial tract watered by the Gaboon River, in which is the in a north-west direction for St. Paul de Loanda, on the west country of the cannibal Fans and the powerful gorilla; and in coast of Africa, which he reached at the end of May. 1863-4 in Ashango Land and the country of the Ashiras, Leaving St. Paul de Loanda at the commencement of autumn, where he met with a race of dwarf negroes measuring from four and following the course of the Coanza for a considerable di: feet to four feet and a-half in height, and having skin of a light tance, Livingstone and his party of Makololo arrived once more brown colour.

in the neighbourhood of Lake Dilolo in June, 1855, and reached In 1845-46 the great desert Sahara, which forms the barren Linyanti in the following September. From this point be centre of Northern Africa, bordered on the north and south by resolved to make his way down the course of the Zambesi to the a Lroad fringe of fertile country, teeming with luxuriant vege coast, and he started on his new journey on November 3, 185 tation, was explored by Jaunes Richardson, who visited the and arrived at Quilimane, on the north mouth of the river, is Touaricks and other wandering tribes of tho people of Sahara, May, 1856, after travelling for nearly four years through the and has given a full account of the cities of Ghat, Ghadames, heart of Southern Africa from coast to coast. and Mourzuk, and the fruitful, well-watered oases in which they Dr. Livingstone then repaired to England, but after a briel stand. In 1849 he again sot out to explore Central Africa, as rest he returned to Africa once more, to take command of an the leader of an expedition fitted out by the Foreign Office. To expedition that had been set on foot for the purpose of exploring this expedition Drs. Barth and Overweg were attached. Having more thoroughly the country watered by the Zambesi and its reached Tripoli towards the close of the year, they spent some tributaries. In this expedition he was accompanied by his timo in making the necessary preparations for the journey, brother, Charles Livingstone, Dr. Kirk, Mr. Thornton, Mr. T. starting on their passage across the Sahara on March 23, 1850. Baines, and other Europeans. The chief result of their explora. In the fall of the year they reached Damergn, and at this point tions was the discovery of the lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, from they separated, cach traveller to pursue his explorations alone, the latter of which issues the river Shire, one of the northern and to meet his companions once more at Kukawa, the capital tributaries of the Zambesi. After traversing the country of Bornou, in the following year. Richardson died on his way watered by the Shire, and proceeding up the stream of the thither, at Unguratura, and Barth and Overweg were left to Zambesi as far as Victoria Falls, an attempt was made to explore continue their explorations alone. This taey did with consider the Rovuma, a river a little to the north of Cape Delgado, which able success, but often at great personal risk, exploring Lake failed. A second attempt to asoend the river in September, Tchad and the rivers Shary and Yeou that enter it on the south 1861, was more successful, some rocky rapids being reachel, and west, and traversing Bornou, Baghirmi, Kanem, and other about 160 miles from the mouth of the river, which prevented! districts that lie grouped around the lake. On September 27, further progress. After spending some time in retracing h. 1852, Dr. Overweg died, and Dr. Barth proceeded by way of steps over districts that he had already traversed, Dr. Living Sockatoo to Timbuctoo, which he reached on September 7,1853. stone returned to England in 1864. Here he remained until May in the following year, making While Livingstone had been busily engaged in South Africa

. inquiries into the resources, commerce, and statistics of the sur. other travellers, as we will show presently, had discovered the rounding country, when he quitted the city, in which he had large fresh-water lakes Albert Nyanza and Victoria Nyanza co spent eight months, and travelling along the left bank of the the equator, and Lake Tanganyika, the northern extremity of Niger as far as Say, he made his way once more by Sockatoo to which is about 100 miles to the south of the first named of Kukawa, and thence across the desert to Tripoli, arriving in these lakes. As it was doubtful whether Lake Tanganyika England in 1855, after an absence of six years. A young was the most southern of the great reservoirs which discharge German, Dr. Edward Vogel, who was sent out in 1853 to join their surplus waters into the Mediterranean through the chan. Dr. Barth, was not so fortunate. He did not fall in with Dr. nel of the Nile, Dr. Livingstone set out on another expeditione Barth, and while pursuing his explorations in Waday, a district in order to discover whether this were really the case or not, lying to the east of Lake Tchad, he is supposed to have been and to explore the country between Lakes Nyassa and Tangse. assassinated by order of the Sultan of that country.

yika, leaving the coast on his way inland in March, 1866. L Few travels in Africa, in the present century, have been the following year some deserters from his party spread a report attended with such important results, by way of extension of that he had been murdered on the west side of Lake Nyasa our geographical knowledge of that continent, as the journeys of near its northern extremity. The researches of an expeditics Dr. Livingstone in South Africa, from 1849 to the present timo, sent out from England for the purpose of making inquiries ins although it may be many years before our trade and commerce his fate, disproved the assertions of the men who abandone i may derive any perceptible benefit by the establishmont of com- him; and in 1870 he was discovered by Stanley, who had mi mercial relations with the natives of thoso countries through out on a mission in search of him. Livingstone, however, conwhich he has passed. Some years previous to commencing his tinuing to pursue his researches, died at Ilala, in Central Africa, explorations Dr. Livingstone had been residing at Kolobeng, on in 1873. The remains of the greatest of our modern travellers one of the head-streams of the river Limpopo, as a missionary were brought to England and interred in Westminster Abbey. among the Bechuanas; and his visit to Lako Ngami, in 1849, In 1854, about the time when Livingstone was at St. Paul de seeins to liave created in him that zest for travel which has led Loanda, the first of a series of journeys was taken, that resulted him to traverse so largo a portion of South Africa on foot, in the discovery of the great lakes about which we have just undeterred by the perils that beset the explorer on all sides, or been speaking. This was an expedition to Harar, a town in the long years that he must frequently pass without moeting a country of the Somauli, about 200 miles south-west, as the crum single human being who speaks the same language, or is even of flies, from Berbera, on the south coast of the Gulf of Adet the same colour as himself. Two years afterwards he pushed | The party was composed of Lieutenant (now Major) Burton, of his way northwards as far as Linyanti, the chief city of the the Indian army, Captain Speke, the discoverer of the lako district inhabited by tho Makololo, situated on the Chobe, one Victoria Nyanza, and Lieutenants Stroyan and Herne. A fany of the southern afluents of the river Zambesi. On his return days after their return to Berbera, in 1855, they were attackei from this journey he determined to send his wifo and children to by’a party of Somauli, and in the conflict Stroyan was killed England, and having accompanied them as far as Cape Town ho and Captain Speke severely wounded. once more turned his steps towards the interior. Starting from This, however, did not prevent Burton and Speke from prose

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cating their explorations; and in June, 1857, they sot out on an ex- of the observer must be fully prepared at all times to note down pedition inland from the coast of Zanzibar, having received in the peculiarities which influence the growth of trees and vegestructions from the Royal Geographical Society to proceed west- tation of all kinds and under all circumstances. When trees ward along the 6th parallel of south latitude, in search of somo of are stripped of their leaves we have the advantage of studying the great lakes in the interior that were said to be in or near that the course of their growth. Trees in winter are not to somo latitude. Eight months later, in February, 1858, they stood on such interesting objects as they are when clothed with their the shore of Lake Tanganyika, about 600 miles from the coast; summer foliage, but to the student they offer, perhaps, even a and from the report of a native, who said there was a large stronger claim to his attention, as they present many features river running northwards out of the northern extremity of the which an uninterested eye would pass over as less worthy of lake, they believed they had reached the source of the Nile. regard. It is at this season that we have before us the skeleton This fact, however, they were not in a condition to prove, and or framework upon which depends the strength and proportion finding themselves exhausted by illness, fatigue, and privations, of the whole; to understand a tree thoroughly we must be fully and harassed by the natives, they were compelled to leave the acquainted with its anatomy, that is, the character and dispoquestion in doubt, and retrace their steps to the coast. On sition of its branches. Trees individually differ as much in this their way back to Zanzibar, Speke left Burton at Kazeh, and respect as they do in their foliage, and therefore we are equally travelled northwards. His solitary journey resulted in the dis- capable of distinguishing any particular tree in winter as we are covery of the Victoria Nyanza, and to Speke belongs the honour in summer. Compare the branches of the oak with those of the of being the first Englishman whose eyes had rested on the poplar, the willow, or the cedar. The disposition of the oak, in broad expanse of the lake which is perhaps the largest, though a general way, is to send out its branches at right angles with not the only lake that helps to swell the waters of the Nile. the parent stem from which they spring (Fig. 98); the poplar

In 1860-63 Captain Speke, accompanied by a brother officer, collects its branches closer together, and lifts them upwards Captain Grant, travelled along the northern coast of the lake parallel with the main trunk ; the willow droops; and the cedar Victoria Nyanza and countries in its vicinity, and found a large spreads out its branches horizontally. In short, each tree has its stream, now known as the river Somerset, issuing from the lake own marked characteristics in its ramifications, and is worthy at s point situated nearly in the middle of the north coast, and of as much attention and study in winter as when covered with inling at a short distance from its point of exit from the lako its fresh summer leaves. To draw a tree successfully we must che a broad ledge of rocks, forming a cataract which has been divide our attention between two important considerations. named Ripon Falls. Had the travellers been able to trace the First, the trunk and its branches ; second, the foliage. We Superset northwards through the whole length of its course, repeat, that the first lesson to be received from nature is at the they would have found that it was only a head-stream of the time when the branches are totally bare of leaves, as then we Sle, and not the Nile itself ; and they would have discovered can study to vory great advantage the dispositions of the the Albert Nyanza, the lake from which the Nile really issues, trunk and boughs of every kind of tree separately, which, as we aboat forty miles northward of the point where the Somerset have remarked, may be called the skeleton framework of the enters the lake. Satisfied, however, that the sources of the tree, and it is evident, therefore, that the disposition of the Ale were discovered, they quitted the course of the river and foliage very materially depends upon the disposition of the proceeded northwards to Gondokoro, where they met Sir Samuel branches. We must now again recommend our pupils to follow and Lady Baker on their way to the south.

out the first instructions we gave respecting the drawing of a It was Sir Samuel Baker who ascertained in 1864 that the line, by first marking in with a point the place where the tree main stream of the Nile issued from the north of Lake Albert rises from the ground; then observe the inclination of the trunk, Nyanza, of which he is the discoverer. Worn out by illness and and place another point at that part of the main trunk from fatigue, ho reached the edge of a precipitous line of cliffs tower- which the first, and in most cases the largest branches start ing above the lake, one bright and beautiful morning, and beheld off; then observe the proportion that the remainder of the its waters spreading before him in every direction, with a back- tree, as a whole, bears to the part already marked in, and with ground of blue mountains in the western distance.

a few additional points determine the general size of the tree impossible," he writes, “ to describe the triumph of that moment, and the space it has to occupy upon the paper ; then return to Here was the reward for all our labour; for the years of tenacity the points which are arranged for the commencement of the with which we had toiled through Africa. England had won the branches from the trunk, and mark in their courses and extent; sources of the Nile!”

join these points by lines, and lastly go through the same proWith a brief mention of Mr. Petherick, who has explored cess with regard to the minor branches. All this is a preparaa considerable part of the country west of the Nile between tion for the completion of the drawing, and for where it will be Gondokoro and the Albert Nyanza; of Dr. Charles Beke, who necessary to follow out the method still furthor for the moro has travelled through Abyssinia ; of Mr. Stanley, who has receding branches; in short, we must allow nothing to pass already been mentioned as the finder of Livingstono, and who unnoticed in the arrangement that has the stamp of individusubsequently started on another expedition to Central Africa ; ality upon it; after this the drawing will prove to be comand of Captain Cameron, who journeyed across Africa during paratively easy. When the places for the trunk, the most pro1875–76, we here close our historical sketch of the progress of minent boughs, and other branches are settled, the attention will geographical discovery from the earliest years to the present only have to be directed to the form that each successive part

presents. We will remind our pupils that there is a good moral maxim which we must follow in arranging the characteristio

parts of a tree, as well as in anything else, as it contains a prin. LESSONS IN DRAWING.-XIII.

ciple applicable to drawing that should not be disregarded : let

each line individually be so placed that it may afford every Ove next subject in these lessons will be the theory and prac. advantage to its neighbour, and not take up the smallest spaco ting of drawing foliage ; by this we do not mean merely the which does not belong to it, or cause an adjoining line to be Leafage of trees, but we include all herbs and plants that enrich pushed out of its proper place, or appear to claim for itself the ground, and add so materially to the effect of a picture by greater consideration than it justly deserves. The next important their variety of form, their colour, and wild luxuriant growth; step towards drawing a tree is the foliage : in this we must bo all combining to mako the meanest subject interesting. It guided principally by the light and shade; when we look at a 18 not in the forest alone that we must look for beauty; a tree, the eye does not rest upon leaves singly, but upon foliage common without a single tree has its charms ; its uncultivated collectively. Tho pupil may have remarked-if not, the obserand undulating surface varied with patches of purple heath, vation we are about to make will induce him to consider itFellow furze, and ferns, its many irregular gravel-pits, over the that when we look at any object, but at trees especially, the eye sides of which grow untrained and uncared-for the bramble, the first rests upon the parts in light. They are the first to attract wild rose, the honeysuckle, the foxglove, with the broad-leaved the eye, and therefore, with regard to trees, it is the branches in durk-plant, will composo a picture in which all lovers of nature light upon which the eyo rests, and it requires an effort to look most delight.

Each season of the year makes its own demands into the shadows; it consequently follows that in drawing a sprog our attention, each brings with it the changes of condi. treo we must be especially careful to distinguish the lights, and tiou to which the vegetable world is subject, so that the mind of course this is done by adding the shadows, but tho shadows

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