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must be made subservient to the lights, that is, they must be worked about the lights in such a way as to relieve them, and throw out their forms clearly. The first practical example we will give is Fig. 98, and relates to the drawing of the trunk and branches. As we have already given the principles which are to guide the pupil in arst arranging the trunk and branches, and afterwards drawing them, we will proceed to the foliage; and hore we advise him to practise many times the examples from Fig. 88 to Fig. 97. The first four are merely masses of foliage, and it will require a considerable amount of repetition to secure a free and flowing manner of accomplishing this first difficulty in drawing foliage. Each example must be done, not by continued lines, but by broken touches, the only way to arrive at that light appearance peculiarly characteristic of foliage. The pencil may be allowed to press a little heavier on the under parts on the opposite side to the light, and it must be held almost perpendioularly, because in that position the pencil can be guided upwards, downwards, or to the right and left with equal ease and freedom; a tolerably soft pencil, say a B, will be the most suitable. To relieve the lights straight lines may be drawn at first, as in Figs. 92, 94, and afterwards the manner of Fig. 96 may be employed for the parts of the tree in shadow; but before attempting Fig. 96 let Fig. 97 be mastered, as the former is but a combination of the latter. Fig. 98 is the same tree as Fig. 99; one represents the branches as in winter, the other when covered with foliage, as in summer; and we advise the pupil to make his drawing of the branches first from Fig. 98, and then arrange the foliage from the other example. We again repeat, all this will require a great deal of patient perseverance, for no one can expect to overcome the difficulties without making many failures; but we particularly recommend the pupil to execute slowly and carefully the first trials, and not on any account to attempt a sleight-of-hand kind of treatment, from a supposition that a rapid movement of the pencil is necessary to accomplish the task.
1. A qui vos sœurs se sont-elles adressées ? 2. Elles se sont adressées à moi. 3. Ne se sont-elles pas trompées Sect. XXXVII. 1]. 4. Elles se sont trompées. 5. Vous êtes-vous 6. Je ne m'en suis pas aperçu. 7. aperçu de votre erreur. 8. Nous nous y Vous êtes-vous ennuyés à la campagne? sommes ennuyés [Sect. XXXVII. 4]. 9. Ces demoiselles se sont-elles ennuyées chez vous? 10. Elles s'y sont ennuyées. 11. De quoi vous êtes-vous servie pour écrire, Mademoiselle? [Sect. XXXVIII. 2.] 12. Je me suis servie d'une plume d'or. 13. Ces écolières ne se sont-elles pas servies de plumes d'acier? 14. Elles se sont servies de plumes d'argent. 15. La Hollandaise s'est-elle assise ? 16. Elle ne s'est point assise. 17. Lui est-il arrivé un malheur ? 18. Il ne lui est rien arrivé, elle ne se porte pas bien. 19. Ne s'est-elle pas donné [§ 135 (1)] de la peine pour rien? 20. Cette soie no s'est-elle pas bien vendue! 1. THE reflective or pronominal verb always takes être as its 21. Elle s'est très-bien vendue. 22. N'a-t-il pas fait beau temps auxiliary [§ 46]. toute la journée ? 23. Non, Monsieur, il a plu, il a neigé et il a grêlé. 24. N'est-il rien arrivé aux deux dames que nous avons vues ce matin ? 25. Non, Madame, il ne leur est rien arrivé. EXERCISE 84.
LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XXV.
SECTION XLIV.-USES OF REFLECTIVE AND UNIPERSONAL
Votre cousin s'est promené,
Nos amis se sont flattés,
Your cousin has taken a walk.
2. Although the past participle of a reflective verb be conjugated with être, it agrees with its direct regimen when that regimen precedes it, and is invariable when the regimen follows it. The student should be careful to see if the reflective pronoun be a direct or an indirect regimen [§ 135]. Vous vous êtes flattées, Mesde
Elles se sont donné la main,
You have flattered yourselves, young
They have given (to) each other the
1. Has it rained to-day? 2. It has not rained, but it has hailed and snowed. 3. Has anything happened to your little boy? 4. Nothing has happened to him, but he is sick to-day. 5. Did your sister sit down at your house? 6. She did not sit down, she was sick. 7. Did that cloth sell well? 8. It sold very well, we have sold it all. 9. Did you perceive your error? 10. We perceived it. 11. Were not your sisters mistaken in this affair? 12. They were not mistaken. 13. Were not your cousins weary of being in the country? 14. They were weary of being at my brother's. 15. What have you used to write silver pen. 17. Have you used my penknife? 18. I have used your exercises? 16. I used a gold pen, and my brother used a it. 19. What has happened to you? 20. Nothing has happened 21. Has your mother been well? 22. She has not been well. 23. Did your brothers apply to their studies at school? 24. They applied to their studies, and have finished their lessons 25. What weather was it this morning? 26. It was very fine weather. 27. Has your sister taken much trouble in this affair?
28. She has taken much trouble for nothing.
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XXIII.
12. THE smallest weight in use is called a grain, and by Act of
its weight increased by 252:458 grains. Of the grains thus | above, many denominations still used in trade, which are derived determined, 7,000 are a pound Avoirdupois, and 5,760 a pound from the names of the casks themselves. Troy. For instance, in measuring wine
13. The derivation of the word Troy is doubtful. One theory is that it comes from the town Troyes, in France, because the pound Troy is said to have been first used there. Another derivation is "Troynovant," the prehistoric name of London; a third derives it from trois (three), because it is the money weight, and that money and money weight have each three denominations -penny, shilling, pound; pennyweight, ounce, pound. Troy weight is used in weighing gold, silver, precious stones, etc., and also in scientific investigations. The fineness of gold-that 13, the ratio of the weight of pure gold in any given mass to the weight of the whole-is generally estimated by the number of carats (about 3 grains) of pure gold contained in 24 carats of the given substance. Standard gold-that is, the gold of our coinage is 22 carats fine." This means that out of 24 carats of sovereign gold 22 are pure gold. Sometimes this is also expressed by saying that standard gold is fine, this being the ratio of the pure to the alloyed metal. Diamonds and other precious stones are weighed by carats.
The following are the different denominations in Troy weight: 24 grains (24 grs.) make 1 pennyweight written 1 dwt.
1 quart 1 gallon
2-shilling piece, or Florin.
2-shilling piece, or Half-crown.
5-shilling piece, or Crown.
Sovereign (the pound piece, equivalent
It has already been explained, under the head of Troy weight (Art. 13), that standard gold (that is, the gold of the coinage) is , or 22 carats fine. Out of a pound Troy are coined 462 sovereigns, so that, by dividing this by 12, we find the price of standard gold per ounce to be £3 17s. 10 d., no charge being made at the Mint for coining gold.
Standard silver is 33 fine, and out of a pound Troy 66 shillings are coined; so that the Mint price of standard silver is 5s. 6d. an ounce. The market price of silver bullion is less than thisgenerally about 5s. 13d. an ounce. The advantage which the Mint thus gains is called seignorage.
In the new bronze coinage 48 pence are coined out of a pound avoirdupois. The bronze consists of 95 parts copper, 4 tin, and 1 zinc.
The standard of our coinage is gold. By this is meant that
For measuring dry goods, such as grain, fruit, etc., we have, any amount of gold coin can be legally paid in liquidation of a further, the following denominations
debt, the creditor being obliged to take it. This is expressed by saying that gold to an unlimited amount is the only legal tender. No one is obliged to take more than 40s. worth of silver, or more than 12d. worth of copper.
Other coins besides the above were formerly in use. guinea (21s.), the half-guinea, the 7-shilling piece, the noble (68. 8d.), mark (13s. 4d.), the pistole (16s. 10d.), moidore (27s.).
18. The circumference of a circle being divided into 360 equal parts, straight lines drawn to the centre will divide the four
the team 2 equal angles. Each of to the 90th part of a right A degree * # 3 mwi written thus-1°. * which is written thus-1'; inex one of which is written 1" (vide pare S66). The arcs of the circle here an angle of 1°, 1', 1" respectively, ★ kanak a minute, and a second respectively. mon magnitude, we must know the size of the ** in th. mak ve lug or page vä7.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XIII.
DERIVATIONS: PREFIXES (continued).
Preter, of Latin origin (præter, against), is found in preternatural, contrary to nature.
Pro, of Latin origin, fore, forward, as in produce (Latin, duco, I lead), to bring forward. Pro appears in proceed (Latin, cedo, I go), in procreate (Latin, creo, I beget), in proffer (Latin, fero, I bear), in prolepsis, an anticipation, etc.
"We have evinced (proved) that the generality of mankind have constantly had a certain prolepsis or anticipation in their minds concerning the actual existence of a God."-Cudworth, "Intellectual System."
Pro becomes in French pour, which again becomes pur, as in purport (Latin, porto, I carry), signification. Purchase is given by Richardson as from a fancied French word, namely, pourchasser; and purchase, he says, means to chase, and so to obtain. Such derivations are enough to bring etymology into disgrace. Purchase is from a low Latin word, perchauchare (per-calcare), which meant to tread over, and to mark out, the limits of a piece of land, the necessary preliminary to the purchase of it. See Ducange on the word, who gives the noun purchacia (purchase), as something acquired. Purchacia is common in old legal documents, and is the origin of the obsolete French word pourchasser (perchauchare), which has nothing whatever to do with chasser, to chase or hunt. Pourchas, in old French, signifies labour, and suggests the derivation which involves labour as the price paid in the acquisition of land, etc. This idea of purchase, as founded on labour, is in unison with the meaning of purchase. Whence it signifies a point for a lever to act upon, or the power which hence ensues, as in these words :
"A politician, to do great things, looks for a power, which our workmen call a purchase; and if he finds that power in politics as in
mechanics, he cannot be at a loss to apply it."-Burke.
Proto, of Greek origin (pwтos, pro'-tos, first), occurs in protomartyr (martyr, a witness), the first witness or martyr: applied to Stephen, in Church history.
"With Hampden, firm assertor of her laws,
And protomartyr in the glorious cause."-Boyse.
Also in prototype. We have already had antitype and archetype: here we have prototype, which means the first or original form
Pseudo, of Greek origin (eudos, su'-dos, a falsehood), signifies what is not genuine, false; as, pseudo-prophet, a false prophet.
"Out of a more tenacious cling to worldly respects, he stands up
for all the rest to justify a long usurpation and convicted pseudepiscopacy
(Greek, NIKоños, a bishop) of prelates."-Milton.
Pusill, of Latin origin, comes from pusillus (little) or pupillus (E.R. pupil), the diminutive form of pusus or pupus, a boy (pupa, a girl), which is the source of our word puppet, in the French ¡oupée, a baby, a doll. Pusill is found in union with animus,
mind, forming pillanimous, small in mind, applied particularly to a want of spirit or courage. Putri, of Latin origin (putris, rotten, E.R. putrid), enters into the composition of a class of words, namely, putrefy (Latin, facio, I make), putrefaction, putrescent, putrescence, etc.
"It is such light as putrefaction breeds
In fly-blown flesh, whereon the maggot feeds,
The stench remains, the lustre dies away."-Couper. Quadr, quadra, of Latin origin (quatuor, four), is found in quadrangle, four-angled; quadruped (Latin, pes, a foot), fourfooted; quadruple (Latin, plica, a fold), fourfold; also quater, as in quaternion (quaternio, the number four), etc.
"Aire and ye elements, the eldest birth
Of Nature's womb, that in quaternion run,
And nourish all things."-Milton, Paradise Lost." The four elements of the ancients were fire, air, earth, and water. "I have chosen to write my poem (annus mirabilis) in quatrains or stanzas of four in alternate rhyme, because I have ever judged them more noble and of greater dignity both for the sound and number than any other verse in use amongst us."-Dryden.
Quinque (quint), Latin, five, occurs in quinquennial (Latin, | annus, a year), happening every five years; in quintessence (Latin, essentia, essence); and in quintuple, fivefold.
"Aristoteles of Stagira hath put down for principles these three, to wit, a certain forme called entelechia, matter, [and] privation: for elements four; and for a fifth, quintessence, the heavenly body which is immutable."-Holland, "Plutarch."
Re (red), of Latin origin, primarily signifies back, backward (and has nothing to do with ere, nor does it mean before, as Richardson states), as return, to turn back; hence opposition, as resist, to stand against; also repetition, as revive, to live again; reform, to make again.
Re, denoting back:
"To desire there were no God, were plainly to unwish their own being, which must needs be annihilated in the subtraction of that essence which substantially supported them, and restrains them from regression into nothing."-Browne, "Vulgar Errors." Re, denoting opposition:
"To this sweet voyce a dainty musique fitted
Its well-tuned strings, and to her notes consorted;
Re, denoting repetition, as in rehearse, recapitulate, remove, etc.:
"The land of silence and of death
Attends my next remove."-Watts.
Re sometimes merely strengthens the word, as in receive, reception (Latin, capio, I take), and recommend (Latin, mando, from manus, a hand; and do, I give).
Rect, of Latin origin (recios, straight), appears in rectify (Latin, facio, I make), to make straight; in rectangular (Latin, angulus, a corner), right-angled; rectilinear (Latin, linea, a line), straightlined; and rectitude, uprightness.
Retro, Latin, backward, as in retrogradation (Latin, gradior, I walk), going backward. It is found, also, in retroactive (Latin, ago, I do, act), acting in a backward direction.
to punish the offences which did not exist at the time they were com "A bill of pains and penalties was introduced, a retroactive statute, mitted."-Gibbon, Memoirs."
Se, of Latin origin, the base of sine, without, denotes separation, apart from, without; as, seclude (Latin, claudo, I shut), to shut out; secede (Latin, I go, yield), to withdraw from; seduce (Latin, duco, I lead), to lead from duty.
"From the fine gold I separate the allay,
And show how hasty writers sometimes stray." Dryden, "Art of Poetry." (annus), occurring every seven years; and in septentrion, the Sept, of Latin origin (septem, seven), appears in septennial seven stars, the Great Bear, Charles's Wain, the north. "Thou art as opposite to every good
As the antipodes are unto us,
"Hen. VI." (Ord pt.)