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must be made subservient to the lights, that is, they must be Votre mère s'est-elle bien portée ? Has your mother been well ?

Vos saurs se sont-elles assises ? worked about the lights in such a way as to relieve them, and

Did your sisters sit down !

Cette marchandise s'est-elle bien Did that merchandise sell wel ? throw out their forms olearly. The first practical example we

vendae ? will give is Fig. 98, and relates to the drawing of the trunk and

Vos enfants ce sont-ils appliqués à Did your children apply to study? branches. As we have already given the principles which are to

l'étude ? guide the pupil in first arranging the trunk and branches, and il s'y sont appliqués.

They applied to it. afterwards drawing them, we will proceed to the foliage ; and Nous nous sommes donné de la We gave (to) ourseives much trouble. here we advise him to practise many times the examples from peine [$ 135 (1)]. Fig. 88 to Fig. 97. The first four are merely masses of foliage, Quel temps a-t-il fait ce matin ? What weather was it this morning and it will require a considerable amount of repetition to secure N'a-t-il pas fait beau temps ? Was it not fine weather ? a free and flowing manner of accomplishing this first difficulty in Quel malheur vous est-il arrivé ? What misfortune has happened to drawing foliage. Each example must be done, not by continued

you? lines, but by broken touches, the only way to arrive at that light Il ne m'est rien arrivé.

Vous est-il arrivé quelque chose ? Has anything happened to you?

Nothing has happened to me. appearance peculiarly characteristic of foliage. The pencil may be allowed to press a little heavier on the under parts on the

VOCABULARY. opposite side to the light, and it must be held almost perpendi- Acier, m., steei. S'ennuy-er, 1, peculiar | Plume, f., pen. onlarly, because in that position the pencil can be guided S'adress-er, 1, reflec- [$ 49], to grow weary. Se port-er, 1, ref., to be upwards, downwards, or to the right and left with equal ease tive, to apply. Erreur, f., error. and freedom; a tolerably soft pencil, say a B, will be the most S'aperc-evoir, 3, ref., to Grêl-er, 1, pec., to hai. Se tromp-er, 1, ref., to suitable. To relieve the lights straight lines may be drawn at S'asse-oir, 3, ir., ref., to Neig-er, 1, pec.,

Hollandais, -e, Dutch. be mistaken.

to sa serv-ir, 2, ir., rof., to first, as in Figs. 92, 94, and afterwards the manner of Fig. 96

sit down. may be employed for the parts of the tree in shadow; but before Beaucoup, adv., much. Peine, f., trouble. Se vend-re, 4, ref., to attempting Fig. 96 let Fig. 97 be mastered, as the former is Canif, m., penknife. Plu, from pleuvoir, but a combination of the latter. Fig. 98 is the same tree as

rained. Fig. 99; one represents the branches as in winter, the other

EXERCISE 83. when covered with foliage, as in summer; and we advise the pupil to make his drawing of the branches first from Fig. 98, and

1. À qui vos svars se sont-elles adressées ? 2. Elles se sont

adressées à moi. then arrange the foliage from the other example.

We again

3. Ne se sont-elles pas trompées Sect. repeat, all this will require a great deal of patient perseverance,

XXXVII. 1]. 4. Elles se sont trompées. 5. Vous êtes-vous

6. Je ne m'en suis pas aperçu. 7. for no one can expect to overcome the difficulties without aperçu de votre erreur.

8. Nous nous y making many failures; but we particularly recommend the pupil Vous êtes-vous ennuyés à la campagne ? to execute slowly and carefully the first trials, and not on any sont-elles ennuyées chez vous ? 10. Elles s'y sont ennuyées.

sommes ennuyés [Sect. XXXVII. 4]. 9. Ces demoiselles se account to attempt a sleight-of-hand kind of treatment, from a supposition that a rapid movement of the pencil is necessary to (Sect. XXXVIII. 2.] 12. Je me suis servie d'une plame d'or

11. De quoi vous êtes-vous servie pour écrire, Mademoiselle? accomplish the task.

13. Ces écolières ne se sont-elles pas servies de plumes d'acier ?

14. Elles se sont servies de plumes d'argent. 15. La Hollan. LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XXV.

daise s'est-elle assise ? 16. Elle ne s'est point assise. 17. Lui

est-il arrivé an malheur ? 18. Il ne lui est rien arrivé, elle ne SECTION XLIV.-USES OF REFLECTIVE AND UNIPERSONAL VERBS (Sect. XXXV.].

so porte pas bien. 19. Ne s'est-elle pas donné ($ 135 (1)] de la

peine pour rien ? 20. Cette soie ne s'est-elle pas bien tendue 1. The reflective or pronominal verb always takes être as its 21. Elle s'est très-bien vendue. 22. N'a-t-il pas fait beau temps auxiliary (8 46).

toute la journée ? 23. Non, Monsieur, il a plu, il a neigé et il a Votre cousin s'est promené,

Your cousin has taken a walk, grêlé. 24. N'est-il rien arrivé aux deux dames que nous avons Nos amis se sont flattés,

Our friends have flattered themselves. vues ce matin ? 25. Non, Madame, il ne leur est rien arrivé. 2. Although the past participle of a reflective verb be conju.

EXERCISE 84. gated with être, it agrees with its direct regimen when that

1. Has it rained to-day? 2. It has not rained, but it has regimen precedes it, and is invariable when the regimen follows hailed and snowed. 3. Has anything happened to your little it. The student should be careful to see if the reflective pronoun boy? 4. Nothing has happened to him, but he is sick to-das. be a direct or an indirect regimen ($ 135].

5. Did your sister sit down at your house ? 6. She did not sit Vous vous êtes flattées, Mesde- You have flattered yourselves, young down, she was sick. 7. Did that cloth sell well? 8. It sold moiselles,

ladies. Elles se sont donné la main, They have given (to) each other the very well, we have sold it all. 9. Did you perceive your error


10. We perceived it. 11. Were not your sisters mistaken in

this affair ? 12. They were not mistaken. 13. Were not your It will be easily perceived that vous in the first sentence is a

cousins weary of being in the country? 14. They were weary direct regimen, and that the word se in the second represents of being at my brother's. 15. What have you used to write an indirect object. 3. Verbs essentially unipersonal, i.e., verbs which cannot be your exercises ? 16. I used a gold pen, and my brother used a

17. Have you used my penknife? 18. I have used conjugated otherwise, take avoir as an auxiliary.

it. 19. What has happened to you ? 20. Nothing has happened Il a plu, il a neigé, il a gelé, It rained, it snowed, it froze. to me.

21. Has your mother been well? 22. She has not been 4. Verbs occasionally unipersonal take être as an auxiliary. well. 23. Did your brothers apply to their studies at school? Il lui est arrivé un malheur, A misfortune has happened to him. 24. They applied to their studies, and have finished their lessons,

25. What weather was it this morning ? 26. It was very fine 5. Faire [4, ir.] used unipersonally, and y avoir, to be there, weather. 27. Has your sister taken much trouble in this affair? take the auxiliary avoir.

28. She has taken much trouble for nothing. 29. Did the A-t-il fait beau temps le mois passé? Was it fine weather last month ?

Dutch ladies walk? 30. They walked this morning. 31. How Y a-t-il eu beaucoup de monde ? Were there many people there !

far did they walk ? 32. They walked as far as your brother's. 6. The past participle of a unipersonal verb is always invari. 33. Have you given each other the hand? 34. We shook hands. able ($ 135 (6)].

35. Those ladies flattered themselves very much. Les pluies qu'il y a eu cet été, The rains which we have had this

silver pen.



LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC,-XXIII. Les Italiennes se sont-elles pro. Did the Italian ladies walk ?

THE MEASURES OF WEIGHT. menées ? Oui, Monsieur, elles se sont pro- Yes, Sir, they have taken a walk.

12. The smallest weight in use is called a grain, and by Act of menées.

Parliament is defined in the following manner :-A vessel, of Nous nous

sommes aperçus de We perceived that, or we took notice which the capacity is a cubic inch, when filled with distilled cele

water at a temperature of 620 (Fahrenheit's thermometer), bus

of that,





12 pence

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ita veight increased by 252.458 grains. Of the grains thus | above, many denominations still used in trade, which are derived
determined, 7,000 are a pound Avoirdupois, and 5,760 a pound from the names of the casks themselves.

For instance, in measuring wine-

31} gallons

make 1 hogshead. 13. The derivation of the word Troy is doubtful. One theory

42 gallons

1 tierce. 2 hogsheads

1 pipe, or butt. is that it comes from the town Troyes, in France, because the

2 pipes

1 tun. pound Troy is said to have been first used there. Another derivation is “ Troynovant," the prehistoric name of London; a Also for spiritsthird derives it from trois (three), because it is the money weight,

10 gallons

make 1 anker. and that money and money weight have each three denominations

18 galloas

1 runlet. --penny, shilling, pound; pennyweight, ounce, pound. Troy

2 tierces (84 gallons), 1 puncheon. weight is used in weighing gold, silver, precious stones, etc.,

And in measuring ale or beerand also in scientific investigations. The fineness of gold—that

9 gallons

make i3, the ratio of the weight of pure gold in any given mass to the

1 firkin. 2 firkins

1 kilderkin. freight of the whole-is generally estimated by the number of

2 kilderkins

1 barrel. carats (about 3. grains) of pure gold contained in 24 carats of the given substance. Standard gold—that is, the gold of our And in dry measure we have alsocoinage--is " 22 carats fine." This means that out of 24 carats

2 quarts

make 1 pottle. of sovereign gold 22 are pure gold. Sometimes this is also


1 strike, expressed by saying that standard gold is fine, this being the

2 strikes

1 coomb.

ombs ratio of the pure to the alloyed metal. Diamonds and other

1 quarter. 5 quarters

1 load. precious stones are weighed by carats.

2 loads

1 last. The following are the different denominations in Troy weight: 24 grains (24 grs.) make 1 pennyweight written 1 dwt.

MONEY-COINAGE. 20 pennyweights 1 ounce 1 oz.

MONEY OF ACCOUNTS. 12 ounces 1 pound 1 lb., or lb.

17. 4 farthings make 1 penny written id. APOTHECARIES WEIGHT.

1 shilling

Is. 14. The weights used by apothecaries are aliquot parts of the

20 shillings
1 pound

£1. pound Troy, and are as follow :

A farthing is indicated either as a fractional part of a penny 20 grains (grs.) make 1 scruple, written 1 ».

-thus, d.-or by the letter “q”—thus, 1q.
3 scruples

1 dram
1 3.

The symbols £, s, d, q, are the initials of the Latin words 8 drams

1 ounce

Libra, solidus, denarius, quadrans.
12 ounces

1 pound
1 lb.

These are the subdivisions of money in which accounts are

always kept. Besides these, however, we have several coins 1 minim written mj.

representing other subdivisions, which are used to facilitate 60 minims make 1 fluid dram


traffic. From this they are called current coins. The following 8 drams 1 fluid ounce


is a list of our 20 ounces 1 pint (octavus)


CURRENT COINS. 8 pints 1 gallon (congius)

cong. j.

A Farthing. This is calculated for pure water. Hence in avoirdupois

Copper A Halfpenny. weight),

A Penny.
A pint of pure water

Threepenny piece.
Weighs a pound and a quarter."

Fourpenny piece.


Silver Shilling. 15. The pound avoirdupois contains 7,000 grains, and a cubic

2-shilling piece, or Florin. foot of distilled water, 62° Fahrenheit, weighs 62.321 pounds

2, -shilling piece, or Half-crown. avoirdupois very nearly.

5-shilling piece, or Crown.

Half-Sovereign. The following are the subdivisions :

Gold Sovereign (the pound piece, equivalent 16 drams make 1 ounce written 1 oz.

to 20 shillings). 1 pound

1 lb. 98 lbs. 1 quarter

It has already been explained, under the head of Troy weight 4 grs. (112 pounds) 1 hundred weight

1 cwt. (Art. 13), that standard gold (that is, the gold of the coinage) is 2) cwt. 1 ton

1 ton.

1, or 22 carats fine. Out of a pound Troy are coined 4678 soveA stone is the name given to the weight of 14 pounds. reigns, so that, by dividing this by 12, we find the price of À sack of coals is 2 cwt.

standard gold per ounce to be £3 178. 10$d., no charge being A ton of shipping is 42 cubic feet.

made at the Mint for coining gold. A load of rough timber is 40 cubic feet.

Standard silver is fine, and out of a pound Troy 66 shillings A load of squared timber is 50 cubi fed

are coined; so that the Mint price of standard silver is 58. 6d. IMPERIAL LIQUID AND DRY MEASURE.

an ounce. The market price of silver bullion is less than this— 16. The gallon contains 277-274 cubic inches, and contains generally about 5s. 13d. an ounce. The advantage which the 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water at a temperature of 62° Mint thus gains is called seignorage. Fahrenheit.

In the new bronze coinage 48 pence are coined out of a pound 4 gills make 1 pint written 1 pt.

avoirdupois. The bronze consists of 95 parts copper, 4 tin, and 2 pints 1 quart


1 zinc. 4 quarts 1 gallon

1 gal.

The standard of our coinage is gold. By this is meant that For measuring dry goods, such as grain, fruit, etc., we have, any amount of gold coin can be legally paid in liquidation of a further, the following denominations :

debt, the creditor being obliged to take it. This is expressed 2 gallons make 1 peck written 1 pk,

by saying that gold to an unlimited amount is the only legal 4 pecks (8 gallons) 1 bushel

1 bu.

tender. No one is obliged to take more than 40s. worth of 8 bushels 1 quarter

silver, or more than 12d. worth of copper. In measuring liquids, the gallon is the largest measure recog

Other coins besides the above were formerly in use. The nised by legal enactment. There are, however, besides the guinea (21s.), the half-guinea, the 7-shilling piece, the noble

(6s. 8d.), mark (13s. 4d.), the pistole (16s. 10d.), moidore (27s.). * In scientific calculations and measurements, a decimal system is

ANGULAR MEASURE. most generally now used, as being much more convenient. † The weight used for weighing heavy goods, goods of weight

18. The circumference of a circle being divided into 360 equal (300ir du poids).

parts, straight lines drawn to the centre will divide the four

16 oz.

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right angles at the centre into 360 equal angles. Each of mind, forming pullanimous, small in mind, applied partieularly these subdivisions, therefore, is equal to the 90th part of a right to a want of spirit or courage. angle. It is called a degree, and written thus-1o. A degree Putri, of Latin origin (putris, rotten, E.R. putrid), enters into is divided into 60 minutes, one of which is written thus--1'; the composition of a class of words, namely, putrefy (Latin, facio, each minute into 60 seconds, one of which is written 1" (vide I make), putrefaction, putrescent, putrescence, etc. Art. 3, “Division of Time,” page 366). The arcs of the circle

"It is such light as putrefaction breeds which subtend at the centre an angle of 1°, 1', 1" respectively,

In fly-blown flesh, whereon the maggot feeds, are also called a degree, a minute, and a second respectively.

Sbines in the dark, but ushered into day, To know their actual magnitude, we must know the size of the

The stench remains, the lustre dies away."-Couper. circle (see Note on page 367.

Quadr, quadra, of Latin origin (quatuor, four), is found in MISCELLANEOUS TABLE.

quadrangle, four-angled ; quadraped (Latin, pes, a foot), four19. 12 units are called i dozen (doz.).

footed ; quadruple (Latin, plica, a fold), fourfold; also quater, 12 dozens

1 gross.

as in quaternion (quaternio, the num? er four), etc.
20 units
1 score.

“ Aire and ye elements, the eldest birth
24 sheets of paper
1 quire.

Of Nature's womb, that in quaternion run,
20 quires
1 ream.

Perpetual circle, multiform; and mix
2 reams
1 bundle.

And nourish all things."-Milton, “ Paradise Lost." 5 bundles

1 bale. A sheet folded in two leaves forms a folio.

The four elements of the ancients were fire, air, earth, and water. four quarto (4to).

"I have chosen to write my poem (annus mirabüis) in quatrains er eight octavo (8vo).

stanzas of four in alternate rhyme, because I have ever judged the twelve

duodecimo (12mo). more noble and of greater dignity both for the sound and number the eighteen

eighteen-mo (18mo). any other verse in use amongst us."-Dryden.
thirty-six-mo (36mo).

Quinque (quint), Latin, five, occurs in quinquennial (Les annus, a year), happening every five years; in quintessence (latz,

essentia, essence); and in quintuple, fivefold. LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XIII.

“ Aristoteles of Stagira hath put down for principles these three, to DERIVATIONS: PREFIXES (continued).

wit, a certain forme called entelechia, matter, [and] privation : forest Preter, of Latin origin (præter, against), is found in preter- ments four; and for a fifth, quintessence, the heavenly body which is

immutable."--Holland, “Plutarch." natural, contrary to nature.

Pro, of Latin origin, fore, forward, as in produce (Latin, duco, Re (red), of Latin origin, primarily signifies back, backwand I lead), to bring forward. Pro appears in proceed (Latin, cedo, (and has nothing to do with ere, nor does it mean before, a I go), in procreate (Latin, creo, I beget), in proffer (Latin, fero, Richardson states), as return, to turn back; hence opposition, I bear), in prolepsis, an anticipation, etc.

resist, to stand against; also repetition, as revive, to live aguis, “We have evinced (proved) that the generality of mankind have reform, to make again. constantly had a certain prolepsis or anticipation in their minds Re, denoting back :concerning the actual existence of a God."-Cudworth, Intellectual

“ To desire there were no God, were plainly to unwish their om System."

being, which must needs be annihilated in the subtraction of the Pro becomes in French pour, which again becomes pur, as in essence which substantially supported them, and restrains them trea purport (Latin, porto, I carry), signification. Purchase is given regression into nothing."-Browne, "Vulgar Errors." by Richardson as from a fancied French word, namely, pour- Re, denoting opposition :chasser ; and purchase, he says, means to chase, and so to obtain.

To this sweet voyce a dainty musique fitted Such derivations are enough to bring etymology into disgrace.

Its well-tuned strings, and to her notes consorted; Purchase is from a low Latin word, perchauchare (per-calcare), And while with skilful voice the song she dittied, which meant to tread over, and to mark out, the limits of a piece

The babbling echo had her words retorted." --Spenst. of land, the necessary preliminary to the purchase of it. See Ducange on the word, who gives the noun purchacia (purchase),

Re, denoting repetition, as in rehearse, recapitulate, remote

etc.:as something acquired. Purchacia is common in old legal docu

" The land of silence and of death ments, and is the origin of the obsolete French word pourchasser

Attends my next remove."--Watts. (perchauchare), which has nothing whatever to do with chasser, to chase or hunt. Pourchas, in old French, signifies labour, and

Re sometimes merely strengthens the word, as in receive, recep suggests the derivation which involves labour as the price paid tion (Latin, capio, I take), and recommend (Latin, mando, in in the acquisition of land, etc. This idea of purchase, as founded manus, a hand ; and do, I give). on labour, is in unison with the meaning of purchase. Whence

Rect, of Latin origin (recizs, straight), appears in rectify (Latie it signifies a point for a lever to act upon, or the power which facio, I make), to make straight; in rectangular (Latin, angulos hence ensues, as in these words :

a corner), right-angled ; rectilinear (Latin, linea, a line), straigh

lined; and rectitude, uprightness. A politician, to do great things, looks for a power, which our workmen call a purchase; and if he finds that power in politics as in walk), going backward. It is found, also, in retroactive (Lati

Retro, Latin, backward, as in retrogradation (Latin, gradior, mechanics, he cannot be at a loss to apply it.”Burke.

ago, I do, act), acting in a backward direction. Proto, of Greek origin (TPWtos, pro'-tos, first), occurs in proto. martyr (martyr, a witness), the first witness or martyr: applied to punish the offences which did not exist at the time they were cre

“A bill of pains and penalties was introduced, a retroactive statet to Stephen, in Church history.

mitted."--Gibbon, " Memoirs."
“ With Hampden, firm assertor of her laws,
And protomartyr in the glorious cause."Boyse.

Se, of Latin origin, the base of sine, without, denotes span

tion, apart from, without; as, seclude (Latin, clando, I s Also in prototype. We have already had antitype and archetype: to shut out ; secedo (Latin, I go, yield), to withdraw from ; sedan here we have prototype, which means the first or original form (Latin, duco, I lead), to lead from duty. or model. Pseudo, of Greek origin (yevdos, su'-dos, a falsehood), signifies

"From the fine gold I separate the allay,

And show how hasty writers sometimes stray." what is not genuine, false ; as, pseudo-prophet, a false prophet.

Dryden, " Art of Poetry “Out of a more tenacious cling to worldly respects, he stands up for all the rest to justify a long usurpation and convicted pseudepiscopacy (annus), occurring every seven years ; and in septentris,

Sept, of Latin origin (septem, seren), appears in septena (Greek, €T10KOROS, a bishop) of prelates.”-Milton.

seven stars, the Great Bear, Charles's Wain, the north. Pusill, of Latin origin, comes from pusillus (little) or pupillus

“ Thou art as opposite to every good (E.R. pupil), the diminutive form of pusus or pupus, a boy (pupa,

As the antipodes are unto us, a girl), which is the source of our word puppet, in the French

Or as the South to the Septentrion." Joupée, a baby, a doll. Pusill is found in union with anjinus,

Shakespeare, Hen. TI." Arpel

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