Imágenes de páginas


Vern, rule.

The apple tribe (sub-order Pomec) is thus seen to be nearly 4. Several words, as boch, ja, schon, vielleicht, wohl, and zwar, etc., allied to the roses proper ; the almond tribe (sub-ordez Amygda- are often used with a signification different from their primary lea), containing almonds, peaches, apricots, nectarines, plums, one, or where no corresponding ono is employed in English, etc., is still more nearly allied, however little one might antici. as :-Sind Sie vielleicht frank? are you (perhaps) sick ? Werten pate such resemblance from a casual examination of the fruit. Sie wohl morgen ebreijen? is it true, shall you depart to-morrow? The reader will remember that in the sub-order Pomeæ, the Er wird uns ihon anten, he will already (doubtless) find us. Wenn ovary, or lower portion of the united carpels, is inferior; that is er frant ist, so fann er nicht kommen, if he is sick, (then) he cannot to say, the calyx grows around it, adheres to it, and appears

Er liest nicht, und zwar, weil er fein Buch hat, he does not abovo it. In the rose proper no such adherence takes place; read, (and indeed) because he has no book. Gehen Sie ja nidyt, do hence the ovary may be said to be superior ; in Amygdalee, or not go by any means. Es dürfte (see note) wohl so kommen, it the sub-order of Rosaceæ, containing almonds, plums, nectarines, might indeed so happen (come). Wollen Sie schon gehen? are yon etc., the ovary is also superior ; hence the truth of our remark, going already? Jawohl, yes (certainly); or, yes, indeed. Id that this sub-order was more nearly allied to roses proper than glaubte, er könnte uns schon heute besuchen, I thought he could (already) is the sub-order Pomeæ. If the flowers of peaches, plums, visit us to-day. Er glaubte, er könnte sich wohl jept an ihm rächen, he nectarines, etc., be examined, they will be found to be made up thought he could now (indeed) avenge himself upon him. of a corolla of five petals, a calyx of five sepals, and numerous 5. The causative advorbs, deßhalb or teswegen (therefore), dadurd stamens arising from the sides of the calyx; these are all (thereby), etc., are frequently introduced into a leading sentence, characteristics of the rose tribe. Instead, however, of many where the corresponding English word is omitted, as :-Gr ift carpels, like the roses proper, the members of the almond tribe tepbalb unzufrieden, weil sein Freund nicht hier ist, he is (therefore) dishave each only one, which ripens into the sort of fruit termed contented because his friend is not here. by botanical writers a drupe, a term which has been fully ex- 6. Squlrig with sein signifies " to be indebted, to owe;" the plained. For another specimen of the rose tribe we refer the word denoting the amount being put in the accusative (§ 132.3), reader to Fig. 131.

as :-r ist mir nur einen Gulden schuldig, he owes me but one florin. Let us now examine the chemical and physiological character. Verdanken also signifies “to owe,” but only in the sense of "to istics of the Rosacea. The sub-order Roseæ, containing the roses be obliged for, to ascribe to," as :-Ich verdanke meine Gencjung tet proper, does not include one noxious plant. On the contrary, reinen Luft der Schweiz, I owe my recorery to the pure air of Switthe strawberry yields us a delightful article of food, and the zerland. fruit of some species of rose is made into conserves. The leaves

VOCABULARY. of this sub-order are usually astringent, and so in like manner are the petals ; those of the garden roses are frequently used by Ausführen, to carry

Abʻgeben, to deliver. Führen, to conduct, , Sicher, safe, safely.


Stand, m. position (3). medical men for the preparation of astringent draughts. Need

out. we call attention to the fragrance of roses ? That fragrance Vesehl', m. command.

Ge'genstand, m. sub- Studi'ren, to study. ject.

Uebersek'en, to trans. depends on the presence of a volatile oil, which admits of being Beherr'schen, to go. Gern, willingly (1). late. extracted from the flower petals. It constitutes the otto or

Grund, m. ground. Ungern, unwillingly. attar of roses. The sub-order Pomeæ is also harmless, if we except the seeds Erfahrung, f. experi. Lei denschaft, f. pas

Eduart, m. Edward. Neilen, to heal. Unnüt, useless, fruit

less, and flowers of certain species which contain a minute amount

ence, knowledge. sion.

Vollen ben, to finish, of prussic acid; not sufficient, however, to be injurious. The Erfla'rung, f. expla- leihen, to lend.

complete. fleshy part of pomaceous fruits is frequently an agreeable article


Nachen, m. boat, skiff. Vorschlag, m. proposal. of food, containing much sugar in the sweet varieties, and various

Fähig, able.
Nöthig, necessary.

Warm, warm. In the sub-crder Fami'lic, f. family. acids, of which the malic is the principal.

Nun, now.

Wunde, f. wound. Amygdaleæ (Figs. 132 and 133), the amount of prussic acid, Folgen, to follow. Raul, rough. Zeichnung, f. drawing. which becomes accumulated for the most part in the leaves, petals, and seeds, is often very great; nevertheless, the poisonous

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. principle rarely extends to the fleshy pericarp or edible portion Er kommt nicht, und zwar, weil er He does not come (and indeed) of the fruit. The seeds of the bitter almond, and the leaves of

krant ist.

because he is sick. the common cherry laurel, furnish examples of a great accu- Mein Ontel Fiidit und mein Neffe My uncle is fond of fishing, and mulation of prussic acid in certain members of this beautiful

jagt gern.

my nephew of hunting. sub-order, which is also further distinguished from Roseæ and Id mišite gern wissen, wie vie Uhr I would like to know what Pomcæ by yielding gum, which the two latter never do.

c$ ift.

o'clock it is. Other plants belonging to the order Rosaceæ are represented Freibeit, Verech'tigfeit, und Wahr. Liberty, righteousness, and by Figs. 134 and 135.

heit sollten alle Menschen gern truth all men should love.

baben. LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXIII. Wieviel' bin ich Ihnen schuldig ?

How much do I owe you


Gr vertanft' fein geben der Schnel'. He owes his life to the fleetness ligkeit seines Pfertes.

of his horse. 1. Vern, gladly, freely, fain, etc. (comparative lieber, rather ; Es ist Niemand im Stande, tie There is no one able to prede§ 106. 1), with an appropriate verb, forms the equivalent of our

Dauer feines Lebens voraus zu termine the duration of his phrase, “ to be fond of, to like,” etc., as :-&r trinft gern Wein,


life. he is fond of (drinking) wine. Er raucht gern, he is fond of Wohl läßt der Pfeil sich aus dem The arrow may indeed be drawn smoking; or, he likes to smoke. Er trägt gern schöne Kleider, he Herzen zichen, doch nie wird der out of the heart, yet the inlikes (to wear) fine clothes. Ich möchte* gern wissen, ob mein Freund

Berles'te mchr gesun'den.

jured (one) will never recover. noch lebt, I would fain know whether my friend is still living. Wohl besfre Männer thun's dem Better men 'do it not after the Ich möchte lieber gehen, als bleiben, I would rather go than stay.

Tell nicht nach. (Schiller.) manner of Tell (as Tell did). With haben it may often be rendered by “ dear," as :-- Ich habe

(Schiller.) meine Freunde gern, I hold (have) my friends “ dear."

Fwar ein gutes Jaßt, der Bauer It has been a good year; the 2. Nöthig haben signifios “to need, to have need of,” as:- :- Haben

fann schon wiet er geben. (Smil. peasant can even (now) gire Sie dieses Buch nöthig? do you need (have you need of) this book ?

ler )

again. (Schiller.) Gr hat Geld nöthig, he needs money; 01, has need of money.

EXERCISE 82. 3. Im Stante sein signifies “to be able ;” literally, “ to be in the position or situation,” as :-Sind Sie im Stande, zu schreiben? 1. Sehen Sie meinen Schwager gern? 2. Ja, ich sehe ihn gern. 3. are you able to write ? In this construction the verb dependent Der Oheim midyte gern Eure Zeichnungen sehen. 4. Idy babe gern Greunte upon im Staude sein is often omitted, and the pronoun es is intro- in meiner Nähe. 5. In meiner Jugend studirte ich sebr gern, aber tun duced (Sect. XXXV. 6), as :--Ich bin es nicht im Stande, I am not thue ich es ungern. 6. Er spricht gern von seinen Meisen und feinen Grabable.

rungen. 7. Wenn Sie die Vücher nöthig haben, so leibe ich Ihnen ticeiben

von Herzen gern. 8. Gr trennt sich ungern von seiner Familie. 9. Só * For conjugation of dürfen, fönnen, mögen, etc., in the subjunctive, habe gern ein warmes Zimmer. 10. Könnt ihr uns richer über diesen see 83 (2). See also remarks connected with these configations. Strom fahren? 11. Nein, wir sind es nicht im Stantc, denn dicici



Naden ist zu klein 12. Wenn sie fähig fins, tice Zeitungen zu übersepen,

EXERCISE 84. sc thun Sie es

13. Da ich vie englische Sprache rolliommen verstehe, to 1. Ich hatte mir den manden Bertru cripcrt, irenn ich, ftatt 311 will ich gern Ihren Vorschlag annehmen. 14. Wenn er fähig ist, die witersprechen, geichwiegen hatte. 2. Ich möchte ipiffen, was Sie gethan Arbeit gut zu machen, so soll er zu mir kommen; ist er Ris aber nicht in hätten, wenn Sie an meiner Stelle gewesen wären. 3. Wenn tas Smidsal Stante, so wäre es unnüt. 15. Gr glaubte nicht, daß ich) im Stante sein mich nicht heimgesudyt väite, nurte ich id werlid) zu tiefen Ansichten gefom. finnte, all seine Befeb!e auszuführen. 16. Wenn tu teine Leidenschaften men sein. 4. Gr hütte glüdlich sein künnen, irenn er die Gelegenheit zu ganz zu belvertsdcx weißt, so bist du zu beneicon. 17. Mein Freund benutzen verstanden hätte. 5. Håtte tas Wajjer tie Brüd: mit surtocrisien, Eruarb mar so schrach, daß er nid)t im Stande war, allein zu geben, und in wārz der Zöllner verloren gencsen. 6. Bitte ich zu Di: fummu tinnen, e bat mich beßwegen, daß ich ihn führen michte. 18. Er glaubie, tak so würte ich gerviß nicht hier geblieben sein. 7. Go wirten nie große Murmand im Stante sein könne, auf diesem rauhen Papiere zu schreiben. Männer aufgetreten sein, wenn sie sich turdy Schwierigkeiten und 1:innehm19. Er hatte gestern Geld nöthig, rebbalb bat er mich, daß ich ihm welches lichkeiten hatten aufhalten lassen. 8. Wenn id; tas hätte crreichen wollen, geben mödte. 20. Er ist mir zwar schon einige Thaler schulrig, aber da er was id) wünschte, so hätte ich fleißiger und anhaltenter arbeiten mitjen. 9. Edo nöthig þatte, so gab ich ilm weldes. 21. 6: ist Niemand im Stante Wenn er gerufen hätte, würte ich ihn gehört maten. 10. Wir wollca aus zu sehen, weil es zu stark regnet. 22. Er wird bald im Stante sein, nicht ausgehen ; es möchte regnen. 11. Wenn Sie mit etwas Nil;cree jein Werf zu vollenden. 23. Gr fann sein Wort nicht halten, und zwar über tiese Angelegenheiten mittheilen wollten, so würten Sie mich rets & folgenden Gründen.

pflichten. 12. 63 wire meine größte Freude, alle Menschen glüdlich

) zu EXERCISE 83.

fchen. 13. Ich hatte ohne Verstand sein müssen, Bonn ich mich auf 1. If he had not been able to perform the work, he would not in tcr Jerne ; o wie gerne wär, ich noch im Bater1.18 !

riese Sache hätte einlassen wollen. 14. Verschwunden ist vor Strant

15. Wenn er hare undertaken it. 2. Will he be able to fulfil his promise ? wäre, wie ich ihn wünsájc, und wenn er allen meinen Anferterungen ents 3. He has not been able. 4. We ought not to promiso more

sprochen hätte, so würde ich ihn behalten haben. than we are able to perform. 5. Are you able to deliver a

EXERCISE 85. better explanation upon this subject? 6. I am indeed able, but I have no time now. 7. Does the boy go for my stick freely ?

1. Had your friend not become ill, he would certainly have 8. li ho goes, (then) he does it unwillingly; I would rather go embellished the feast by his presence. 2. If you were more pru. myself. 9. Do you like to see your relations ? 10. Yes, I do dent you would not have met with this inconvenience. 3. I lko to see them. 11. When you have need of those books, then would have settled your business if you had mentioned it to me. I will lend you them freely. 12. He needed money yesterday, 4. His brother would have been better received if he had had therefore he desired me that I would give him some. 13. There- letters of recommendation. 5. He would have better friends if fore, it is useless to ask for more, when you already owe so he were more agreeablo. 6. You would havo had more difficul. much. 14. Who would not freely heal the wounds of a wounded ties if you had not followed the advice of your friends. 7. I beart!

should not have the least doubt that you would have succeeded SECTION XLIV.-CONDITIONAL MOOD.

if you had acted more prudently. 8. We should set sail for

Holland if we had a fair wind. 9. Ho would be the first among The conditional mood is used, where a condition is supposed

our merchants if he were more sociable. 10. If I had had tho which may or may not be possible. It is also sometimes used power, I should have acted in another menner, because I should in exclamation and interrogation, as :- - Wenn sie noch lebte, wäre

not have had so much patience. 11. What would be the ich glüdlich, if she were still living, I should be happy. Ich hatte felicity of man if he alwnys sought his happiness in himself? tie Sache anders gemacht, I should have arranged the matter dif. 12. You would be richer if you wero more enterprising. 13. If ferently. Wäre er doch noch am Leben! oh, that he were still alive! I had not lost my purse I should still have it. 14. He would Wäre es möglich, Vater? could it be possible, father? (See § 144.)

not have so much money if he had been idle. 15. The greater VOCABULARY.

the difficulty, the greater pleasure there is in overcoming it.

16. If he had not crossed the bridge, the toll-gatherer would In fetderung, f. clain Grīva'ron, to spare, Sawie'rigteit, f. diffi.

not have demanded payment. demand, avoid, save.

culty. Un'gclegenbeit f. trans- Ferne, f. distance. i Strant m. strand, action, affair. Fest, n, feast.


LESSONS IN MUSIC.-VII. Inhaltend, persever. Fort'reißen, to carry' Un'annelzinlichkeit f.dis. ing, continual. (tear) away.

agreeableness. EVERY art is best taught individually. It is irue that there An'idt, f. view, opi. Gegenwart, f. pre. Berrrug', m. vexation. are some advantages to the singer in collective teaching. The nion.

Bersdoʻnern, to " sympathy of numbers ” both aids and encourages him. But Cuftreten, to step Seim suchen, to visit. bellish, improve. his progress will depend entirely on individual attention and

Hier'bleiben, to remain Verpflich'ten, to oblige. endeavour. In most classes tho jew mako progress and lead, Resal'ten, to keep, re- here.

Verschwin'ten, to va- while the manysome from timidity, and others from idleness tain. Mit'tbeilen, to impart, nish.

and inattention-hang upon the leaders, and soon begin to clog Bride f. bridge.

communicate. Widersprechen, to con- their movements. As, however, singing for schools and conGir tasien, to engage. Schweigen, to bo tradict.

gregations must be gercrally taught in classes, the object of Entirre'den, to


Zöllner, m. toll-ga- the teacher must be to combine the spirit and sympathy of Sdwerlich, hardly. therer.

numbers with as careful an attention to individual progress as

possible. He should also occasionally separate the laggers RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

from the more forward, and (without blaming or discouraging Ich würde das Buch noch haben, I should still havo tho book if them) cause them to retrace their steps and go by themselves, wenn ich es nicht verloʻren hätte.

I had not lost it.

while the others are advancing freely and rapidly in a new class. Tu würtest ießt Freude empfinden, Thou wouldst now feel plea- For theso purposes, the pupil should be led to expect a rigid

twenn Du deine Schuldigfeit sure if thou hadst done thy personal examination at tho close of each stage of progress, and gethan' hätteft


a division of the class as the result. Several lesson lours should 6: mürbe bei'sere Freunde haben, He would have better friends be devoted to this examination. It might be conducted in a wenn er auf'richtiger wäre.

if he were more sincere. separate room, while the rest of the class are practising. In Wir würten Geld haben, wenn wir We should have money if we adult classes, most of the questions might bo announced to the ipat samer wären.

were more economical. class, and the answer given in writing at the time, and they Jór würtet Trauerftatt Freude You would have sorrow, instead would only require separate examination in connection with the

Laben, wenn das Kind gestor'ben of joy, if the child had died. exercises. The examiner would then decide by tho rosult of wire.

the two examinations. A register of each examination should Sie würten Flüger þanteln, wenn sie "They would act more prudently be kept by the teacher, and a memorial of it given to the pupil. mehr Versland' hätten.

if they had more understand. To aid both the self-teacher and the class-teacher, the folloving ing.

questions and tests of progress are given :---Let no one consider Er würde ein großes Vermögen be. He would possess a large for himself worthy to pursue the course further until he has thofigen, wenn er weniger träge tune if he had been less roughly fulfilled these requirements. Things to be done are gewesen wäre.


marked by an asterisk. These especially must not be omitted.

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QUESTIONS AND TESTS OF PROGRESS ON THE “ FIRST belongs to a note placed alone immediately after an accent STAGE."

mark? What is the meaning of the horizontal stroke?-the

dot after a note ?--the comma ?-the dot and comma 2-the [The questions are to be answered from book over and over again inverted comma? What means an empty aliquot ? until they can be also answered from memory.]

8. How do you indicate a slur ? LESSON 1 (page 27).

9. Explain the meaning of the following signs :-D.C., D.s., 8., 1. What were tho reasons that encouragod “our friend” to F., f., p., 8., PP., <, >, and / or over a note. think that he had a voice ? What kind of road to music do 10. How would you indicate “expression in writing or to offer? What aro the conditions of admission to it?

printing words ?-loud ?—soft ?-abrupt ? 2. What is the difference between high and low in music?

11. Take a book of hymns or songs, and mark ten pieces for 3. What must be chosen and fixed before the notes which expression. (This is a really important and useful exercise of may be introduced into a tune are distinctly ascertained ? What judgment and taste.] is this arrangement of notes called, and by what primary laws is

12. What are the vibrations of the TENOR. C- the standard t regulated ? On what grounds do we call it the scale of :]] note of pitch ? Draw a diagram of the standard scale. What mations and of all times ?

is meant by G sharp ? B flat ? 4. What is a musical interval? Is it a distance in time? in * 13. Pitch the key.note A-6-F-E-D, and take the chord

in cach case. spaco ? in what? * 5. Draw from memory a diagram of the scale, with the sol-fa

LESSON 6 (page 339). fyllable to represent the notes, marking carefully the two shorter * 1. Point on the modulator by memory, and afterwards sing distances.

So words the trine GRIFFIN. 6. What is the general character of the 1st, 3rd, and 5th of 2. What is the difference between the sound of the voice in the scale? How is the voice tuned ?

speaking and in singing? What is a sound of the singing voice *7. Sol-fa and point on the diagram, from memory, Exercises called ? -- of the speaking voice ? 1, 2, 3, 4.

3. What is the best posture for the singer in reference to his LESSON 2 (page 90).

hcad ?--shoulders ?-chest ?---mouth P-tongue ?-lips ? 1. Give an account of the first experiments on the sounds of 4. What is the first daily practice for opening and strengtha single string. What note does half a string give —two- ening the lungs? How should the chord and scale be surg, thirds P--three-fourths ?--four-fifths 2-etc.

and with what two peculiar observances, in this daily practice 2. Describe the “syren.” What is the relation of a noto's 5. What three faults should be especially avoided by tee length of string to its vibrations ?

singer? 3. What is the smallest perfect measurement of the scale 6. What habit, in reference to loudness and softness of voice, in plain figures, and according to that how many degrees belong should be carefully formed ? to the great tone ?-small tone Potonnle?

7. In what respects would you alter your phraseology and 4. What is an “ octave" note or “replicate?”

mode of illustration if you had to set the facts and principles of * 5. Sol-fa and point on the diagram of the scale, from memory, this first “stage” of our course before the minds of the young, Exercises 5, 6, 7, 8. LESSON 3 (page 145).

or persons dull of comprehension ? (It will be a good exercise

of mind for you to answer this question. It will be better still * 1. Explain the two sets of tetrachords. Arrange them by for you to do so practically. Teach what you know. There is memory, taking coins to represent your notes.

no better way of perfecting your knowledge.] 2. By what intervals are tho tonules of the scale always sepa- 8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of class rated from one another ? Show this by drawing a circular dia. teaching? Show the importance of personal effort and exami. gram.

nation. *3. Draw a modulator from menory. (Notice that the right

*9. Sing a high note with the low larynx,-a low note with haud column takes its dou from the level of son, the left from the high larynx. FAH.)

* 10. Sing (taking a very low note for doU) DOU, ME, SOR, 4. Explain fully the three great advantages of the modulator, Don', ME', and if you can without straining the voice, sog'its picture of interval; its mnemonic (or memory-helping) holding each note with a long and steady breath. [You shond power; and its aid to the pattern.

be more anxious about the chord than the scale in the present 5. What is the effect of a “mental modulator” on the hori- stage of your course; for you may not yet have got all the zontal line of notes ?

notes of the scale quite perfectly in tune.) 6. Give three reasons for Icarning an “interpreting notation" *11. Repeat slowly and very distinctly (with good use of of music in connection with the other.

tongue, lips, and teeth), and in one breath, “How doth the little 7. What is accent ? How many sorts of accent are there ? busy bee improve each shining hour." Take two more lines in 8. What is a measure?-an aliquot ?

another breath, and so on. 9. What is the structure of the BINARY MEASURE, and what * 12. Point and sing the tune LEYBURN from memory on the is its character ? TRINARY ? QUATERNARY ? SENARY?

produlator. 10. Give Dr. Bryce's views of the origin of our sense of Rhythm, and its connection with the heart and lungs ?


SECTION XLV.-THE PASSIVE VERB ($ 51). * 1. Sol-fa and point on the modulator, from memory, Excr- 1. The passive verb is conjugated by adding to the verb i cises 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. LESSON 5 (page 273).

in all its tenses, the past participle of an active verb. Se

model, $ 54. 1. What are the three different senses in which the word time 2. This participle must agree in gender and number with the is used in ordinary musical language? Give examples of each. subject ($ 134 (2), Sect. XLI. 6). 2. What is the peculiarity in the swings of the pendulum ?

Ces vieillards sont respectés, Those old men are respocled. What regulates the speed of a pendulum ?

Ces enfants sont aimés de tout le Those children are lorod by EROTI 3. Describe the “ metronome." With what is it proposed monde,

body. that each swing of the metronome should correspond in the binary, trinary, and quaternary measure?-in quick senary active to the passive voice. Many expressions which are in the

3. The genius of the French language seems to prefer thn measure ? 4. How would you use the string pendulum ?

passive in English, are accordingly rendered into French by th

active or reflective ($ 123 (5), § 113 (1)]. 5. In leaming to “keep time,” what is the double object to be gained ? Will beating time help you ?

Cette maison est à louer ou à That house is to be let or sold. 6. Describe the views of Rousseau, Dr. Burney, and Dr.

Ma scur est à plaindre,

My sister is to be pitied.
Bryce on "beating" time.

Cet homine est à craindre,

That man is to be fearea 7. What is the standard by which the length of notes is

Cet homme s'appelle H. (Sect. That man is called II. measured in the sol-fa notation? What proportion of tim XXIV. 2],

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Cet homme se trompe (Sect. That man is mistaken,

She is loved, esteemed, and respected by everybody. 17. What XXXVII, 2],

has been told you ? 18. We have been told that your brother On dit que cela est ainsi (Sect. It is said that it is so.

is respected by everybody. 19. Madam, are yon Mr. S.'s XXXIV.2),

sister ? 20. No, Sir, I am not. 21. Madam, are you pleased On nous a dit cela (Sect. XXXIV.2). We have been told that,

with your son's conduct ? 22. No, Sir, I am not, for he is 4. In an answer to a question (see Sect. XXIII. 12], the blamed by everybody. 23. What is that stout man called ? pronoun le corresponds in signification with the English word so

24. They say he is called H. 25. What is your brother's or it, expressed or understood. Le refers then to a noun not

name ? 26. He is called James. 27. Have you been told that determined (not preceded by an article or a possessive adjective), ray brother has arrived ? 28. We have been told so. 29. Are to an adjective, to a verb, or even to a whole sentence.

the goods which your brother has bought for sale ? 30. They Ces enfants sont-ils aimés ? Are those children loved ?

are not for sale ? 31. Has the bookbinder had a coat made? Il ne le sont pas, They are not (80).

32. He has had a coat made. 33. Is his other coat worn out? Ces demoiselles sont-elles seurs ? Are those young ladies sisters ? 34. The coat which he bought last year is worn out. Elles ne le sont pas, They are not.

SECTION XLVI.-IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS. 5. When le refers to a determined noun, it often corresponds

1. In the compound tenges of the verb s'en aller, to go away in signification to the pronoun he, she, or they, which may or may (Sect. XXXIX. 1, 2], the pronoun en will of course keep its not be expressed in the English sentence. Le must then assume general place, after the other pronouns and before the auxiliary. the gender and number of the noun to which it refers.

It must never come between the auxiliary and the participle. Etes-vous la scar de mon ami ? Are you the sister of my friend?

Je m'en suis I went away.

! Noas

We went away.
Je la suis,
I am (she).

sommes allés,
Tu t'en es allé, Thou wentost Vons

You went away. Leur conduite est-elle approuvée ? Is their conduct approved ?


êtes allés, Elle n'est approuvée de personne. It is approved by nobody.

Il s'en est allé, Ho went away.


s'en sont They went away. Cette dame est-elle estimée et re. Is that lady esteemed and respected ?

allés, spectée ?

Les dames s'en sont allées,

The ladies are gone arcay. Elle n'est ni estimée ni respectée. Sho is neither esteemed nor respected. Les messieurs s'en sont ailés, The gentlomon are gone away. Ces marchandises sont à vendre. Those goods aro to be sold (for salo).

2. The verb aller, when referring to articles of dress, answers Ces enfants sont bien à plaindre. Those children are to be pitied. A-t-on dit quelque chose à mon Has anything been said to my bro. to the English to fit, to set. frère ? ther? Mon habit va bien,

My coat fits or sots well.
On ne lui a rien dit.
Nothing has been said to him.

3. Seoir [4, ir.; see table, 62] answers to the English to Savez-vous comment cela s'appelle? Do you know how that is called ? Madame, êtes-vous maitresse ici ? Madame, are you mistress here ?

suit, to become. Je ne le suis

Monsieur. I am not (80), Sir.

Ce chapeau ne vous sied point, That hat does not become you.
Êtes-vous la maitresse de la maison? Are you the mistress of the house ?
Je la sais.
I am (sho).

4. Essayer ($ 49] corresponds in signification to the English

to try on. VOCABULARY.

J'ai essayé mon gilet, il me va I have tried on my waistcoat, it fits S'appel-er, 1, pec., to be Diligent, -e, diligent. Paresseux, -se, idle.


me well. called ($ 49 (4)]. Ecolier, m., scholar. Pun-ir, 2, to punish. Auteur, m., author. Gros, -se, large, stout. Rarement, seldom. 5. Êtro is often used in French for appartenir, to belong Blám-er, 1, to blame, Jardin, m., garden. Relieur, m., bookbinder. [$ 106 (3)]. Car, jor. Lou-er, 1, to let, to Souvent, often.

To whom does that house belong? Conduite, f., conduct. praise. Us-er, 1, to wear out. À qui est cette maison ?

Whoso house is that ? Croi-re, 4, ir., to believe. | Mère, f., mother. Ven-dre, 4, to soll.

Elle est à mon cousin,

It is my cousin's. EXERCISE 85. 1. Votre mère est-elle aimée de sa sæur? 2. Elle est aimée à quelle heure vous en étes-vous At what hour did you go away?

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. de son frère et de sa spur. 3. Les Italiens sont-ils aimés des

alle ? Français ? 4. Vos écoliers ne sont-ils pas blâmés ? 5. Ils sont

Je m'en suis allé à neuf heures. I went away at nine o'clock. blåmés quelquefois. 6. Sont-ils souvent punis ? 7. Ils sont

Vous en étes-vous allées trop tôt, Did you go away too soon, ladies ? rarement panis. 8. Par qui êtos-vous puni quand vous êtes

Mesdames ? paresseux ? 9. Je ne suis jamais puni. 10. Sa conduite w-t-elle Nous nous en sommes allées trop We went away too late. été approuvée ? 11. Elle a été approuvée de tout le monde. tard. 12. Elle a été approuvée par* ses amis. 13. Cet auteur est-il Cette robe vous va-t-elle bien ? Does that dress fit you well ? estimé ? 14. Il est estimé de tout le monde. 15. Le jardin du Elle ne me va pas bien.

It does not fit me well.

Does that coat become you very vell? relieur est-il à vendre ou à louer ? 16. On dit qu'il est à louer. Cet habit vous sied-il fort bien ?

I have tried it on, but it does not fit 17. Le menuisier a-t-il fait faire un habit? 18. Il en a fait Je l'ai essayé, mais il ne va pas

bien, faire deux. 19. Les habits que vous avez achetés sont-ils usés ?

Il lui va bien (indirect regimen). It fits him well. 20 Ils sont usés, j'en ai fait faire d'autres. 21. Dit-on que nos

Il me gêne, il me serre trop. It hurts me, it pressos me too much, amis sont aimés de tout le monde ? 22. On ne le dit pas, car on Cette robe ne lui va pas bien. That dress does not fit her well.

23. Les dames que nous avons vues à l'église Ces livres sont-ils à vous ou à moi? Are those books yours or mino ? hier au soir, sont-elles sæurs ? 24. Elles ne le sont pas, on dit Ils ne sont ni à moi ni à vous. They belong neither to me nor to you qu'elles sont cousines. 25. On dit que l'officier qui vient À qui sont-ils donc ?

Whose are thoy, then ! d'arriver s'appelle S.

Les livres de qui avez-vous ap

Whose books have you brought ? EXERCISE 86.

portés ?

J'ai apporté ceux de mon frère. I have brought my brother's. 1. Are you blamed or praised ? 2. I am neither blamed nor

VOCABULARY. praised. 3. Is not your cousin esteemed by everybody? 4. She

Mieux, better. is esteemed by nobody. 5. What has been said of my brother? Beau-frère, brother-in. | Foncé, -e, dark.

lau. 6. Nothing has been said of him. 7. Do you know if your Botte, f., boot.

Gên-or, 1, to hurt, to | Neuf, -ve, new. press.

Où, where. brother's house is to be let? 8. I have been told (on m'a dit) Clair,' e, light. Gilet, m., waistcoat. Serr-er, 1, to press. that it is to be sold. 9. Is not an idle person to be pitied ? 10. Court, -e, short. Grand, -e, large. Ten-ir, 2, ir., to hold, The idle man is to be pitied. 11. Is your son sometimes punished Étroit, -e, narrow, light. / Large, wide. Vers, toucards, about, at school ? 12. He is always punished when he is idle. 13.

EXERCISE 87. Are your scholars praised when they are diligent? 14. They are praised when they are diligent, and they are blamed when

1. Vos bottes ne vont-elles pas bien ? 2. Elles ne me vont they are idle. 15. Is that lady esteemed and respected? 16. pas bien, elles me serrent trop. 3. Sont-elles trop étroites ?

4. Elles sont trop étroites et trop courtes, elles me gênent. 5. * The prepositions de and par are used in differently after many

Le cordonnier s'en est-il allé ? 6. Il ne s'en est pas encore allé. Passive verbs.

7. À quelle heure les compagnes de votre sæur s'en sont-elles

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ne le croit pas.

sied pas.

allées ? 8. Elles s'en sont allées vers six heures de l'après- | Vous faut-il cinquante francs ? Do you want or must you had fifty midi. 9. L'habit que vous tenez, est-il à vous ou à votre frère ?

francs? 10. Il n'est ni à lui ni à moi, il est à mon beau-frère. 11. Lui Il me faut cinquante-cinq francs. I must have or I need fifty-fire france, va-t-il bien? 12. Il lui va fort bien, et il lui sied bien. 13.

Combien d'argent faut-il à votre How much money does your father Où l'a-t-il fait faire ?

rant ?

père ? 14. Il l'a fait faire en France ou en

Il lui en faut beaucoup.

He wants much (of it). Allemagne. 15. À qui sont les livres que lit Mademoiselle Nous avons ce qu'il [R.3] nous faut. We have what we want. votre seur ? 16. Ils sont à moi. 17. Votre gilet va-t-il mieux que celui de votre beau-frère ? 18. Il me va beaucoup mieux.

VOCABULARY. 19. Votre habit ne vous gêne-t-il pas ? 20. Il ne saurait (cannot) Aller trouver, to go to Désir-er, 1, to vish, to Main de papier, 1., a me gêner, il est de beaucoup trop large. 21. Avez-vous essayé

a person,

quire of paper,

Centime, m., 100th part Dette, f., debt. votre habit neuf ? 22. Je l'ai essayé, mais la couleur ne me

Modiste, milliver. of a frane.

Envoy-er, 1, ir. [$ 49 Ouvrage, m., work. 23. Est-elle trop claire ? 24. Elle est trop foncée.

Chirurgien, m.,surgeon. (2)], to send,

Payer, 1, pec. [S 25. Les couleurs foncées ne me siéent jamais.

Combien, how much, Fin-ir, 2, to finish.

(2)], to pay. EXERCISE 88.

how many.

Fort, very, very much, Peine, f., trouble. Davantage, more.

Quand, when 1. Are your friends gone away? 2. They are not yet gone away, they are still here. 3. At what hour did your mother

EXERCISE 89. go away ? 4. She went away early this morning. 5. Did your 1. Que faut-il faire aujourd'hui ? 2. Aujourd'hui il fer! little sister go away late ? 6. She went away too soon. 7. travailler. 3. A-t-il fallu travailler fort pour finir l'ouvrage à Does your sister's new dress become her ? 8. It does not temps ? 4. Il a fallu travailler toute la journée. 5. Quand become her. 9. Why does it not become her? 10. Dark faut-il écrire à notre ami ? 6. Il faut lui écrire aujoura'.si colours never become her. 11. Do light colours become your 7. Me faut-il aller trouver mon père ? 8. Il vous faut alle la brother's wife? 12. They become her very well. 13. Are trouver, il désire vous parler. 9. A-t-il besoin de quelque your new boots too narrow or too wide ? 14. They are neither chose ? 10. Il lui faut des livres, des plumes, et de l'encre. too narrow nor too wide, they fit very well. 15. Does your 11. Ne lui faut-il pas aussi de l'argent ? 12. n lui en fant brother's waistcoat fit him? 16. It fits him, but it does not beaucoup pour payer ses dettes. 13. Vous faut-il encore quelque become him. 17. Light colours never become him. 18. Does chose ? 14. Il ne me faut plus rien, j'ai tout ce qu'il me faut. your coat press you ? 19. It does not press me, it is by far too 15. Ne faut-il pas du papier à votre seur ? 16. I ne lai wide. 20. Whose house is that? 21. It is my father's and en faut pas davantage.* 17. Que faut-il envoyer au chirur. brother's. 22. Whose books have you brought this morning ? gien ? 18. Il faut lui envoyer de l'argent, il en a grand besoin 23. I have brought my brother's and my sister's. 24. Whose 19. La modiste a-t-elle tout ce qu'il lui faut ? 20. Elle n'a pas dresses are those ? 25. They are my mother's, my sister's, and tout ce qu'il lui faut. 21. Combien vous faut-il ? 22. Il ne my cousin's. 26. Are not those German books yours? 27. They faut einq francs. 23. Ne vous faut-il pas davantage ? 24. Il are not mine, they are my friend's. 28. Are those pens yours or ne me faut pas davantage. 25. Que lui faut-il pour sa peine ? mine ? 29. They are neither yours nor mine, they are my 26. Il demande un franc vingt-cinq centimes. brother's. 30. Does this hat fit you ? 31. Yes, Sir, it fits me,

EXERCISE 90. but it does not become me. 32. Is your hat too small ? 33. It is too large. 34. Are your gloves too large ? 35. They are too

1. What must we do? 2. You must bring your book and small, I cannot put them on.

learn your lesson. 3. Is it necessary to write to your brother

to-day? 4. It is not necessary to write to him. 5. Has it SECTION XLVII.-UNIPERSONAL VERBS AND THEIR USES. been necessary to speak to your father ? 6. It has been neces. 1. The verb falloir [3, ir.], to be necessary, is always conjugated sary to speak to him. 7. Is it necessary to go to D. to-day unipersonally. See table, $ 62.

8. It is necessary to go there (y). 9. Must I


to Il faut, il a fallu, It is necessary, it was or has been 10. You must go to her, she wishes to speak to you. 11. How

much money must your brother have ? 12. He must have ten Il faut étudier tous les jours, It is necessary to study every day. francs fifty centimes. 13. How many books does your sister

2. As falloir has always a unipersonal pronoun for its nomi. want? 14. She must have many books, she reads (lit) much. native or subject, a pronoun in the indirect regimen (dative 15. What will you send to the surgeon ? 16. We must send me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur), placed before the verb, will be him our horse ; his own (le sien) is sick. 17. Must he not hare equivalent to the pronoun used as nominative to the English Must he have much ? 20. He must have a quire. 21. Do roa

paper ? 18. He must have some; he has letters to write. 19.1 verbs must, to be obliged, etc.

want anything more? [See No. 13, in the French exercise abore. Il me faut écrire un thème, I must write an crercise,

22. I need something more. 23. I need nothing more. Où nous faut-il aller ? Where must we go ?

Must you have one hundred francs ? 25. I must have teo 3. Falloir is used in the signification of to want, to need, to be dollars. 26. What does the surgeon want? 27. He must bar under the necessity of having.

money to (pour) pay his debts. 28. Has the tailor all that be Il me faut un livre, I need a book.

wants ? 29. He has not all that he wants. 30. The milline Il lui faut de l'argent, He is in want of money.

has received all that she wants. 31. What must you hare for 4. When must is used in the last acceptation, and has a noun

your trouble ? 32. How much do you want? 33. How mor as its nominative, the noun in the corresponding French sentence do we want? 34. What must I do? 35. Yon must write a should be in the indirect regimen preceded by à.

letter. 36. What must she write? 37. She must write fons

pages. 38. She must go to church. Il faut un livre à ma sœur,

My sister must have a book (needs a


READING AND ELOCUTION.—XIII. Pour apprendre une langue il faut To learn a language it is necessary to

ANALYSIS OF THE VOICE (continued), étudier.

study. Il faut aller à l'église et à l'école. It is necessary to go to church and to

VIII.-CORRECT INFLECTION (continued. school. Il faut rester à la maison

Both inflections, the Rising and the Falling, in conneciion. It is necessary to remain at home, Il me faut lire un bon livre. I must read a good book.

Rule 1.-When negation is opposed to affirmation, the former 11 lui faut aller voir sa mère. She must go and see her mother. has the rising, the latter the falling inflection, in whaterer onlı T Que nous faut-il faire ? What must ce do?

they occur, and whether in the same or in different sentences Que leur faut-il lire ?

What must they read ?
Que leur faut-il ?
What do they want or need ?

He did not call me, but you.
Il leur faut de l'argent ou da They need or must have money or

He was esteemed not for wéalth, but for wisdom.

Study not for amusement, but for improvement,
Another construction of these sentences will be fourd in Sect.
XXI, 1, 2.

• This adverb can never be placed before a substantira.

your sister



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