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He called you, not mé.

Rule on the Monotone. He was esteemed for wisdom, not for wéalth.

The tones of grand and sublime description, profound reverStudy for impròvement, not for amusement. This proposal is not a mere idle cómpliment. It proceeds from the

ence or awe, of amazement and horror, are marked by the sincerest and deepest feelings of our hearts.

monotone, or perfect level of voice. Howard visited all Europe, not to survey the sumptuousness of Note.-A monotone is always on a lower pitch than the prepalaces, or the stateliness of témples ; not to make accurate measure- ceding part of a sentence; and to give the greater effect to its ments of the remains of ancient grándear; not to form a scale of the deep solemn note - which resembles the tolling of a heavy bel! curiosities of modern árt; not to collect medals or collate manuscripts; -it sometimes destroys all comma pauses, and keeps up one but to dive into the depths of dùngeons; to plunge into the infection continuous stream of overflowing sound, as :of hospitals; to survey the mansions of sorrow and pain; to take the sauge and dimensions of misery, depréssion, and contempt; to remem

His form had not yet lost ber the forgotten, to attend to the neglected, to visit the forsáken,

All her original brightness, nor appeared and to compare and collate the distresses of all men in all countries.

Less than archangel ruined, and the excess

Of glory obscured. As when the sûn, nêw-risen, Note.—A similar principle applies to the reading of conces.

Lioks through the horizontal misty air, sions and of unequal antitheses or contrasts. In the latter,

Shorn of his beams, or from behind the moon, the less important member has the rising, and the preponderant

In dîm eclipse, disastrous twilight shěds one the falling inflection, in whatever part of a sentence they

On hâlf the nations, and with fear of change occur, and even in separate sentences, as :

Perplexes inonarchs, Science may raise you to éminence. But virtue alone can guide you And I saw a great white throne and Him that sät on it, from whose to happiness.

face the heavens and the čarth fled away; and there was found no plāce I rather choose

for thcm.
To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you,

Upon my secure hour thy uncle stole,
Than I will wrong such hónourable men,

With juice of cürsed hébenon in a vial,

And in the porches of mine zars did pour Exception. When negation is emphatic or preponderant, it

The lëperous distilment; whose effect takes the falling inflection, as :

Holds such an enmity with blood of mán,

That swift as quicksilver it courses through He may yield to persuasion, but he will never submit to fòrce.

The natural gates and alleys of the body, We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed; perplexed, but

And, with a südden vigour, it doth posset pot in despair; persecuted, but not forsaken; cast dówn, but not

And cũrd, like eager droppings into milk, destroyed.

The thin and wholesome blood ; só did it mine; Rule 2.-In question and answer, the falling inflection ends

And a most instant tētter bārked about, as far below the average level of the sentence, as the rising ends

Most lázar-like, with vile and loathsome crust, above it. In this way, a certain exact correspondence of sound

All my smooth body. to sound, in the inflections, is produced, which gives to the full

Rule on " Harmonic" Inflections. downward slide of the answer a decisive and satisfactory intona

"Harmonic" inflections-or those which, in emphatic phrases, tion, as a reply to the rising slide of the question, as :

are intended to prevent the frequent occurrence of emphasis in Are they Hébrews ?-So am 'I. Are they 'Israelites ?--So am I. the same phrase from becoming monotonous to the ear-are What would conteat you, in a political leader ?-Tálent? No!- applied in clauses of which every word is emphatic, and are Enterprise ? Nò!-Courage? Nò!-Reputation ? Nò!_*Virtue ? | marked by a distinct and separate inflection, as :No!-The man whom you would select, should possess not one, but all of these.

He has been guilty of one of the most shameful acts || that érer deRule 3.- When a question consists of two contrasted parts, graded the s'atune 1 or the name || of w'an. connected in syntax by the conjunction or, used in a disjunctive

Note.---In such cases the inflections usually alternate, in order sense, the former has the rising, and the latter the falling in to give the more vivid and pungent force to vehement emphasis. flection, as :

Rule on Repeated Words, Phrases, and Sentences. Does he mean you, or mò ?

Words, phrases, and sentences which are repeated for effect, Is this book yours, or mine ?

rise higher, or fall lower in inflection, besides increasing in force, Did you see him, or his brother?

at every repetition. Are the people virtuous, or vicious; intelligent, or ignorant; áMuent,

From these walls a spirit shall go forth, that shall survive when this or indigent?"

edifice shall be,“ like an unsubstantial pageant, faded."

It shall go Note.—When or is used conjunctively, the second infection fórth, exulting in, but not abusing, its strength. It shall go fórth, does not fall, but rises higher than the first, as :

remembering, in the days of its prosperity, the pledges it gave in the

time of its depression. IT SHALL GO FOʻRTH, uniting a disposition to Would the influence of the Bille-even if it were not the record of correct abuses, to redress grievances. IT SHALL GO FO'RTH, uniting a divine revelation-be to render princes more tyránnical, or subjects the disposition to improve, with the resolution to maintain and defend, more ungovernable; the rich more insolent, or the poor more dis- by that spirit of unbought affection, which is the chief defence of orderly; would it make worse párents or children-húsbands or wives nations. --másters or sérvants-friends or néighbours? Ort would it not What was it, fellow-citizens, which gave to Lafayette his spotless make men more virtuous, and consequently more happy, in every fame?—Tho love of liberty. What has consecrated his memory in the atuation?

hearts of good men ?--THE LOVE OF LIBERTY. What nerved his youthRule on the Circumflex, or Tare.

ful arm with strength, and inspired him in the morning of his days

with sagacity and counsel ?—THE LIVING LOVE OF LI'BERTY. The circumflex, or wave, applies to all expressions used in a To what did he sacrifice power, and rank, and country, and freedom peculiar sense, or with a double meaning, and to the tones of itself ?-TO THE LOVE OF LIBERTY PROTECTED BY LA'W. mockery, sarcasm, and irony, as :Yon may avoid a quarrel with an if.

Your if is the only Dracemaker: much virtue in an if.

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXVI. From the very first night--and to say it I am bold

With this lesson, which is accompanied by copy-slips headed I've been so very hot, that I'm sure I've caught cold!

by the remaining capital letters of the writing alphabet, from Go hang a calfskin on these recreant limbs !

S to Z, we complete our elementary series of Lessons in PenWhat a beautiful piece of work you have made by your carelessness! manship, having enabled the self-teacher, by an easy and careThe weights had never been accused of light conduct.

fully graduated succession of steps, to advance from the formation

of the first elementary stroke that enters into the composition * In successive questions, the rising inflection becomes higher at found capital letters azd figures, as well as small letters. We

of the small letters, to writing sentences in which are to be etery stage, unless the Inst hus, as in the above example, the falling have now dona as much for him as it is possible to do by verbal infection of consummating emphasis.

1 The iast or is used disjunctively, and forms an example to the instruction, and it remains for the learner to acquire an easy, Fale, and not to the Note.

floring style of writing, and facility and rapidity in the use of

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his pen by building, by zealous practice, on the foundation that RECORDER: Why do you not pay it then? we hare assisted him to lay, by means of tho copy-slips and the PENN: I do. instructions that have been brought under his notice in the RECORDER: Why do you not pull off your hat then ? present series of lessons. In somo futuro Lessons in Writing we PENN: Because I do not believe that to be any respect. will give specimens of the various styles of writing which are RECORDER: Well, the court sets forty marks apiece upon required for cominercial purposes and for candidates for the your heads, as a fine for the contempt of the court. Civil Service Exaininations, etc.

PENN: I desire it might be observed that we came into the court with our hats off (that is, taken off), and if they havo been

put on since it was by order from the bench; and therefore not HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XIII.

we, but the bench, should be fined.

After this the prisoners, undoubtedly with much pertinacity HOW A LONDON JURY A TRUE VERDICT GAVE, ACCORDING

and some show of disrespect to the court, refused to plead to

the indictment, which charged them with having caused a Just as there are many great men in the world who never get tumultuous assembly, until the questions they raised as to the an opportunity of asserting themselves in it, so there are many legality of it in point of form should have been answered. The memorable events in history which are seldom if ever mentioned. Recorder and the Lord Mayor tried in vain to silence them, Some of these aro important enough, not merely in a political but resorting to threats, and abuse of a very coarse description, and also in a social sense, and it is well not to suffer them to languish not succeeding, tho Recorder did in effect entor a plea of “not in the cold shade of oblivion. Such an event is the subject of guilty" for them, and had them put upon their trial. the present sketch. It has been selected not only because of its Among the jury was one man, Bushell, whose character intrinsic importance, but also 29 showing how great privileges for conduct displeasing to the court was already well known, may be won and valuable rights established by very humb.o and to whom several unworthy remarks had been made at the

time he was sworn. Under his guidance the jury retired, and In the report books of proceedings in the law courts in 1670 in a short time returned into court with a verdict acquitting is an account of a scene in which the principal actors were Mead, and saying that Penn was “guilty of speaking in Gracethe Recorder of London, King Charles's Attorney-General, church Street.” This verdict angered the court exceedingly. and a citizen, Bushell, member of a jury. The case is called " Is that all ?" they asked the foreman. " That is all I have in “Bushell's Case," and it is one of the inost important possible, commission,” was the reply. “You had as good say nothing." for upon it was established once and for ever the grand right of Being further pressed, and also told, “ the law of England will a juryman a true verdict to give according to the evidence," not allow you to part till you have given your verdict,” the jury without reference to whether that verdict was or was not accept replied, “We have given in our verdict, and we can give in no able to the court to whom it was returned. Now-a-days, when other.”. juries are chosen with the utmost regard to the ends of justice, The Recorder refused to take such a verdict, and sent the and with a single eye to perfect impartiality, and, when chosen, jury back again to reconsider it. In half an hour's time they are treated with the fullest respect. neither being worried into came back into court, and handed in a written verdict to the Ferdicts nor molested after they have given them, we who have same effect as before, and signed by all of them. Upon this never seen a different state of things, are apt to suppose that being received, the Lord Mayor rated the jury in these words:there never was one, and to take it for granted that the thing MAYOR: What, will you be led by such a silly fellow as which is, is the same that hath been. Let us look for a few Bushell ? An impudent, canting fellow. I warrant you, you minutes at “ Bushell's case."

shall come no more upon juries in haste. You are a foreman, The circumstances under which Bushell, the juryman, came indeed (addressing Bushell). I thought you had understood your upon the scene were these :--Two Quakers, Penn and Mead, had place better. thought fit to preach to the people from the steps of a house RECORDER: Gentlemen, you shall not be dismissed till we in Gracechurch Street. In the course of their address they have a verdic: that the court will accept; and you shall be had used language which was interpreted as conveying, and locked up, without meat, drink, fire, and tobacco. You shall perhaps was meant to convey, animadversions upon the govern. not think thus to abuse the court. We will have a verdict by ment. For this they were arrested, and, having been committed the help of God; or you shall starve for it. by a city magistrato on the charge of stirring up a riot, were Tho jury declined to alter their verdict, and Penn, one of the put upon their trial. Like many of the charges preferred at prisoners, claimed to have it recorded. “ The agreement of that time by the over-zealous agents of the government, the twelve men is the verdict in law; and such a one being given by accusation was an extravagant one, and considerable sympathy the jury, I require the clerk of the peace to record it, as he will was shown by the Londoners in favour of the prisoners. If answer at his poril. And if the jury bring in another verdict what the two men had said amounted to sedition, then, it was contradictory to this, I affirm they are perjured men in law;" felt, no man could safely talk politics even in the mildest way; and looking upon the jury, he said: “You are Englishmen! and it was further felt that the prosecution was a tyrannical act Mind your privilege ! Give not away your right!" on the part of the government, and people wero getting rather The court was adjourned till next morning at seven o'clock, tired of the thing. Notwithstanding such was the case-popular the prisoners were sent back to Newgate, and the jury were sympathy at that time was but a whet to the prosecuting spirit ordered into the custody of those who swore to keep them of the crown lawyers—the trial was urged, and it came on without fire, food, drink, or any other accommodation till the before the Recorder of London at the Old Bailey.

adjourned sitting of the court. The following scene, illustrative of the manner in which While the jury are thus away in their retiring room, making prisoners were treated under Charles II., presented itself on the up their minds what verdict they shall give-chafing, some of entrance of Penn and Mead into the court:--After the manner of them, at the manner in which they have been treated by the their brethren, the two Friends kept their hats on in the presence court, and, under the guidance of their foreman, resolving that of the judge, as they would have done in the presence of the they will not submit to dictation, but act upon the exordium king himself. The gaoler rudely knocked their hats off, where delivered to them by the prisoner as they quitted their box apon the Recorder, not with a view to rebuking the man's —let us consider for a moment what right it was for whics joughness, but to having a preliminary fing at the prisoners, they were contending, and the way in which that right was ordered him to replace them. Being put in the dock, the acquired. prisoners were thus addressed by their judge:

Trial by jury was an old-established institution in England, as RECORDER: Do you know where you are ?

old, some think, as the Anglo-Saxon laws. Something like is PENN: Yes.

certainly to be found in the history which has come down to us RECOEDER: Do you not know it is the king's court?

of those times, but the jury system, as we understand it now, was PENN: I know it to be a court, and I suppose it to be the the creation of a period subsequent to the Norman Conquest, king's court.

1066. Before that date the jury which tried causes consisted of RECORDER: Do you not know there is respect due to the a certain number of “ compartators 27 were called, that court ?

is to say, persons who did not give their opinion upon evidence PENX: Yes

adduced before them on oath, but who merely swore that they

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believed what the defendant said under sanction of his oath. I would not have back at any price, nor to please any oze, but tho The form of procedure was simply this. A man accused of judges took upon themselves to revive the wicked old custom of default, on civil or criminal process, was put on his oath if ho polluting the very source of justice by intimidating those who chose to be so, and then swore he was innocent of the offence had charge of it. Two Chief Justices of England, Hyde and charged, or that his version of the case between him and the Keeling, were especially guilty of this crime, and made themselves plaintiff was a true one. The compurgators, of whom the nun. so notorious that the House of Commons came to a resolution to ber varied from twelve to thirty-six, being also sworn, deposed impeach the latter for his misconduct. He was suffered to spenk to their belief in what the defendant had said, and, as they were for himself at the bar of the House, and to go free on promise of commonly chosen from among the neighbours and acquaintance amendment. of the man, they were supposed to know something of the facts In the face of this, and in spite of the expressed opinions of connected with his case, as well as to be able to form an esti- most of the legal luminaries of the day, including Lord Chiet znate of the truth or falsehood of his statements. It can casily Justice Hale, the Recorder of London, in 1670, ventured, under be imagined that such a tribunal was not one from which the circumstances stated above, to fine the jury which acquitted to expect strict justice, and the shortcomings of tho system Penn and Mead, and to commit Mr. Bushell to prison when amounted in many instances to gross miscarriage of right. he refused to pay. Here was what followed when the jury Nevertheless, it continued to be used with other systems till remained obstinate in their simple verdict of “not guilty," Henry II. (1154-1189) introduced the Norman form of trial after having been browbeaten, threatened, and ridiculed, both by jury for civil causes, and Henry III., or rather those by chief magistrate and Recorder, and after having been who represented him, introduced it about 1235 on criminal sent back three times to consider their verdict, which indeed process.

they did alter to a simple verdict of “not guilty" as to both The Norman-English jury was not like ours of to-day. Instead prisoners. of deciding upon the case according to evidence for and against, CLERK: Are you agreed upon your verdict ? and after hearing the summing-up of the judge, the jury included JURY: Yes. all those who under our system would be witnesses, and would CLERK: Who shall speak for you? be rigidly excluded from the jury for the very reason that they JURY: Our foreman. knew most of the facts. Then it was the duty of the sheriff to CLERK: What say you ? Look upon the prisoners at the bar. summon specially on the jury all those who were, or might be is William Penn guilty of the matter whereof he stands indicted supposed to be, acquainted with the material points in the case, in manner and form as aforesaid, or not guilty ? and these persons compared notes with their fellows, but without FOREMAN: William Penn is guilty of speaking in Gracechurch being subjected to any cross-examination, and gave their verdict Street. according to what then appeared to them to be right. Common MAYOe: To an unlawful assembly? rumour, repetitions of what somebody else had said, unsifted BUSHELL (the foreman): No, my lord, we give no other testimony of various kinds, were received by these juries, and verdict than what we gave last night. We have no other verdict sometimes constituted all the evidence they had to guide them. to give. All such would be utterly rejected now, and any person who had MATOR: You are a factious fellow. I'll take a course with evidence to give would be summoned as a witness—would cer

you. tainly be precluded from sitting on the jury. It was not till the Sie T. BLOODWITH (alderman): I knew Mr. Bushell would twenty-third year of the reign of Edward III. (1327-1377) that not yield. witnesses, though still added to the jury, were not allowed to BUSHELL : Sir Thomas, I have done according to my convote as to the verdict; and it was not till the eleventh year of science. Henry IV. (1399-1413) that they were made to give their evi- MAYOR : That conscience of yours would cut my throat. dence in open court, under the scrutiny of the judge, and without BUSHELL : No, my lord, it never shall. being associated in any way with the jury.

MAYOR: But I will cut yours 50 soon as I can. Under the Plantagenet princes (from Henry II., 1154, to RECORDER: He has inspired the jury. He has the spirit of Richard II., 1399), though the grand provision in Magna Charta-divination. Methinks I feel him. I will have a positive verdict, that no free man should be tried by any but his peers--was con. or you shall starve for it. stantly disregarded, it does not appear that juries as such PENN: I desire to ask the Recorder one question. Do you suffered any violence; but with the Tudor princes came in this, allow of the verdict giver of William Mead ? as in other respects, quite another order of things, and that RECORDER : It cannot be a verdict, because you were indicted which the Tudors did the Stuarts did likewise. Juries were for a conspiracy, and one being found not guilty, and not the called to account in the most direct and personal manner for other, it could not be a verdict. verdicts given according to their conscience (some authorities, PENN: If not guilty be not a verdict, then you make of the however, say they were frequently bribed), and were frequently jury and Magna Charta but a mere nose of wax. reprimanded by the judge or the king's council, and sometimes MEAD: How! Is not guilty no verdict ? cited before the Court of Star Chamber, where, if they did not RECORDER: No, it is no verdict. repent, they were heavily fined and also imprisoned. Some of After this fine judicial dictum there were other passages the fines imposed on individual jurymen were as much as £2,000, between the jury and the court, and the jury being once moro a ruinous amount in Queen Mary's reign (1553-1558), when asked as to William Penn's guilt, said, as before, that he was such a fine was actually inflicted. Whether there was or was guilty of speaking in Gracechurch Street. not any ground for the interference of the Star Chamber on the RECORDER: What is this to the purpose ? I say I will have a score of bribery of the jurors by the parties to suits, it is evident verdict. (And speaking to Edward Bushell, said): You are a that the offence might have been punished by more regular factious fellow. I will set a mark upon you ; and whilst I havo means, and that the means actually adopted were liable to be anything to do in the city I will have an eyo upon you. grossly abused. As a matter of fact they were grossly abused, MAYOR: Have you no more wit than to be led by suok a and the tyrannical conduct of the Star Chamber in dealing with pitiful fellow ? I will cut his nose. juries was one of the chief causes which contributed to its down. PENN: It is intolerable that any jury should be thus menaced. fall. When the Star Chamber was abolished by Act of Parlia- Is this according to the fundamental laws ? Are not they my ment in 1641, with an indignant protest against its ever having proper judges by the Great Charter of England ? What hope is existed, and a solemn declaration that nothing of the kind should there of ever having justice done when juries are threatened, and be permitted in the time to come, this evil practice of threatening their verdicts rejected? I am concerned to speak, and grieved and punishing juries, so as to compel them to give such verdicts to see such arbitrary proceedings. Did not the Lieutenant of as the Crown wished, was abolished also. During the civil war the Tower render one of them worse than a felon? And do you (1642-1648), and during the protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, not plainly soom to condemn such for factious fellows who (1648-1658) it was not heard of ; jurymen were allowed to be answer not your ends ? Unhappy are those juries who are responsible alone to God and their conscience, and gave their threatened to be fined, and starved, and ruined if they give not verdicts freely, no man making them afraid.

in verdicts contrary to their consciences. With the restoration of Charles II., in 1660, some of the old RECORDER: My lord, you must take a course with that samo governmental vices were restored also. The Star Chamber menfellow.


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. 1668

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MAYOR : Stop his mouth. Gaoler, bring fetters, and stako brought him as her dower Tangier, in Marocco; Bombay, in him to the ground.

Hindostan or India ; and £300,000 in inoney. The first-named Peny: Do your pleasure. I matter not your fetters. town was abandoned, in 1683, as a place not worth the expense

of holding by an armed force; while the second, now the capital

of one of the five presidencies of British India, was handed over RECORDER: Gentlemen, we shall not be at this trado always

to the East India Company for a small annual quit-rent. with you. You will find the next session of parliament there will be a law made that those that will not conform shall not Boru at St. James's Palace, Declaration of Indulgence in have the protection of the law. Mr. Lee, draw up another

May 29, 1039

favour of the Papists 1672 verdict, that they may bring it in special.

Crowned at Scone

1031 Test Act passed . March, 1673 LEE: I cannot tell how to do it.

Obliged to retire to Holland Marriage of Mary, daughter after the Battle of Worces.

of the Duke of York (afterJURY: We ought not to be retained, having all agreed, and


1651 wards James II.) to Wilset our hands to the verdict.

Returns to England May 29 1663 liam of Orange

1677 RECORDER: Your verdict is nothing. You play upon the Trial of the Regicides, etc. 1660, Treaty of Nimeguen

1678 court. I say you shall go together and bring in another verdict, Revision of the Common Supposed Conspiracy of the or you shall starve, and I will have you carted about the city as Prayer Book

16611 Papists to assassinate the in Edward the Third's time.

Act of Uniformity passed 1602 king and restore the RoFOREMAN: We have given in our verdict, and all agreed to Bombay and Tangier added to

Catholic religion it; and if we give in another, it will be a force upon us to save

the British dominions

Aug. 12, 1678

Dunkirk sold to Louis XIV. Murder of Sir Edmondsbury our lives.

of France for £500,000 Godfrey.

Oct. 15, 1678 Finally the jury gave their verdict "not guilty" against

Oct, 17, 1662 Murder of Archbishop Sharpe both prisoners, and each one of them affirmed the samo sepa- War with the United Pro.

May 3, 1679 rately; whereupon the Recorder fined them forty marks vinces of the Netherlands. 1661 The present Habeas Corpus earch, and ordered them to be imprisoned till the fine should be The Great Plague

1605 Act passed

May 27, 1679 paid.

The Great Fire of London 1600 Battle of Bothwell Bridge Imprisoned they were accordingly in the common gaol of Ships in the Medway burnt

June 22, 1679 Newgate, a noisome, filthy den, which was a disgrace to any

by the Dutch

1667 Meal Tub Plot Oct, 23, 1679 Peace of Breda

1007 Persecution of the Covecountry calling itself civilised. From Newgate, however, the

Triplo Alliance" of England, spirit which had made itself felt in opposition to the oppressive

nanters in Scotland. 1680 conduct of the Recorder's Court made itself heard at the Court France

Holland,and Swedenagainst Charter of the City of Lon

Jan. 28, 1668 don deelared to be for. of King's Bench. A writ of Habeas Corpus* was sued out and Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle


1682 made returnable immediately, and when the governor of Newgate War with Holland

1072 Rye House Plot. June 12, 1683 brought up his prisoners it turned out that they were detained Dutch defeated in the Battle Execution of Algernon Sydney for non-payment of fines imposed upon them on account of their of Solebay or Southwold

and Lord William Russell. 1633 verdict.


May 28, 1672 Death of Charles II. Feb. 6, 1985 Chief Justice Vaughan, in one of the most learned and

SOVEREIGNS CONTEMPORARY WITH CHARLES II. masterly judgments ever delivered, went into the whole matter. What he said may be found in the sixth volume of the Stato

Denmark, Kings of. Portugal, Kings of. Sweden, King of.

Frederick III. 1618 Alphonso VI. 1636 Charles XI. 1650 Trials, and in the collected judgments of the eminent Chief

Christian V. 1670 Peter II.

1683 Justice. The studious who have opportunity will do well to

Turkey, Sultan of. France, King of.

Rome, Popes of. seek the judgment there ; but we have all an interest in the Louis XIV.

Mahomet IV. 1619 1613

Alexander VII. 1055 gist of what he said, and that can be reproduced without such Germany, Emperor of.

United Provinces of the

Clement IX. 1667 careful search. He laid it down as law that the fines were Leopold I. 1658


StadtClement X.

1670 illegal, and that the imprisonment consequent on them was Poland, King of.

holders of Innocent XI. 1676

No Stadholder necessarily illegal also. But he went on still further, and John II. (some

times styled

Russia, Czars of. declared in effect that the Recorder had improperly refused to

from 1650 to 1672 Casimir V.) 1619 Alexis .

1615 William receive the verdict of the jury, and that the jury had an unques

Henry Interregnum 1668 Feodor II.

1676 (afterwards tionable right to give what verdict they pleased, the remedy for Michael

1669) Ivan IV. and Pe

William III. of a stupid verdict being in the discretion of a judge to order a new

John III.

1674 ter I. conjointly 1682 Evgland) . . 1672 trial on the ground of the verdict being contrary to the evidence; and for a corrupt verdict, in the power of any one to prosecute a juryman for perjury if committed wilfully in the course of his duty as a juryman.

LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-XIII. As the law was thus settled it has remained ever since, few In the last lesson (page 383) was given the method of drawing occasions having arisen in which the rights of juries have been imperilled. To Edward Bushell and his fellow-citizens we are

a triangle equal in superficial area to any regular four-sided directly indebted for the establishment of the law upon this most figures, such as a square, rectangle, or parallelogram; and, before satisfactory footing; and the occasion seemed to us so full of the learner how he may draw a triangle equal in superficial

entering on the geometry of the circle, it only remains to show interest, and the principle gained so full of importance, that we have thought fit to make them the subject of this number of our trapezium or trapezoid (Defs. 31, 32, page 53), or to any mul.

area to any given irregular four-sided figure, whether it be a Historic Sketches.

tilateral figure or polygon, whether regular or irregular; that

is to say, having its sides and angles equal on the one hand, SYNOPSIS OF EVENTS IN THE LIFE AND REIGN OF

or having its sides and angles unequal on the other (Def. 33, CHARLES II.

page 53). It will be seen that either process is effected Charles II., the second son of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria by the aid of the knowledge of certain geometrical facts of France, was the twenty-sixth king of England after the in connection with the triangle which have been already exNorman Conquest, and the third of the Stuart Dynasty. He plained. married a Portuguese princess, Catherine of Braganza, who

PROBLEM XXXIII. - To draw a triangle that shall be equal in superficial area to any given irregular quadrilateral

figure. * A writ of Habeas Corpus is an order which a judge is obliged, Let ABCD (Fig. 46) be the given irregular quadrilateral figure; under a penalty of £500, to send on potition of a prisoner, to the it is required to draw a trianglo equal to it in superficial area. Faoler who detaids him, requiring him to bring up the body of his pri

Draw B D, one of the diagonals of the irregular quadrilateral Eonut, and to show cause why he detaing him, so that the judge may be figure or trapezium A B C D, and produce the side c D, on which eatisfied as to the propriety or otherwise of the detention, and may the figure stands, indefinitely towards E. Then through A draw remit the prisoner to custody or discharge him as he may see fit. This is a British subject's great safeguard against illegal or tyrannical

AF parallel to the diagonal B D, and meeting c E in the point F. in prisonment. When the Habeas Corpus Act is suspended, the writs Join B F; the triangle B F c is equal to the trapezium A B C D. of course do not run.

That this is true may be soon seen. After taking away the

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