Imágenes de páginas

(1.) 2221

(2.) 2221



[ocr errors]

S. 89645

X 256

[ocr errors]

Writing the numbers as in the margin, proceed thus : 6 placing the first figure of each line directly under the figure by times 1 unit are 6 units; write the 6 units under the figure which you multiply. Finally, adding these lines together, their

multiplied. 6 times 4 tens are 24 tens ; set sum will be the whole product of the two given numbers. 24 multiplicand the 4 or right-hand figure under the figure 6 multiplier

8. Method of testing the Correctness of the result.-Multiply the multiplied, and carry the 2 or left-hand figure multiplier by the multiplicand, and if the product thus obtained 11046

to the next product, as in addition. 6 times be the same as the other product, the work may be presumed to

3 hundreds are 18 hundreds, and 2 to carry be correct. make 20 hundreds; set the 0 under the figure multiplied, and 9. Multiplication by reversing the Multiplier. - It may be carry the 2 to the next product, as above. 6 times 2 thousands remarked that multiplication may be performed by commencing are 12 thousands, and 2 to carry make 14 thousands. There with the last figure (that is, the extreme left-hand figure) of the being no more figures to be multiplied, set down the 14 in full, multiplier, instead of with that in the unit's place. In this case, as in addition. The required product is 14046.

however, as will be seen from an example, we must set down Before proceeding to the second case, the learner is requested each line one figure to the right of the preceding line. to make himself familiar with the process of multiplying any Thus, in multiplying 2221 mmber by one figure, by means of the following

by 1234, we may proceed as


4321 EXERCISE 6.

follows, as in operation (1),


2221000 (1.) Multiply 83 by 7; 549 by 5; 6879 by 9 ; 7891011 by 8 ; figure of the multiplier ; or

beginning with the left-hand


41200 567893459 by 3 ; 9057832917 by 11, and the result by 7.

66630 (2.) Find the continued product of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 3, 9.

we might, to avoid confusion,


8884 (3.) Find the products of the number 142857 by the nine digits. operation (2), and proceed in

reverse the multiplier, as in (4.) Find the products of the number 98998, the smallest num



the same way. ber contained in the second square in Ex. 4, page 23, by the nine which we omit in practice are added in the last operation, to

The ciphers digits, and you will find these products in the same table. (5.) Multiply 857142 by 9; 76876898 by 2; 1010400600 by 7;

explain the truth of the process. 79806090 by 8; and 999999999999 by 5.

EXERCISE 7. (6.) Multiply the following numbers first by 2 and then by 3:

(1.) Find the products of the following numbers :1. 58745 4. 900195 7. 1967311 10, 20907683

1. 463 X 45

18. 1534693 X 4762
5. 354764
8. 4192093 11. 42765401

2. 348 x 62

19. 142857 X 70000 3. $2503 6, 822073

9, 8765437
12. 22663973
3. 793 X 86

20. 7050860 X 70508 (7.) Multiply the following numbers first by 4 and then by. 5:

4. 989 X 90

21. 10101010 X 20202 1. 42937 4. 323599 7. 9988776 10. 19977991

5. 75 x 42 x 56

22. 98548050 X 97280 2. 54012 5, 765102 8. 4039007 11. 83215946

6. 84 X 37 X 69

23. 53600000 X 75300 6. 358155 9. 2595139 12. 18671868

7. 7198

21. 99999999 X 90009 8. 93186 X 445

25. 6785634090 X 1000000 (8.) Multiply the following numbers first by 6 and then by 7:

9. 99999 X 999

26. 3959925683 x 7060301 1. 54785 4. 839768 7. 9611437 10. 73689202

10, 7422153 x 469

27. 7684329009 X 100007 2. 49236 5. 467 459 8. 3902914 11. 12315678

11. 76854 x 800

28. 1128578893 987654 3. 36528 6. 370228 9. 7856374 12. 91223314

12. 90763 x 700

29. 9698596985 X 2468103 (9.) Multiply the following numbers first by 8 and then by 9:- 13. 3854 X 3854 X 3854

30. 14285711257 X 7965841 1. 73924 4. 995323 7. 6778899 10. 79911997

14. 9264397 X 9584

31. 10101001000 X 100101000 2. 21055 5. 201567 8. 7129304 11. 64951238 15. 9507340 x 7071

32. 7070808090 x 90908070 3. 54698 6. 551853 9. 9315925 12. 89012345

16. 999999 x 9999

33. 300010003000 x 400100020000

17. 6929867 X 8000 (10.) I have a box divided into two parts; in each part there are three parcels; in each parcel there are four bags; in each bag

(2.) Multiply 2354 by 6789, and 23789 by 365, by reversing there are five marbles. How many marbles are there in the box? the multiplier. (11.) There are six farmers, each of whom has a grazing farm

(3.) Multiply 857142 by 19, by 23, by 48, by 97, by 103, by of seven fields ; each field has eight corners, and in each corner 987, and by 4567. there are nine sheep. How many sheep do the farmers own,

(4.) Find the products of the number 98998 by all the numbers and how many are feeding on their farms ?

from 11 to 49 inclusive. The answers will be found in the second Case 2.-To multiply 675 by 337 :

square given in Ex. 4, page 23, on Addition. Since 337 is 300 + 30 + 7, if we multiply 675 by 7, by 30, and by 300 successively, we shall obtain the required product. Arrange the work as in operation (1):


(2.) 675



VEGETABLES. 4725 = 675 X


THE observer who takes a survey of the various members of 20250 = 675 X


the vegetable world becomes cognisant of at least one promi. 202500 = 675 X 300


nent distinction between them. He soon perceives, that whilst Hence 227475 = 675 x 337

certain vegetables have flowers others have not; or perhaps, 227475

more correctly speaking, if the second division really possess In working by this method it is unnecessary to write down flowers, they are imperceptible. the one nought at the end of the second line, and the two This distinction was first laid hold of as a basis of classi. noughts at the end of the third line, etc., as in operation (1), if fication by the celebrated Linnæus, and to this extent the we only place each line one figure to the left of the one pre- classification adopted by that great philosopher was strictly ceding, so that the work appears as in operation (2) :

natural ; beyond this, however, it was altogether artificial, as The above examples will be sufficient to explain the truth of we shall find hereafter, the following

Now, taking advantage of this distinction, the great Swedish Rule for Multiplication.

naturalist termed the evident flowering vegetables phænogamous, (1.) When the multiplier consists of one figure, write it down from the Greek word palyouai (phai'-no-mai), I appear; or, under the unit's place of the multiplicand. Begin at the right phanerogamous, from the Greek word pavepós (phan'-er-os), hand, and multiply each figure of the multiplicand by the multi- evident; and he designated the non-flowering, or more correctly plier, setting down the result and carrying as in addition. speaking, the non-evident flowering plants, by the word crypto

(2.) When the multiplier consists of more than one figure, gamic, from the Greek word kpuntos (kroop'-tos), concealed. The write down the multiplier under the multiplicand, units under further classification of Linnæus was artificial, as we have uníte, tens under tens, etc. Multiply each figure of the multipli- already stated. The nature of this classification we cannot cand by each figure of the multiplier separately, beginning with study with advantage just yet. Hereafter we shall proceed to the units, and write the products so obtained in separate lines, explain the principles on which it was based; but in these

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

7 30

lessons the artificial system of Linnæus will not be adopted as and-by)—let him turn the lower surface of the frond upper. 'a basis for teaching the science. In point of fact, the Linnæan most, and there will be seen many rows of dark stripes. These system may now be considered as obsolete. In making this divi. are termed sporidia, and they contain the sporules of the plant, sion of plants into evident-flowering and non-evident flowering, which sporules therefore may be got by opening the sporidia, or phænogamous and cryptogamic, the learner must take care not Sporules, when regarded by the naked eye, look almost lika to fall into mistakes. He must greatly expand his common dust; when examined under a microscope, however, their outline notions of a flower, and not restrict the appellation to those can be easily recognised. The difference between a sporidium pretty floral ornaments which become objects of attraction, and (singular of sporidia) and a real seed may be thus explained. of which bouquets are made. On the contrary, he must admit A seed has only one part (the embryo or germ) from which the to the right of being regarded as a flower any floral part, how young plant can spring; whereas a sporule does not refuse to over small, even though a lens should prove necessary for the sprout from any side which may present itself to the necessary discovery. Thus, in common language, we do not usually speak conditions of earth and moisture. of the oak, and the ash, and the beech, elm, etc., as being Although the sporules are thus easily discoverable in the fera flower-bearing trees; but they are, nevertheless; and consequently tribe, yet the botanical student must not expect to find them belong to the first grand division of evident flower-bearing, or thus readily in other members of the cryptogamic tribe, in phænogamous or phanerogamous plants. In point of fact, the various members of which not only does their position pary. learner may remember as a rule, to which there are no excep- I but their presence is totally undiscoverable.

[graphic][ocr errors][merged small]

tons, that every member of the vegetable world which bears a

SECTION III. ON THE ORGANS OF VEGETABLES. fruit, and consequently seeds, belongs to the phanerogamous Vegetable organs admit of the very natural division into division. By following the indications of this rule, we restrict those intended for nutriment and growth, and those intended the cryptogamic, or non-evident-flowering plants, to the seemingly for propagation. Hence we may speak of them as nutritive narrow limits of ferns, mushrooms, mosses, and a few others, and reproductive organs. Nutritive organs consist of leaves, all of which are devoid of seeds, properly so called, but are stems, branches, roots, and various appendages to all of these, furnished with a substitute for seeds, termed sporules or spores. hereafter to be described; whilst the reproductive organs of Sporules, then, the learner may remember, are, so to speak, the vegetables are flowers and their appendages. seeds of flowerless and therefore seedless plants. In the study The Root.—We have already seen that it does not suffice to of botany we meet with a great many hard, but useful terms; constitute a root that the portion of the vegetable treated of they will spring up in our path ofton enough, therefore let be underground Thus, for example, as it was remarked in the as shoot them fying whenever we have a chance, and fix them preceding lesson, che potato is not a root, but a tuber; en onion on some sort of memory-peg, even although the latter may be is not a root, but a balb. a joke.

A root may be defined as a filamentous or thread-like (Latin If the reader wishes to ascertain what these sporules are like, filum, a thread) offset from the descending axis of the plant, let him take the leaf of a fern—which, by the way, is no leaf at 'differing from the stem itself

in certain relations of a botanical all, but a frond (we will explain the meaning of this term by structure, and each filament ending in a soft absorbent tuft

denominated the spongiole, the function of which consists in say, stole-bearing, which expression requires the previous explar absorbing moisture, and conveying it into tho structure of the nation of the word stole. A stole, then, is a little stem which plant. Hence the chief and primary use of the root is that of springs from the axilla (literally, arm-pit), or point at which natrition; but it also serves as a means of enabling the plant to the leaves spring from the stem. The strawberry (Fig. 4) affords take firm hold of the earth in which

a common and well-marked illustrait grows. Representations of various

tion of this kind of root. roots are shown in Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.

A bulb is an underground bud, from In most cases, the part at which

the upper part of which the stem the stem ends and the root begins is

arises, and from the lower part of well defined. It is denominated the

which the root descends (Fig. 7). The collar. Although the general cha

onion furnishes us with a very familiar racteristic of the root is to seek the

example. ground, as the characteristic of the

Tubers or tubercles are expansions stem is to seek the air, nevertheless

of underground stems, usually con. stems frequently assume a tendency to

taining muchfecular or starchy matter, become roots, and roots to become

and studded with eyes or buds. The stems. A very remarkable example

potato and the dahlia (Fig. 8) furnish of the former tendency is furnished

us with very familiar examples of a by the banyan tree, or ficus religiosa,

tuber. a native of India. This tree has a

The Stem may be either annual, biennataral tendency to shoot down pro

nial, or perennial. It is termed annual longations from its stem,

when it becomes developed which, taking root, cover

in the spring and dies the ground with an arbour

before the winter, as, for like growth of most fan

instance, is the case with tastic appearance. The

wheat; biennial, when it opposite tendency is re

lives two years; of this cognisable in certain varie

kind is the carrot, which ties of the elm, which shoot

during the first year only up sprouts from the root

produces leaves, and hay. over large tracts of ground

ing lived two years flowers in the vicinity of the

and dies. Perennial steme parent trunk, very much

are those which live many to the annoyance of the

years, as is the case with farmer, whose land is thus

trees in general. considerably damaged. Al

gards their hardness, thangh the essential cha

trunks or stems are usually racteristic of a stem is to

divided into herbaceoug ascend into the air, yet


(Latin, herba, grass), subcertain forms of stem in

ligneous, and ligneous some vegetables exist underground; of this kind are ginger, (Latin, lignum, wood). Herbaceous stems are those in which and the so-called orris-root. Stems of this kind are known woody fibre is almost altogether absent, and which are therefore in botany by the appellation of rhizomes (Fig. 3).

soft and juicy; of this kind is the stem of parsley, hemlook, etc. Usually the root is attached by the collar to an ascending Subligneous stems are those in which woody fibre, although stem, from which latter proceed the leaves; in certain plants, present, does not exist in the smaller shoots ; of this kind are however-for instance, the primrose—there is no ascending sage and rue, the bases of the stems of which are hard and stem, but an horizontal, underground one (the rhizome) takes woody, and therefore continue for many years, whereas the

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

place, and from this the leaves immediately grow; such, smaller branches and their extremities annually perish, and as leaves are then termed "radical,” that is to say, proceeding often become renewed. from the root, and the plant itself is said to be acauliferous, Shrubs are ligneous plants, the stems of which throw off an from the Greek privative ., without, and the Latin word caulis, undergrowth of stems and flowers at their base, and which stem

never attain any considerable dimensions. Of this kind, for Burstimes the root is said to be “stoloniferous,” that is to l example, are rose-trees.


That is, a combination of the letter s, with the usual sound of

the last syllable of the English word Woth-er. SECTION I. - FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued).

Do like duh. III. NAME AND SOUND OF THE VOWELS (continued.) That is, a combination of the letter d, with the usual sound of

the last syllable of the same word, moth-er. 36. BEFORE proceeding to the illustration of the sound and use

Je like zhuh. of e mute or unaecented, let us commend the following extract to the careful perusal of the pupil. Speaking of the unaccented

That is, a combination of the letters zh, with the same sound e, it is said——" Several of our best orthoepists express them. mentioned in the first example; or like the sound of the last selves thus on that subject :- The proper utterance of the syllable of the word pleas-ure, as usually pronounced, but without unaccented e characterises, in part, the pronunciation of the the sound of the y, which is sometimes heard; i.e., pleas-ure

, gentleman, as the vicious one marks the low-bred and ignorant. and not pleas-yure.

Le like luh. The unaccented e is sometimes pronounced and sometimes not; and in that consists a great difficulty for foreigners, who, always

That is, a combination of the letter l, with the same sound pronouncing it full, are long before they are able to follow a mentioned in the first example. French conversation, and thence are inclined to believe that the

Me like muh. French speak much faster than any other people. The truth is That is, a combination of the letter m, with the same sound that the French, taking them in general, do not speak faster mentioned in the first example; or like the sound of mu in the than other people; but in conversation, and in familiar reading, first syllable of the English word mutter. they drop the unaccented e as often as they can do it, and thus

Ne like nuh. go quicker through a sentence than does a foreigner, who gives

That is, a combination of the letter n, with the sound men. the full sound of u in tub to every unaccented e he meets with. tioned in the first example; or like the sound of nu in the English Thus the word contenance, and the phrase je n'ai pas reçu tout le word nut. Pronounce nu in the word nut, and you have the vêtement, will be pronounced by a foreigner and a Frenchman correct pronunciation of the French word ne. native of Gascony, con-te-nan-ce-je pa re-çu tou le -te-men;

Se like suh. whereas a well-bred Frenchman will pronounce, cont-nansjné pa rsu toul vêt-men, sounding in the first word two syllables

That is, exactly like the pronunciation of ce as given in the only, where the others would sound four ; and in the sentence

first example.

Te like tuh. sounding six syllables, where the others would sound ten.'" The French custom of clipping or shortening words as much

That is, exactly like the sound of the last syllable of the as possible, in ordinary reading and common conversation, is English word wa-ter.

Que like kuh. weli illustrated in the following sentence, namely :

That is, like the sound of the last syllable of the English “Quand vous serez le même, vous me trouverez le même."

word baker, pronounced rather carelessly. This sentence contains thirteen syllables in prose, namely :

Take, if you please, another illustration, viz. : the sound of 1 Quand-vous-se-rez-le-même-vous-me-trou-ve-rez-le-même. In poetry, sound of the French word ne.

in the English word nut, as explained above, in illustrating the même would have two syllables. However, in familiar reading of e mute or unaccented.

This will give the correct sound and conversation, it is pronounced in eight syllables only, viz.:

The sound of e mute or unaccented resembles the sound of the Quand-vou-srel-mêm-voum-trouv-rel-mêm. The suppression of this e is precisely the reason why foreigners imagine that the these two words, viz.—the man. Apply the sound of this e, thus

letter e of the word the, which is heard in pronouncing quickly French speak so very quickly.

37. E, e, MUTE OR UNACCENTED.-- Name, wh; sound, liko pronounced, to the e in the following words, viz. :-ce, de, je, me, the sound of the letter u in the English word 'nut; or, like the ne, se, te, que, etc. sound of the last syllable er in the words over and water, when sound of the English a pronounced naturally. Let the organs

Or lastly, the sound of e mute or unaccented is based upon tho spoken quickly. The e mute or unaccented " is a mere emission of the voice tion, whilst

the lips

are protruded as if to pout or whistle. Then,

within the mouth maintain as nearly as possible the same posiwithout any distinct sound. It either succeeds a consonant, by whilst the mouth is in this position, endeavour to pronounce the articulation of which it becomes sensible, or comes after a vowel, of which it may be considered the prolongation.”

the English a again ; this, in a majority of cases, will give the

correct sound of e mute or unaccented. Practise frequently on It is confessedly difficult to illustrate the sound of this vowel this last-mentioned plan aloud, and the ear will soon detect the by the aid of English letters, yet it is worthy an honest attempt. viciousness or correctness of the sound. True, it may be acquired from a teacher, by sheer imitation; more or less difficult to acquire this sound; but perseverance

Most pupils find it but alas, all learners are not good imitators ! If it can be illus- will, in due time, overcome every obstacle. trated by analogous English sounds, it seems quite reasonable

In illustrating the sound of e mute or unaccented, the follow. to suppose that through this process many more students would understand and acquire it, than if they were left merely to the ing signs will be used, sometimes one, again the other, viz. :-uh,

and the apostrophe, thus :doubtful policy of imitation. Let us try.

Je by zhuh, or by j. So by suh, or by s'. Before the pupil attempts to pronounce the French words used for examples, let him observe most carefully the sound of SECTION VIII.--DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND the last syllable of the following words, when uttered as they

PRONOUNS. usually are in common conversation, namely :

1. The demonstrative adjectives ce, m., cette, f., this or that, Moth-er, Broth-er, Nev-er, Sis-ter, Wa-ter. are always placed before nouns; they agree in gender with these

nouns ($ 20 (1)]. Take any one of the above English words, viz:--the first,

Avez-vous ce parapluie ? m.,

Have you this or that umbrella ? moth-er. Pronounce it naturally and aloud with a full voice

N'avez-vous pas cette bouteille ? f., Have you not this or that bottle ? several times, until the common sound of the last syllable in particular is familiar to the ear. Take each of those words, and

2. Before a word masculine singular, commencing with a thus practise, by pronouncing aloud carefully, but naturally, vowel or h mute, cet takes the place of ce [§ 20 (1)]. observing at the same time the sound of the last syllable.

N'avez-vous pas cet argent ? Have you not this or that money! Now, by what combination of letters would you represent Vous avez eu cet honneur, You have had this or that honour. that sound? By ur, as in the first syllable of the English word

3. When it is deemed necessary to express in French the mur-mur? or by uh Manifestly the latter. Below are a few difference existing in English between the words this and that, French words, which you will now proceed to pronounce aloud, the adverbs ci and là may be placed after the nouns ($ 20 (2)]. giving to the vowel e in each example the last syllable of the Je n'ai pas ce parasol-ci, j'ai ce word nev-er.

I havo not this parasol, I have that Pronounce each of the following French words


parasol. quickly and abruptly, as if an exclamation mark were placed

4. The demonstrative pronouns, celui, m., celle, f., this or that, over each one of them, namely :

are used to represent nouns, but are never joined with them like Ce like suh.

adjectives ($ 36, § 37 (1)).

[ocr errors]


J'ai mon parapluie et celui de votre Ihare my umbrella and your brother's 28. The stranger has no poultry, but he has money. 29. Your frire,

-i.e., that of your brother. brother is hungry and thirsty, afraid and sleepy. 30. Is any one Vous avez ma robe et cella de ma You hare my dress and my sister's

ashamed ? 31. No, Sir, nobody is ashamed.

32. Is your -i.e., that of my sister.

brother right or wrong? 33. My brother is right, and yours is 5. Tho pronouns celui, celle, with the addition of tho words ci

wrong. 34. Your sister has neither her satin hat nor her and ld, are used in the sense of this one, that one, the latter, the velvet hat. 35. Has the baker the mahogany chest of drawers? former [S 37 ()). They agree in gender with the word which 36. He has it not, he has the mahogany sofa. 37. Has the they represent.

tinman my plate ? 38. He has not your plate, he has mine. Vous avez celui-ci, mais vous n'avez You have this one (the ļalter), but pas celui-là, you have not that one (the former).

SECTION IX.-THE PLURAL OF NOUNS ($ 8). 6. The pronouns ceci and cela are used absolutely, that is, the addition of s to the singular.

1. The plural in French is generally formed, as in English, by without a noun, in pointing out objects.

Un homme, une femme,

A man, a woman. Nous n'avons pas ceci, nous avons cela, We have not this, wo have that.

Deux hommes, deux femmes, Two men, two women. Ceci oa ceka,

This or that.

The form le of the article becomes plural by the addition of s, RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

and may be placed before plural nouns of either gender. Araz-sous le livre de cet homme ? Have you that man's book ?

Les hommes, les femmes,

The men, the women. Je n'ai pas son livre, j'ai la mien. I have not his book, I have mins.

2. 1st ExcePTION TO RULE 1.- Nouns ending in s, , , La cuisinier 2-t-il ce parapluie ? Has the cook that umbrella?

n'a pas ce parapluie-ci, il a ce Ho has not this umbrella, he has remain unchanged for the plural.
parapluie là. (R. 3.)
that umbrella.

Le bas, les bas,

The stocking, tho stockings. Araz-vous celui de votre frère ? Have you your brother's?—i.e., that La voix, les voix,

The voice, the voices. of your brother,

Le nez, les nez.

The nose, the noses. Je n'ai pas celui de mon frère, j'ai I have not my brother's, I have my

3. 2nd EXCEPTION.—Nouns ending with au and eu, take x for celui de ma senr. (R. 4.) sister's ;-i.e., that of my brother, the plural.

that of my sister, Avez-vous celui-ci ou celui-là ? Have you this one or that one !

Le bateau, les bateaux, Tho boat, the boats. Je n'ai ni celui-ci ni celui-là. I have neither the latter nor the formor.

Le lieu, les lieux,

The place, the places.
Quelle robe avez-vous ? f.
Which dress havo you?

4. 3rd EXCEPTION.—The following nouns ending in ou take J'ai celle-ci. I have this (one),

x for the plural :--bijou, jewel ; caillou, pebble; chou, cabbage; Arez-vous ceci ou cela? (R. 6.) Have you this or that?

genou, knee; hibou, owl ; joujou, plaything. VOCABULARY.

Les bijoux, les cailloux, les choux, The jewels, the pebbles, the cabbages. Ardoise, f., alate. Encrier, m., inkstand. Parapluie, m., Les hiboux, les genoux, les joujoux. The owls, the knees, the playthings. Bali, m., broom. Fromage, m., cheese. brella.

5. 4th EXCEPTION.—The following nouns ending in ail change Bois, m., wood, Jardinier, m., gardener. Plomb, m., lead.

that termination into aux for the plural :-bail, lease ; corail, Bouteille, f., bottle. Lait, m., mille.

Plus, no longer.
Dame, I., lady.
Lettre, f., letter. Poulet, m., chicken.

coral; émail, enamel; soupirail, air-hole; sous-bail, under-lease; Etringer, m., stranger, | Malle, f., trunk, Salière, f., salt stand. travail, labour. foreigner.

Parasol, m., parasol. Volaille, f., poultry. Les baux, les coraux, les émaux. The leases, the corals, the enamels.

Les soupiraux, les travaux, les The air-holes, the labours, the under.

leases. 1. Votre frère a-t-il son encrier d'argent ? 2. Il ne l'a plus,

6. 5th EXCEPTION.—Nouns ending in al form their plural il a un encrier de plomb. 3. Avons-nous la lettre de l'étranger ? 4. Oai, Monsieur, nous avons celle de l'étranger. (R. 4.) 5.

Le cheval, les chevaux,

The horse, the horses. Votre scur n'a pas son ardoise, mais elle a son chapeau de

Le général, les généraux,

The general, the generals. satin. 6. Le menuisier a-t-il votre bois ou le sien? 7. Il n'a

Bal, ball ; carnaval, carnival ; chacal, jackal ; régal, treat, ni le mien ni le sien, il a celui du jardinier. 8. Avez-vous mon bon parapluie de soie ? 9. J'ai votre parapluie de soie et votre

follow the general rule. parasol de satin. 10. Avez-vous ma bouteille ? 11. Je n'ai pas tor, form their plural irregularly.

7. 6th EXCEPTION.-Ciel, heaven; wil, eye ; and aïeul, ancesvotre bouteille, j'ai la malle de votre seur. 12. Le domestique

The heavens, tho eyes, the ancestors. at-il cette salière ? 13. Il n'a pas cette salière-ci, il a celle-là. Les cieux, les yeux, les aïeux, 14. Avez-vous le bon ou le mauvais poulet ? 15. Je n'ai ni For further rules see § 8, § 9, and § 10, of Part II. celui-ci ni celui-là. 16. Quel poulet avez-vous ? 17. J'ai celui

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. da cuisinier. 18.

Le boulanger a-t-il de la volaille ? (Sect. IV. 1.) Les Anglais ont-ils les chevaux du Have 19. Le boulanger n'a pas de volaille, il a du lait. (Sect. V. 5.)

the English the general's

général ? 20. Avez-vous votre fromage ou le mien ? 21. Je n'ai ni le Les généraux n'ont pas les bijoux.


The generals have not the jewels. Fótre ni le mien, j'ai celui du matelot. 22. Quelqu'un a-t-il Les enfants ont-ils les cailloux ?, Have the children the pebbles ? faim ? 23. Personne n'a faim. 24. Avez-vous quelque chose ? Les yeux de l'enfant.

The child's eyes. 25. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai rien. 26. Avez-vous le sofa d'acajou Les tableaux de cette église. The pictures of that church. de mon menuisier 27. Non, Monsieur, je ne l'ai pas. 28. J'ai Avez-vous les oiseaux de ce bois ? Have you the birds of that wood ? son joli miroir et son bon crayon.

Avez-vous les encriers d'argent de Have you my sister's silver inkstands?

ma seur ? EXERCISE 14.

J'ai les bijoux d'argent et d'or de I have the gold and silver jewels of 1. Has your brother that lady's umbrella ? 2. My brother l'étranger.

the foreigner. has that lady's umbrella ? 3. Have you this parasol or that Les rois n'ont-ils pas les palais de Have not the kings the marbla one ? 4. I have neither this (one) nor that (one). 5. Have

marbre ?

palaces ? you the stranger's gold watch ? 6. No, Sir, I have the baker'a.

VOCABULARY. 7. Who has my slate? 8. I have your slate and your brother's. Baril, m., barrel. Général, m., general. "Meunier, m., millor. 9. Has the cook a silver salt stand? 10. The cook has a silver Bas, m., stocking. Gilet, m., waistcoat. Morceau, m., pieco. salt stand, and a silver dish. 11. Has the cook this poultry Bijou, m., jewel. Grand, adj., large, great. Oiseau, m., bird. or that? 12. He has neither this nor that. 13. Has he this Chocolat, m., chocolate. Jardin, m., garden. Paire, f., pair. bread or that? 14. He has neither this nor that, he has the Chou, m., cabbage. Joujou, m., plaything. Petit, adj., small. baker's good bread. 15. Have you my cotton parasol ? 16. 1 Dans, in.

Légume, m., vegetable. Poivre, m., pepper. have not your cotton parasol, I have your silk parasol. 17 Enfant, m., child. Marchand, m., merchant. Qu', que, what. Has the gardener a leather trunk ?

Fer, m., iron.

Maréchal, m., blacksmith. Rien, nothing. 18. The gardener has a leather trunk.

Fils, m., son.

Mauvais, e, bad, 19. Who has my good cheese ? 20. Nobody has your cheese, but some one has your brother’s. 21. Have

EXERCISE 15. you mine or his? 22. I have neither yours nor his, I have 1. Avez-vous les marteaux du charpentier ? 2. Nous avons the stranger's. 23. Has the cook this bottle or that broom? les marteaux du maréchal. 3. Les maréchaux ont-ils deux 24. He has this bottle. 25. Have you a lead inkstand? 26. marteaux de bois ? 4. Ils ont deux marteaux de fer. 5. Les No, Sir, I have a china inkstand. 27. Has the stranger poultry? généraux ont-ils les chapeaux de soie

de l'enfant ? 6. Ils ont

in aux

« AnteriorContinuar »