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SUBJECT.

PREDICATE.

OBJECT.

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cover

80n.

our

succession, and, in connection with it, enter into such particulars

Brave Nelson fought and conquered the enemy, etc. as may appear desirable with a view to my object.

Before I close the chapter, however, I will add a few general
remarks respecting the actual classification, which bears the
name of the nine (or ten) parts of speech. The aim of the (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

(8) (9) classification is to arrange under separate heads all the words of And lo! Stanley rising quickly caused great wrath in the king. the English (or any other language. Now a good classification 1. Conjunction. 2. Interjection. 3. Noun. 4. Participle, 5. Alhas two qualities : first, it is exhaustive; secondly, it is distinc- verb. 6. Verb. 7. Adjective. 8. Preposition. 9. Article. vre. It is exhaustive—that is, it comprises and places under In the last example, one part of speech is omitted to exercise the sone suitable head all the facts. It is distinctive—that is, it mind of the student, who is also expected to effect the reduction makes such clear and sharp distinctions as to place the several of the proposition to the name of being and the name of action. facts each under its own head, without confounding similar facts Let the reader carefully study and analyse the following together, or putting under one head facts which may as properly sentences : stand under another bead.

1. Propositions without an object. The classification under review is neither exhaustive nor dis Birds sing. Cows graze. Rabbits burrow. Dogs fight. Children play. tinctive. It is not exhaustive, for it leaves out the infinitive

2. Propositions with an object. 2od, which has as good a right to be called a part of speech as

The sun lights the earth. The trees produce fruit. The rain waters the participle. It is not distinctive, for the term adjective makes the meadows. Storms purify the air. The universe proclaims its Author Do distinction where a distinction exists, and the term participle Qualifying words may be added at will, asmakes a distinction where no distinction is required. Indeed,

3. Propositions with a subject and object qualified. the classification is wholly unscientific, being based not on a principle, but on vague and general views. Something less overcharge all their goods. A diligent scholar learns all his lessons.

My young brother teased the little animals. Avaricious tradesmen objectionable may be offered in the following words. Speech corresponds to the realities which it represents. Those

I subjoin some fragments to be made into complete sen

tences : realities are thoughts and things. Now, thoughts and things may be reduced to three classes :-1, Objects; 2, qualities of

1. Propositions lacking subjects.

leads a blind man. aids his sick mother, - neglect their Ajarts; 3, actions. Consequently, the essential parts of speech

duty.
avoids bad company.

- promises a rich harvest. are the noun, the adjective, and the verb. But objects and their

much money. qualities are the same things differently viewed. We may there.

2. Propositions lacking objects. foze strike out qualities. Thus we have two classes left

Disobedient children deserve The proud despise - Thick clouds namely, the noun and the verb. Verbs, however, are the names

A bad child grioves — An honest debtor pays

Wise men ci action, as nouns are the names of being. Hence language rebuke resolves itself into names. We may, then, declaro that speech

3. Propositions lacking verbs. is made up of names. These names may be expanded and The eldest sister - the younger ones. The father - his incorrigible divided into 1, names of being, or rouns; 2, names of action, or Noisy boys the neighbourhood. The police — public order. torbs; and 3, names of qualities, or adjecttves. Under the last A grateful daughter tender mother. The divine Saviour head, or names of qualities, may stand other parts of speech, human infirmities. for the adverb names the quality of the action of the verb, and It may here be necessary, by anticipation, to inform the totally the article names the extent in which the noun is to be taken. uneducated student that, when the verb is singular it has s at The term particles has not inappropriately been applied to ad- the end, when plural it is without s. The verb must be in the Terbs and conjunctions, for. to a considerable degree they appear | singular number when the noun or pronoun connected with it to be parts (particles—that is, little parts) or fragments of once denotes only one person or thing ; and the verb must be in the existing nouns and verbs. If, however, our analysis of language plural number when the noun or pronoun connected with it mto names of being and names of action is correct, then the denotes more than one person or thing; e.g.watence which, as given above, contains all the nine parts of

SINGULAR: A boy loves; the house stands; the duck swims. speech, may be reduced to two; as,

PLURAL: Boys love; houses stand; ducks swim.

The rule might be put in another form, as, when the noun has an Alfred

Teads.

s (or is in the plural) the verb is without; and when the verb Name of being.

Name of action.

has an s the noun is without. and thus we are brought back to the very form with which we commenced our former lesson on “ Simple Propositions." Clearly, as compared with these two parts, the other words in

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-III. the sentence are incidental, and of small moment.

NOTIONS OF THE GREEKS AND ROMANS. It may be desirable to give another germ or two expanded The desire for nautical expeditions, which, under the excitemto the full forms.

ment of commercial enterprise, had begun to spread among the

nations, was restrained by the conquests of the Romans. These Nelson

conquests, however, if they did not extend the boundaries of the fought

known world, at least enriched the domain of geographical fought fought the enemy.

knowledge with new facts, and more exact than those which often fought the enemy.

had been collected and taken for granted by the writers of

often fought the cruel enemy. former ages. The three Punic (Carthaginian) wars, the Illyrian Brave Nelson, defying danger,

often fought the cruel enemy. war, the contests with the Gauls, the expeditions agairst Spain, Brave Nelson, defying danger and death, often fought the cruel enemy. and those of Ætius Gallus into Arabia and Ethiopia, all con(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

tributed, in their turn, to give to this science a more positive Brave Nelson, defying danger and death, often fought the enemy of his character and more varied details. Polybius, about 150 years

before the age of Hipparchus, gave a description of the world 1. Adjective. 2. Noun.

which, notwithstanding his numerous errors, evinced remarkable 3. Participle. 4. Conjunction. 5. Adverb.

progress in the knowledge of the globe. The new acquisitions 8. Preposition. 9. Pronoun.

of the Romans, and of Mithridates Eupator, the campaigns of Other explanatory words or phrases might be added. Thus, to Julius Cæsar in Gaul and in Britain, rendered accessible the the subject might be appended the words sailing from England, knowledge of countries hitherto but partially explored, or alto

gether unknown. Posidonius, a Syrian, resident at Rhodes, Brave Nelson, sailing from England, and defying danger, fought.

endeavoured to correct the measurement of the earth's circum

ference formerly made by Eratosthenes. He observed that when Oz. Fou might qualify fought by the adverb successfully. You the star Canopus, in the constellation Argo. became visible in caught also make the sentence compound by inserting after the horizon of Rhodes, it was elevated seven degrees and a half forught the words, and conquered ; thus :

above the horizon of Alexandria. He supposed these places to

SUBJECT.

PREDICATE.

SUBJECT

PREDICATE.

OBJECT.

Brace Nelson Brave Nelson Brave Nelson Erave Nelson

country.

( verb. 7. Article.

be under the same meridian, and, from the reckoning of navi- minds of men for a period of no less than twelve centuries of gators, he found the distance between them to be 5,000 stadia. the history of the world. Now, seven degrees and a half being the forty-eighth part of a When we consider the advanced state of the arts and sciences great circle of the sphere, this gives the circumference of the in the age of Augustus Cæsar, at least compared with those earth equal to 240,000 stadia. This was a nearer approximation which preceded it, we cannot but wonder at the imperfect state to the truth than that of Eratosthenes, but it was founded on of geographical knowledge which existed in the Roman world at erroneous data ; for the arc of the great circle between the two this period. Horace considered Great Britain and the Thames places above mentioned was only about 5° 15', and the differ- as the confines of the earth; and Virgil, as we have already ence between their two meridians was rather more than 2° remarked, placed the source of the Nile in India. The geo

Strabo, who flourished under the reign of Augustus Cæsar, graphical productions of Dionysius Periegetes and of Pomponius corrected many errors of the geographers who preceded him, Mela, written within a period of fifty years after the Christian and made some of his own. The limits of his knowledge of era, contain nothing worthy of notice, being mere compilations the world were, on the north, Ierne or Ireland, and the mouth of what was then known, and by no means improved. of the Elbe. He denied the existence of Thule, and asserted When the legions of the Emperor Claudius Cæsar, A.D. 40, that the earth was not habitable at the distance of 4,000 marched to the conquest of Britain, this country was a new

tadia north of Britain. On the east, he considered Ceylon, or world to the Romans. The fleet of Agricola, thirty-five years Taprobane and Thinæ, the borders of the world, and it is afterwards, circumnavigated Scotland, explored the surrounding doubtful whether his knowledge of it extended as far as the seas, and re-discovered the famous Thule. But even at this mouths of the Ganges. He knew the western coast of Africa epoch Great Britain was still a mysterious country; Tacitus

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as far as Cape Nan. Bat he partook of the error of those who says it was bounded on the east by Germany, on the south by represented the Caspian Sea as united to the Northern Ocean; Gaul, and on the west by Spain. As to Ireland, he places it and he rejected the positive information of Herodotus on this midway between Spain and Great Britain. The interior of point. He acknowledged little regard for the authority of this Germany became known to the Romans in consequence of their ancient historian, and his doubt on the subject of the voyages active commerce with certain northern parts of Europe, which of Pytheas, Hanno, and Endoxus, showed his ignorance of many arose from the passion of the Roman ladies for succinum or important geographical questions.

yellow amber. In the east, a discovery of very great importanca Strabo adopted the division of the earth into climates advanced the progress of navigation and geography. Hippalas, recognised by Greek and Roman authors previous to his time. about the middle of the first century, established the fact of Long before him, indeed, as well as after him, the globe was the periodicity of the monsoons, or trade-winds, in the Indian divided into five zones, namely, two frigid or frozen zones near Ocean, which from that period has regulated the motions of the the poles, one torrid or central zone scorched by the sun and western navigators to India and the Asiatic Archipelago. extending along the equatorial line on each side of it, and On the south, the expedition of the Consul Suetonius Panlinus two others called the temperate zones, occupying the rest of into the country of Sejelmissa, on the borders of the Sahars, or the world. The last-named were considered to be the only Great Desert of Africa, disclosed those parts of the modern habitable portions of the globe; and as the torrid zone, it Morocco and Algeria which extend southwards, from the southern was supposed to be condemned, on account of its fiery climate, side of Mount Atlas to the confines of the sun-scorched desert. not only to eternal solitude, but to present an invincible obstacle The campaign of Cornelius Balbus in a neighbouring and parallel to the exploration of the countries situated beyond the equator. region, was accompanied with still more interesting results. It will afford an illustration of the force of those ideas which The Roman army set out for Tripoli, traversed the desert, prevailed on the subject of the zones of the globe, and on the penetrated into Fezzan, and advanced even into the country relative position of the great divisions of the earth, when we visited by Messrs. Denham and Clapperton in 1822, that is, to refect on the fact that they maintained their ground in the the vicinity of Bornou. Of the scientific information gained by

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these enterprises, the celebrated Caius Secundus Pliny availed Beloor Mountains, and reached the celebrated Lithinos Pyrgos, or himself, in his Natural History. He also knew how to dip with “ Stone Tower," a station whose site is still a doubtful question considerable discernment into the writings of the Greeks; but among geographers. From this station to the frontier of Serica be appears not to have considered it necessary to consult the was a seven months' hard and perilous journey. The description work of Strabo. From the information he had obtained in this which Ptolemy gives of Serica corresponds more exactly to China Fay, he assigned to the different quarters of the world then than any other country; and his account of the manners and known the following magnitudos :—To Europe, one-third; to customs of the inhabitants identifies it still more. Moreover, Asia, one-fourth; and to Africa one-fifth of the whole.

the staple commodity of this overland trade was silk, for which Marinus of Tyre, who preceded Ptolemy, was distinguished China has been celebrated from time immemorial. Ptolemy for his geographical knowledge. He took advantage of all appears to have had a considerable knowledge of Hindostan or ancient and contemporary writers to compose a complete treatise India, both within and beyond the Ganges; a knowledge said un the subject of geography and maps; and he even prepared to be superior to that of the moderns till within the limits of Dew editions of his books, corrected and improved in proportion the present century. With regard to Africa, this statement 13 he obtained more exact information; but it is to be regretted may just be reversed. But, on the whole, his work must be that these have not reached us. At last appeared, about the considered a singular monument of industry, and a valuable middle of the second century, the famous Ptolemy, who lived at book of reference in all matters relating to the ancient geoAlexandria in Egypt, and taught astronomy there. His system graphy of the world. of astronomy and geography, which stood unimpeached for about twelve centuries, and received the name of the Ptolemaic system from its author, was not superseded till Copernicus appeared ;

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-V. and notwithstanding his errors, due more to the ignorance of

SECTION I. FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued). mankind than to himself, his name is still revered as a geographer and astronomical observer. His work entitled the

III. NAME AND SOUND OF THE VOWELS. Vegale Syntaxis, or Great Construction,” is a monument of his 38. É, é, ACUTE.--Name, ay; sound, like the letters ay in the labour and his learning. He examined the ratio of the length English word pray. o the gnomon or style of the sun-dial to its shadow at the

EXAMPLES. quinoxes and the solstices; he calculated eclipses; he investi- | FRENCH. PRONUN, ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. pated the calculations founded on the difference of climate, and Arrivé Ar-eev-ay Arrived. Obligé O-ble-zhay Obliged. carefully consulted the reports of travellers and navigators. Elevé Ayl-vay Raised. Précéder Pray-say-day To proceed He reduced his information and observations into a regular Eté Ay-tay Summer. Prémédité Pray · may · Premedi

dee-tay tated, system, and expressed the positions of places by longitude and Flagorné Flah-gorn-ay Wheedled.

For-zhay Forged. Trouvé latitude, after the manner of Hipparchus.

Troo-vay

Found.
His great work Forgó
Joué Zhoo-ay Sported. Vérité

Vay-ree-tay Truth. consists nearly of an elementary picture of the earth, in which

Mérite May-reet Worth. its figure and size, and the positions of places on its surface, are determined. It contains only a very short outline of the

39. È, è, GRAVE.—Name, ai; sound, like the letters ai in division of countries, with scarcely any historical notice. It is the English word stair. supposed that a detailed account was added to this outline, but

EXAMPLES. it has not reached us. His geography is contained in eight FRENCH. PRONUX. ENGLISH FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. books, and is certainly more scientific than any previous work Chère Shair

Cheer. Madère Mad-air Madeira. on the subject. He taught how to determine the longitude by Colère

Ko-lair Passionate. Manière Man-yair Manner. lazar eclipses, and by this method ascertained that of many

Elève Ay-laiv Pupil. Mère Mair Mother.

Fièvre Feai-vr places with tolerable aceuracy.

Fever. Modèle Mo-dail Pattern. Jardinière Zhahr-deen. Gardener. Père Pair

Father. According to Ptolemy, the limits of the world were Thule on

yair

Ratière Rat-yair Rat-trap. the north, and the Prassnm Promontorium on the south, the former being, most probably, some part of Norway, and the 40. Ê, ê, CIRCUMFLEX.—Name, ai; sound, like the letters latter

ai in the inita on the west were the Fortunate Isles, now the Canaries; E has a longer and broader sound than è. The mouth must and on the east, Thinæ in Sinæ or China. He rejected the be opened wider in pronouncing the former than the latter. In tbsory of all preceding geographers, who represented the world ordinary reading and common conversation, the difference u surrounded by an impassable ocean on all sides; and he between ê and è is hardly perceptible. Still there is a differzaplaced it by an indefinite expanse of unknown land. He rejected ence; just the differenoe between pronouncing e like the letters the true reports of circumnavigation of Africa, and extended its ai in the English word stair with the mouth half opened, and kmits southward beyond all reasonable bounds.

pronouncing the same letters in the same word with the mouth With Europe, Ptolemy was tolerably well acquainted; and well opened, and also prolonging the sound. Practice will he described Germany and Sarmatia with some degree of accu- demonstrate this. racy. He knew the Ems, the Weser, the Elbe, the Oder, and

EXAMPLES. the Vistala. He calls Jutland the Cimbric Chersonese or

PRONUN. ENGLISH.

PRONUN. ENGLISH, Peninsula, and the Baltic, the Sarmatic Ocean ; but he failed Bete Bait

A beast,

For-rai Forest. in his account of this inland sea. He was better acquainted Crême Kraim Cream.

Maim

The same. with the south of Russia in Europe, with the Tanais, the Borys-Crêpe Kraip Crape. Prêcher Prai-shay To proach. thenes, and the Euxine, or Black Sea. In his description of the Dépêche Day-paish Dispatch. Prêt Prai Ready. Mediterranean there are many errors; but his account is more

Être Aitr

To be.

Rêve Raiv Dream.

Extrême Eks-traim acturate with them all than that of any previous geographer.

Extreme. Tête Tait

Head. In regard to Asia, his knowledge was obscure and unsatisfactory,

SECTION X.-PLURALS OF PRONOUNS, ETC. thoagh some features can be still identified with fact. Here he described the “Golden Chersonese,” and the Magnus Sinus, or

1. The plural form of the pronouns le, him or it; la, her or it, Great Bay of India. These appear to have been the Indo- is les, them, for both genders. Its place is also before the verb. Chinese countries of Ava, Pega, and Malacca, with their adjacent Vous les avez. Les avez-vous ? You have them. Have you them? gulfs or bays; and Thing, which he places at this remote Nous ne les avons pas,

We have them not. comer, is supposed to be Siam, rather than any place in China.

2. The plural of the article, preceded by the preposition de, of The Serica of Ptolemy in the north of Asia is supposed, with or from, is des for both genders. good reason, to be China, which was reached by great trading

Des livres, des plumes,

Of or from the books, of the pens. caravana, which proceeded from Byzantium (or Constantinople),

Des frères, des scurs,

Of or from the brothers, of the sisters. acroas Asia Minor, crossing the Euphrates at Hierapolis, and passing through Media, by way of Ecbatana to Hecatompylos, 3. The same form of the article is placed before plural nouns the capital of Parthia. Their next route was through Hyrcania, used in a partitive sense (Sect. IV. ij. Aria, Margiana, and Bactria, whence they ascended the table-land J'ai des habits,

I have clothes. of the interior of Asia, passed over the Montes Comedorum, or Vous avez des maisons,

You have houses,

FRENCH.

FRENCH.
Forêt
Même

ours.

4. Sect. IV. 5, and Sect. VI. 4, apply also to plural nouns right or wrong? 8. I am right, I am not wrong. 9. Has the used partitively.

tinman my silver candlesticks or yours ? 10. He has neither Nous n'avons pas de livres,

We have no books.

your silver candlesticks nor mine. 11. What has he ? 12. He Vous avez de bons crayons,

You have good pencils. has the cabinet-maker's wooden tables. 13. Has he your maho5. The plural form of the possessive adjectives mon, ton, son,

gany chairs ? 14. No, Sir, he has my white marble tables. 15. notre, votre, leur, is mes, my; tes, thy; ses, his, her; nos, our ;

Have you these tables or those ? 16. I have neither these nor

those, I have the cabinet-maker's. 17. Have you good pencil. vos, your ; leurs, their, for both genders.

cases ? 18. No, Sir, but I have good pencils. 19. Has the Mes frères, mes scurs,

My brothers, my sisters.

traveller iron guns ? 20. Yes. Sir, he has mine, yours, and his. Nos livres, nos plumes,

Our books, our pens.

21. Has he not your brother's ? 22. He has not my brother's 6. The possessive pronouns, le mien, la mienne, eto. [Sect. 23. Has the workman my iron hammers ? 24. Yes, Sir, he has VII. 6], form their plural as follows:-

them. 25. Has my brother your pens or my cousin's ? 26. Ho Masc. Fem.

Maso.
Fem.

has mine and yours. 27. Have you the children's clothes? 28. Les miens, les miennes, mino. Les tiens,

les tiennes, thine. Yes, Madam, I have them. 29. Have you your sister's hat? Les siens, les siennes, his or hers. Les nôtres, les nôtres,

30. I have my cousin's, f. 31. Is anything the matter with Les vôtres, les vôtres, yours.

Les leurs, les leurs,

theirs.
your brother?

32. He is cold and hungry. 33. Have you Vos maisons et les miennes, Your houses and mine.

horses ? 34. Yes, Sir, I have two horses. 35. I have two Vos champs et les siens, Your fields and his.

horse-hair mattresses and one wool mattress, Les siens, les vôtres, et les nôtres, His, yours, and ours.

SECTION XI. 7. The demonstrative adjectives, ce, cet, cette, have ces for their plural.

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES-FEMININE OF ADJECTIVES. Ces hommes, ces femmes, These men, these women.

1. The adjective in French, whatever may be its place, 8. The demonstrative pronoun celui, m., this or that, makes agrees in gender and number with the noun which it qualifies ceux in the plural. The feminine form, celle, merely takes the [$ 15 (1) (2)]. s in the plural.

2. Adjectives ending with e mute, i.e., not accented, retain Mes chandeliers (m.) et ceux de My candlesticks and those of your

that termination for the feminine. vos frères, brothers.

Un garçon aimable,

An amiablo boy. Vos chandelles (f.) et celles de nos Your candles and those of our

Une fille aimable,

An amiable girl. voisins, neighbours.

3. Adjectives not ending in e mute take e for the feminine. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Un garçon diligent,

A diligent boy. Votre frère a-t-il mes chevaux ? Has your brother my horses ?

Une fille diligente,

A diligent girl. Il n'a ni les vôtres ni les siens. He has neither

nor his.

4. EXCEPTIONS.

:--Adjectives ending in el, eil, en, et, on, lis, A-t-il ceux de nos voisins ? Has he those of our neighbours ?

and es, double the last consonant and take e for the feminine. I ne les a pas.

He has them not.
Ma seur a-t-elle vos plumes ou Has my sister your pens or my cort-

Masc.
Fem.

Masc.

Fein. celles de ma cousine ? sin's ? f. (or those of my cousin). Essentiel, essentielle, essential. Sujet,

sujette, subject. Elle n'a ni les miennes ni celles de She has neither mine nor my cousin's, Vermeil, vermeille, vormillion. Bon, bonne, good. ma cousine, elle a les siennes. she has her own.

Ancien, ancienne, ancient. Bas, basse,

lok. Avons-nous des marteaux ? Have we hammers

5. Adjectives ending in f change the f into ve; those ending Vous n'avez pas de marteaux. You have no hammers. Vous avez de jolis crayons. You have pretty pencils.

in a change that letter into se for the feminine. Avez-vous les habits des enfants ? Have you the children's clothes ?

Un habit neuf,

A neve coat. Je n'ai pas les habits des enfants. I have not the children's clothes.

Une robe neuve,

A new dress. Vous avez les chapeaux des dames. You have the ladies' hats.

Un homme heureux,

A happy man. Avez-vous ceux-ci ou ceux-là ? Have you these or those ?

Une femme heureuse,

A happy woman. VOCABULARY.

6. The adjectives bean, handsome ; fou, foolish; mou, soft; Acajou, m., mahogany. Chandelle, f., candle. Fusil, m., gun.

nouveau, new; vieux, old; become, bel, fol, mol, nouvel, and Aubergiste, m., inn. Cousine, f., cousin. Laine, f., wool. vieil, before a noun masculine commencing with a vowel or an h koeper.

Crin, m., horse-hair. Marbre, m., marble. mute; the last consonant of the latter form is doubled, and e Blanc, m., blanche, f., Ebéniste, m., cabinet- Matelus, m., mattress. added, for the feminine. Ex.: Belle, folle, nouvelle, vieille. white.

maker,

Meilleure, adj. f., bet- 7. Additional rules and exceptions will be found in § 15 of Chaise, f., chair. Ferblanc, m., tun.

ter.

Part II.
Chandelier, m., candle- Ferblantier, m., tin- Ouvrier, m., workman. 8. CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE
stick.
Voyageur, m., traveller.

OF ETRE, TO BE.
EXERCISE 17.

Affirmatively,

Interrogatively. 1. Avez-vous les marteaux des maréchaux ? 2. Oui, Mon.

Je suis,
I am.

Suis-je ? sieur, je les ai. 3. Ne les avez-vous pas ? 4. Non, Monsieur,

Thou art.
Es-tu?

Art thou? nous ne les avons pas. 5. L'ouvrier les a. 6. L'aubergiste

Il est,
He is.
Est-il ?

Is het
She is.
Elle est,

Est-elle ? a-t-il vos chevaux ?

Is shot 7. L'aubergiste n’a ni mes chevaux ni les

Nous sommes,

Sommes-nous ? vôtres, il a les siens. 8. Le médecin a-t-il des livres ? 9. Oui,

Are we!
Vous êtes,
You are.

Etes-vous ? Are you? Monsieur, il a de bons livres. 10. N'avez-vous pas mes meil.

Ils sont, m.,

They are. Sont-ils? Are they? leures plumes ? 11. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai vos meilleures plumes,

Elles sont, f., They are. Sont-elles ? Are they? les miennes, et celles de votre cousine. 12. Le voyageur a-t-il

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. de bons fusils ? 13. Il n'a pas de bons fusils, il a des fusils de fer. 14. Le matelot n'a-t-il pas mes matelas de crin ? 15. I Avez-vous un garçon diligent et Have you a diligent boy and a dillo ne les a pas. 16. Qu'a-t-il ? 17. Il a les matelas de laine de une fille diligente ?

gent girl? l'ébéniste. 18. L'ébéniste a-t-il des tables d'acajou ? 19. Oui, Mon garçon est diligent, mais ma My boy is diligent, but my daughter Madame, il a des tables d'acajou et des tables de marbre blanc.

fille est paresseuse. (R. 5.)

is idle.

Cette coutume est-elle ancienne P Is this custom ancient ! 20. Avez-vous mes chaises ou les vôtres ? 21. Je n'ai ni les

Cette coutume n'est pas ancienne, This custom is not ancient, itu vôtres ni les miennes, j'ai celles de l'ébéniste. 22. N'avez-vous

elle est nouvelle. (R. 6.) pas sommeil ? 23. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai ni sommeil ni faim. Votre plume, f., est-elle bonne ou Is your pen good or bad? 24. Le ferblantier a-t-il vos chandeliers de fer? 25. Non, Mon. mauvaise ? sieur, il a ceux du maréchal.

Ma scur est très-vive. (R. 5.) My sister is very lwvely.

Votre maison est-elle meilleure que Is your house better than mine! EXERCISE 18.

la mienne? 1. Have you my tables or yours ? 2. I have neither yours La maison de ma swur n'est pas si My sister's house is not so good a nor mine, I have the innkeeper's. 3. Have you them? 4. No, bonne que la vôtre.

yours. Sir, I have them not. 5. Has your sister my horses ? 6. Yes, Sir, she has your two horses and your brother's. 7. Are you * For the place of adjectives see Sect. XIII., and Sect. VI. 5.

man.

Am II

Tu es,

We are.

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VOCABULARY.

2. Start from the same position, and, after each backward Bean, bel, belle, hand-Fille, f., daughter. Parasol, m., parasol. movement, bring the wand over the head and down in front to Habit, m., coat. Petit, -e, small.

the knees. Bon, m., good'

Heureux, -sc, happy. Paresseux, -se, idle. 3. Hold the wand over the head as before; then bring it Content, -e, pleased. Ici, here.

Porcelaine, f., china.

down on each side alternately, by lowering one hand and raising Crarate, I., crarat. Meilleur, -e, better. Que, than,

the other, until the wand is in a perpendicular position. ReDame, f., lady. Neuf, -ve, now. Vieux, vieille, old.

member still that the elbows must not be bent. Encrier, m., inkstand. Parapluie, m., um- | Vif, vive, quick, lively. Excellent, e, excellent. brella.

4. Now hold the wand in an upright position in front of

you, the hands near the middle, and about six inches apart; EXERCISE 19.

the arms extended forward as nearly straight as possible. 1. Cette dame est-elle contente ? 2. Non, Monsieur, cette Keeping the legs and arms stiff, move the wand from side to daine n'est pas contente. 3. Votre fille est-elle vive ? 4. Mon side as far as you can reach, the upper part of the body partly fils est très vif et ma fille est paresseuse. 5. N'a-t-elle pas tort? turning at each movement. 6. Elle n'a pas raison. 7. Votre cousine est-elle heureuse ? 8. 5. Standing erect, with the right hand put the wand out at Oai, Madame, elle est bonne, belle, et heureuse. 9. A-t-elle des a right angle in front of you, one end resting on the floor; the amis. 10. Oui, Monsieur, elle a des parents et des amis. 11. body and the wand being both perpendicular, and the right arm A-t-elle une robe neuve et de vieux souliers ? 12. Elle a de in the horizontal position, the left land resting on the hip. Tieux souliers et une vieille robe. 13. Votre frère n'a-t-il Now, from this position, step out with the right leg as far as pas un bel habit ? (R. 6.) 14. Il a un bel habit et une bonne you can reach, the foot passing behind the wand. The elbow eravate. 15. Avez-vous de bonne viande, Monsieur ? 16. J'ai must not be bent, and the wand must remain unmoved. Return de la viande excellente. 17. Cette viande-ci est-elle meilleure to the erect position, the wand still held forward, and repeat que celle-là ? 18. Celle-ci est meilleure que celle-là. 19. Votre these movements ten times in succession. This is called ami a-t-il le bel encrier de porcelaine? 20. Son encrier est beau, “ charging," and is good exercise for the legs and the lower mais il n'est pas de porcelaine. 21. Quelqu'un a-t-il faim ? 22. part of the body. Perzonne n'a faim. 23. Les généraux sont-ils ici ? 24. Les 6. Go through the same movements as in the last exercise, généraux et les maréchaux sont ici. 25. J'ai vos parasols et with the exception that the wand is held forward with the left Tos parapluies, et ceux de vos enfants.

hand, the charge being made with the left leg. EXERCISE 20.

7. Stand erect and hold the wand out straight before you 1. Is your little sister pleased ? 2. Yes, Madam, she is at arm's length, in a perpendicular position, the left hand resting pleased. 3. Is that little girl handsome? 4. That little girl back to the other foot, five times in succession, without bending

on the hip. Now step out with the right foot to the wand, and is not handsome, but she is good. 5. Have you good cloth and the knee. Take the wand in the left hand, and advance the left good silk? 6. My cloth and* silk are here. 7. Is your sister foot in the same manner. happy? 8. My sister is good and happy. 9. Has that physiciao's sister friends? 10. No, Madam, she has no friends. 11.

8. Holding the wand as before, step backward as far as you Is your meat good ? 12. My meat is good, but my cheese is return to the erect position, and repeat the movement ten times.

can with the right foot, in this case bending the left knee; then betta. 13. Has the bookseller a handsome china inkstand ? 14. He has a fine silver inkstand and a pair of leather shoes. The same afterwards with the left foot. 15. Have you my silk parasols ? 16. I have your cotton ward as far as you can reach, without stopping. Do this ten

9. Carry the right foot forward to the wand, and then backumbrellas. 17. Is your brother's coat handsome ? 18. My brother has a handsome

coat and an old silk cravat. 19. Have times in succession, and then the same with the left foot. you relations and friends ? 20. I have no relations, but I have above the other, the arms straight out, step the right foot forward

10. Holding the upper end of the wand in both hands, one friends. 21. Is that handsome lady wrong? 22. That hand

to the wand and the left backward as far as possible. Now scine lady is not wrong. 23. Have you handsome china ? 24. Our china is handsome and good. 25. It is better than yours. change the position of the feet at a single jump, and do this ten

successive times. 26. Is not that little girl hungry? 27. That handsome little girl is neither hungry nor thirsty. 28. What is the matter

These examples of the Wand exercises will be sufficient. with her? 29. She has neither relations nor friends. 30. Is They may be greatly varied, and two persons, each with a wand, this gold watch good ? 31. This one is good, but that one is may go through exercises similar in character to the Ring move

ments described in the previous paper. better. R. Have you it? 33. I have it, but I have not your ester's. 34. I have neither yours nor mine, I have your mother's.

We now come to Dumb Bell exercises, which are a well-known

and very ancient means of physical culture. The best modern OUR HOLIDAY.

gymnasts, however, have introduced an important change in the

practice with dumb bells. Formerly it was the custom to emGYMNASTIC EXERCISES.-II.

ploy the heaviest bells that could be used by the learner, and RETURNING to exercises which may be practised without the to put him only through a small variety of motions with them. sid of a companion, we have next to mention a class of light Now the most approved system is founded on the use of a light gymnastics known as the

dumb bell, with which the pupil is taught to perform a great variety of active and graceful movements, calculated to advance

the flexibility as well as the strength of all the muscles of the These are especially beneficial in inducing flexibility of the body. Some gymnasts maintain that the dumbbell should shoulder-joint, and form a useful preparation for more arduous range only between two pounds and five pounds in weight, acmovements at a later stage of the learner's progress.

cording to the strength of the learner; but Dr. Dio Lewis, who The wand is a smooth stick, one inch in diameter and four takes the lead as a recent authority in gymnastics, and who feet long, with the ends rounded. For very young persons a has had a very long and wide experience, is of opinion that bells leagth of three foet is sufficient. The following are among the weighing two pounds are heavy enough for any man, provided exercises to be practised with this instrument.

he wishes to attain to something more than the strength required 1. Grasp the wand with the hands at either end, as seen in for lifting heavy weights. He recommends that, as the dumb Fig. 5; the attitude being perfectly erect, and the chest thrown bells should be of considerable size, they should be made of forward. Now, without bending the elbows, bring the wand down wood; and wooden dumb bells only are nsed in his own gymbehind you as far as you can, then raise it again to the original nasium at Boston, U.S. The handle should be at least half an position above the head, and repeat these movements twenty inch longer than the width of the hand, and of such a size as times in succession.

can be easily grasped, with a slight swell in the middle.

Before describing the light dumb-bell exercises, we will, how• The article, the possessive and demonstrative adjective, are ever, say a few words as to the use of the heavier metal bells, Depested before every noun. Mon frère et ma suur, my brother and with which some of our readers may be already provided. The

object of their use is chiefly to strengthen the muscles of the

THE DUMB BELLS.

WAND EXERCISES.

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