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lines, which, as you will see, when many forces have to be com- all its angles equal; also the angles between the sides of the pounded, would cause much confusion in your figures.

triangle, or of the polygon of forces, are the angles between the Let us apply this principle now to compound any number of forces themselves, since they are parallel to these forces. This forces acting on a point. Let there be five, and that will illus- is evident from the properties, 1 and 2, of the parallelogram trate the rule as well as a thousand could. Suppose forces, 0 A, referred to above; therefore, in the case we are considering, the

O B, O C, OD, O E, ap- three equal forces must act at equal angles, as I showed other.
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plied to the point, o. By wise must be the case at the close of the last lesson.
the triangular rule, if I Second Example. - Let a weight hang from the ceiling by
draw A Requal and means of two cords of unequal length, as in Fig. 7. It is
parallel to o B, the line evidently at rest. Whatever be the forces called into action,
juining o with R is the they produce equilibrium. Is there nothing further to ascertain?
resultant of the first two There is; it may be desirable to know by how much each cord
forces. I shall not actu- is strained. Our assurance that the cords will support the
ally draw this line, o R; weight depends on this knowledge. Let P and o be the two

let us suppose it drawn. points of support of the strings which meet at o. Now, what. Fig. 6.

Now, if I compound this ever be the strains on the cords, o P, O Q, they make equilibrium resultant with o c, I have with w, the weight. Therefore, if we suppose a length, o A, of the resultant of three of O P to represent the strain

the forces. But that, by on o P, and from a draw a the same rule, is got by drawing from R a line r , equal line, A R, parallel to o e, and parallel to o c. The line o R is this resultant of three. equal to the strain, OB, Again we shall not draw it. The resultant of this and O D, on o q, then, since the three for the same reason, would be o R,, got by drawing R, R, forces are in equilibrium, parallel and equal to o D, and, lastly, the resultant of this the line, R o, closing up the and o E would be o Rg, the line, R, Rg, being equal and triangle must be equal to, parallel to o E. We have thus exhausted all the forces, and be in the direction as, and evidently o R, is the resultant of the whole five. There the third force, or weight, w. was here no confusing ourselves with parallelograms; all we This, then, tells us what to had to do was to draw line after line, one attached to the do. Measure on o R upward other, carefully observing to keep their magnitudes and direc- as many inches as there are tions aright. A kind of unfinished polygon was thus formed, and pounds in w; and from a the line o Rg, which closes up the polygon, joining the last point then draw R A parallel to

Fig. 7. By, with the point of application, is the resultant in magnitude the cord o q to meet the cord o A. The number of inches in and in direction. Thus you have made another step in advance,A will represent in pounds the strain on O P, and those on and arrived at the Polygon of Forces. You have learned how, R A the strain on o Q. All, therefore, that we desire to know is by the mere careful drawing of lines, to determine the resultant determined. of any number of forces. All you require is paper and pencil, Third Example.- A horse pulls a roller up a smooth inclined a rule, compasses, a scale, and a pair of parallel rulers.

plane or slope; what is the force he must exert when he just Now, there is one point about this polygon I wish you keeps the roller at rest ? And by how much does the roller carefully to note. You will observe that the arrows on its press on the plane ? sides, representing the directions of the forces you have com. Let the horse pull in any direction, o A. Then there will be pounded, all point from left to right, as you go round the figure, three forces acting on the roller ; namely, its own weight right torning it with you so as to bring each side in succession to the downwards, the horse's pull, and the resistance of the plane or top. The resultant, however, points in the opposite direction, slope, perpendicular to itself. There must be this third force, from right to left, when that side is uppermost. This is as it for the other two, should be ; the direction of the resultant, as you go round the not being opposite figure, must be opposite to those of the components. The use of to each other, canthis you will see in the next lesson.

not make equili. Now, let us suppose that, in determining the resultant after brium. The roller this method, as we come to the end of the operation, the end, is somehow supB of the last line, R, Rz, chanced to coincide with, or fall upon ported by the plane; the point of application, o. The polygon would close of itself and that it cannot without any joining line; what is the meaning of this ? It be unless by its remeans that there is no resultant; the line, 0 Rg, is nothing, and sistance; and therefore the resultant is nothing, and the forces produce equili- plane cannot resist brinm. What a valuable result we have arrived at! A method except perpendicu. by which we can, by rule and compass, tell at once whether any larly to itself. This number of forces make equilibrium at a point or not. All we third force, you

Fig. 8. have to do is to describe the polygon of forces, and if it closes thus see, must be up of itself, there is equilibrium; if it does not, there cannot be taken perpendicular to the plane. It is represented in the equilibrium, and the resultant is in magnitude the side which is figure by o B. Now apply the polygon of forces.

Let oc necessary to close the figure.

represent the weight of the roller, and from c suppose a Deferring the fourther expansion of this subject to the next line, C R, drawn equal and parallel to 0 A, the horse's pull. lesson, I shall now turn back and apply these principles to a few Then, since there is equilibrium, the polygon of forces should elementary examples.

close up and become a triangle—that is, the line joining R First Example.Three equai forces act at a point in different with o should be the pressure, and therefore should be perdirections—what condition should they fulfil in order to be in pendicular to the plane. What then are we to do? Take equilibrium ? Get your ruler and compass, and commence o c, equal in inches to the number of pounds in the roller, constructing the figure by which their resultant may be found. draw then from c a line c r parallel to the horse's pull, to From the end of one of the forces you are to draw a line

equal meet the line drawn from the centre o of the roller perpenand parallel to the second equal force, and from the end of that dicularly to the plane ; C R so determined will in inches tell another line, equal and parallel to the third. You will thus the pounds in the horse's pull

, and 0 R the amount by which have three lines strung together, all equal to each other. But the roller presses the plane. You can easily see from this that is the forces are in equilibrium, the end of the last line must as the slope increases the pull will increase and the pressure fall on the point of application, that is to say, the polygon of diminish. This is what naturally we should expect. The plane forces must close up, and form a triangle. Your construction I have supposed to be smooth; for, where there is friction will then give you

a triangle of three equal sides, commonly against the roller caused by roughness in itself or in the plane, or called an equilateral triangle. But such a triangle must have in both, the question is much

altered, as in due time you will see.

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LESSONS IN FRENCH.-- VI.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Avez-vous des écoliers attentifs ? Have you attentive scholars ? SECTION I.–FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued).

Wes écoliers et mes écolières sont My scholars (male and female) are III. NAME AND SOUND OF THE VOWELS.

très attentifs et très-studieux, very attentive and very studious, 41. I, i.-Name, EE, ee; sound, like the letters ee in the Ces demoiselles sont-elles studi. Are those young ladies studious ? English word see.

euses ?

They are not very studious. This vowel receives but one kind of accent, and that is the Elles ne sont pas très-studieuses.

Ces règles sont-elles générales ? Are those rules general ? circumflex, viz. :-1, ; though it is comparatively seldom found thus accented. This vowel has two sounds, viz., long and short; Leurs habillements sont superbes. Their clothes are superb.

Ces principes sont généraux. Those principles are general. long, as ee in the English word see, and short, like i in the

Avez-vous peur de ces chevaux Are you afraid of those restivo English word pin, or nearly like it. It becomes nasal in com- rétifs ?

horses? bination with the letters m and n, in which case the character Vos montres d'or sont excellentes. Your gold watches are excellent, of its own sound is completely changed, which is indeed true of Les miennes sont-elles meilleures Are mino better than yours ? all the vowels.

que les vôtres ? In these Lessons, the vowel 1, i, will be represented by the Les vôtres sont meilleures que les Yours are better than mine.

miennes,
two letters ee, when long or under the circumflex accent, and by
e when it has the short sound.

VOCABULARY.
EXAMPLES.

Agréable, agreeable. Mauvais, -e, bad. Souvent, often.
FRENCH. PRONUN ENGLISH | FRENCH. PRONUX. ENGLISH.

Ainé, -e, elder.
Mule, f., mulo.

Travail, m., labour.
Cire Seer

Wax,
Liquide Lee-keed Liquid,
Allemande, f., German. Oisif, -ve, idle.

Très, very.
Dire
Deer

Lire Leer

To read,
Jamais, never.

Pantoufles, f., slippers. Utile, useful.
Dit
Dee
Said,

Lit
Lee
Bod.

Indulgent, -e, indulger.t | Personne, m., nobody. Velours, m., velvet.
Il

Но.

Mille Meel Thousand. Laine, f., uool; woollen. Rétif, -ve, restive. Vif, -ve, quick, lively. Iris Ee-ris Iris.

Qui Kee

Who.

Maroquin, m., morocco,
Lime Leem File.
Rite Reet (trill Rite.

EXERCISE 21. 42. Î, i, Circumflex.—Name, EE, ee; sound, like the letters

1. Les chevaux de notre ami sont-ils rétifs ? 2. Ses chevaux ee in the English word see; sound prolonged.

ne sont pas rétifs, mais ses mules sont très-rétives. 3. Les

chevaux et les mules de votre frère sont excellents. 4. Vos EXAMPLES.

seurs sont-elles très-vives ? 5. Mes frères et mes sæurs sont FRENCI. PRONUN. ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH. très-vifs. 6. Sont-ils souvent oisifs ? 7. Non, Monsieur, mes Abime Ab-eem Abyss. Epitre Ay-peetr' Epistle.

spurs ne sont jamais oisives. 8. Avez-vous peur de votre Assit Ass.ee Might assist. Finit Fe-nee Might finish. frère ? 9. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai peur de personne.

10. Ne Battit Bat-teo Might beat. Gito

Zheet Lodging-place.

sommes-nous pas indulgents ? 11. Vous êtes indulgents, et Dime Deem Tenth,

Île Eel Island. Diner

vous avez raison. 12. Ai-je vos livres ? 13. Vous ne les avez Dee-nay To dine. Mit Mee Might place.

pas, vous avez ceux de mon frère aîné. 14. Ne les avez-vous SECTION XII.-AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES.-PLURAL OF pas ? 15. Je ne les ai pas. 16. Avez-vous une bonne paire de ADJECTIVES.

bas de laine ? 17. J'ai une belle paire de bas de soie. 18. 1. An adjective qualifying a plural noun, or two or more

Avez-vous les bonnes maisons ou les mauvaises ? 19. Je n'ai singular nouns of the same gender, assumes the gender of the ni les bonnes ni les mauvaises, j'ai celles de ma cousine. 20. noun or nouns, and is put in the plural.

Le travail est-il agréable ? 21. Le travail est utile et agréable. Les arbres et les fruits sont beaux, The trees and fruits are fino.

22. Avez-vous mes beaux souliers de maroquin ? 23. Je n'ai Les fleurs et les plantes sont belles, The powers and plants are fino.

pas vos beaux souliers de maroquin, j'ai vos belles pantoufles Vos jardins sont très-beaux,

Your gardens are tory fine.

de velours. 2. An adjective qualifying two or more nouns of different

EXERCISE 22. genders is put in the plural masculine (S 18]. Mon frère et ma sour sont contents, My brother and sister are pleased. brothers are quick, but my sisters are not quick. 3. Have you

1. Are your brothers and sisters very (bien) quick? 2. My Le canif et la plume sont bons, The penknife and pen are good.

not two restive horses ? 4. No, but I have a restive mule. 5. 3. The plural of the feminine of adjectives is invariably formed Have you not two good pairs of silk glovos ? 6. I have a good by the addition of an s.

pair of cotton gloves, and two pairs of silk gloves. 7. Are you Vous avez de jolies maisons,

You have pretty houses.

not afraid of your friends ? 8. No, Sir, I am never afraid of Ces demoiselles sont attentives, Those young ladies are attentive.

9. I am afraid of nobody. 10. Are you right or 4. The plural of the masculine of adjectives is generally formed

wrong? 11. I am right. 12. Have you my beautiful leather by the addition of an s.

slippers, or my old satin slippers ? 13. I have your old leather Ces écoliers sont attentifs, Those scholars are attentive. shoes and your velvet slippers. 14. Are those ladies pleased ? Vos bois sont magnifiques,

Your woods are magnificent. 15. Those ladies are pleased, and they are right. 16. Has the 5. The terminations s and x are not changed for the plural German lady your father's shoes or mine? 17. „She has neither masculine.

his nor yours, she has my sister's. 18. Has your elder brother Nos fruits sont mauvais, Our fruits are barl.

good houses or bad? 19. His houses are better than yours and Vos oiseaux sont hideux, Your birds are hideous.

than mine.* 20. Are his houses old ? 21. His houses are old, 6. To the termination eau, x is added for the plural masculine. but they are good. 22. Have you them? 23. No, Sir, I have Vos champs sont très-beaux, Your fields are very fine.

them not, I have no houses. 24. Have you my brother's or my 7. The termination al is generally changed into aur for the

sister's ? 25. Your sister has hers and my mother's. 26. Are plural masculine ($ 17 (3)].

your scholars attentive ? 27. My scholars are very attentive Les hommes sont égaux,

and very studious. 28. Are those German ladies studious ? Men are equal. 29. They are very studious and very attentive.

30. Are you 8. For more explicit rules, and for exceptions, see § 17, often wrong? Part II.

SECTION XIII.-PLACE OF THE ADJECTIVES.-RELATIVE 9. PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE OF ETRE, To Be.

PRONOUN EN.
Negatively.

Negatively and Interrogatively.
Je ne suis pas,

I am not. Ne suis-je pas ? Am I not? 1. The adjective in French follows the noun much more
Thou art r.ot. N'es-tu pas ? Art thou not ? | frequently than it precedes it ($ 85 (1)].
He is not. N'est-il pas ?

Is he not?
Elle n'est pas,

You have faithful friends.

Vous avez des amis fideles,
She is not. N'est-elle pas ? Is she not?

Ma scur a des livres instructifs, My sister has instructive books.
Nous ne sommes pas, We are not. Ne sommes-nous Are we not ?

my friends.

Tu n'es pas,
Il n'est pas,

pas?

Vous n'êtes pas,
You are not. N'etes-vous pas ?

Are you stot?
Ils ne sont pas, m.,

They are not. Ne sont-ils pas? m., Are thoy not? Elles ne sont pas, f., They are not. | Nesont-elles pas ? f., Are they not?

* Quo meaning which, and quo conjunction, aro never understood in French, they must be repeated before every noun, pronoun, and verb T$ 17. R. 1).

some.

ones.

J'en ai,

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2. Those adjectives which generally precede the nouns have ami a-t-il des parents ? 17. Oui, Monsieur, il en a. 18. Cn been mentioned (Sect. VI. 5), and will be found ($ 85 (11)]. Monsieur a-t-il une bonne plume d'acier ou une belle plume d'or Nous avons de belles maisons, We have beautiful houses.

19. I en a une d'acier et nous en avons une d'or. 20. LE Votre jolie petite fille est studieuse, Your pretty little girl is studious. général n'a-t-il pas de bons soldats ? 21. Il en a de très braves, 3. The adjectives which are placed after nouns are :- 1st. 22. Les Américains n'ont-ils pas de bonne terre ? 23. Ils en

ont d'excellente. 24. Le marchand a-t-il des couteaux anglais All participles, present and past, used as adjectives.

ou français ? 25. Les couteaux du marchand ne sont ni anglais Nous avons une histoire intéres. We have an interesting history.

ni français, ils sont belges. sante, Vous avez des enfants polis, You have polite children.

EXERCISE 24. 4. 2nd. All such as express form, colour, taste ; such as relate 1. Has your brother Arabian horses ? 2. Yes, Sir, he has to hearing and touching ; such as denote the matter of which an

3. Has he handsome ones ? 4. Yes, Sir, he has hand. object is composed ; as also such as refer to nationality, or to some ones. 5. Are the good Americans wrong 6. No, Miss, ang defects of the body (8 85 (4) (5) (6) (7)].

they are not wrong, they are right. 7. Have you a French Nos parents ont des chapeaux noirs, Our relations have black hats. shawl ? 8. Yes, Sir, I have one, I have a handsome French Vons arez des pommes douces, You have sweet apples,

shawl. 9. Has your innkeeper your silver knife or mine? 10. Toilà de la cire molle, There is soft wax.

He has neither yours nor mine, he has his sister's handsome Cette dame espagnole a un enfant That Spanish lady has a lame child. steel knife. 11. Has the Belgian a good guitar? 12. He has boiteux,

an excellent French guitar. 13. He has an excellent one. 14. 5. 3rd. Almost all adjectives ending in al, able, ible, ique, Has the gentleman amusing books ? 15. Yes, Sir, he has two and if.

16. Has the general French or Arabian horses ? 17. He has Ces botimes libéraux sort aimés, Those liberal men are loved.

neither French nor Arabian horses, he has English horses. 18. Voilà un esprit raisonnable, That is a reasonable mind.

Who has Arabian horses ? 19. The Arabian has some. 20. Voilà un esclave fugitif, That is a fugitive, slave.

Has the Englishman any ? 21. The Englishman has some. 6. Some adjectives have a different meaning, according to 22. Has your friend's sister a good steel pen? 23. My friend's their position before or after the noun ($ 86].

sister has one, but my relations have none. 24. Are you not l'n brave homme, a worthy man. 1 Un homme brave, a brave man.

wrong, Sir ?

25. Yes, Madam, I am wrong. 26. Are those 7. En is used for the English words some or any, expressed or

knives English ? 27. No, Sir, they are Belgian. 28. Have understood, but not followed by a noun ; en has also the sense

you relations ? 29. I have two, and they are here (ici). 30. of it, of them, thereof, generally understood in English sentences,

Has the Englishman butcher meat ? 31. Yes, Sir, he has much. particularly in answers to questions ($ 39 (17), § 104, § 110 (2)

32. Has he much money? 33. He has but little. 34. Has the (3)].

Belgian general brave soldiers ? 35. Yes, Sir, he has good Arez-vous des souliers de cuir ? Have you leather shocs !

I have some, I have (of them).
Votre fils en a-t-il ?
Has your son any?

HISTORIC SKETCHES.—III. 8. An adjective used substantively, and having a partitive SIR RICHARD GRENVILLE, WHEN HE CRIED NO SURRENDER!” signification (in a sentence containing the pronoun en), must be preceded by the preposition de in the same manner as if the noun DURING the time Queen Elizabeth was on the throne of were expressed (see Sect. VI. 4].

England (1558 to 1603), there was a public feeling of a kind Avez-vous de boutes plumes ? Have you good pens?

and intensity unequalled by any that has existed either before Non, mais j'en ai de mauvaises, No, but I have bad ones.

or since. It was a feeling in which political and religious RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

hatred were closely combined, and which was fanned from a

spark to a flame by repeated provocations. There are those yet Avez-vous de beaux jardins ? Have you fine gardens ?

living who can freshly remember the rancorous animosity which Oui, j'en ai de beaux. (R. 7.) Yes, I have fine ones. Votre frère n'a-t-il pas des soulier

existed in this country towards the French, when the great Has not your brother black shoes ! noirs ?

French war was at its height. That animosity, bitter as it Il n'en a pas, mais ma sœur en a. He has none, but my sister has some.

was, and tersely expressed in the summary of advice which Va-t-elle pas aussi une robe Has she not also a white dress ? Nelson is said to have given his midshipmen—"Fear God; blanche ?

honour the king; and hate a Frenchman as you do the devil” Oui, elle en a une. Yes, she has one.

—was not, if we may judge from the circumstances attending Non, elle n'en a pas. No, she has none.

it, so bitter, or so uncompromising as the hatred Elizabeth's Qui en a une? Who has one ?

Englishmen had for the Spaniard and the Pope.
Qui n'en a pas ?
Who has none ?

In that day, the kingdom of Spain, which now has sunk so Le boucher n'a-t-il pas de la viande Has not the butcher fresh meat ! fraiche ?

low, was only being weighed in the balance. She had beer. I en a, il n'en a pas. He has some, he has none,

found wanting in many things which, as the event proved, Il en a beaucoup. He has much (of it).

were necessary to her life as a nation; but she had not been O n'en a guère. He has but little (of it).

found wanting in strength. Her power was enormous, and the Den a deux livres. He has two pounds (of it).

ambition of her princes aimed at universal dominion. Spain, VOCABULARY.

the Netherlands, Naples, and Sicily were her European possesAmnsant, -e, amusing. | Bijou, m., jewel. Laine, f., tool.

sions, and in Germany her influence was all-powerful. In the Américain, -e, American Blanc, -he, white. Mademoiselle, f., Miss. East Indies the sovereignty of the King of Spain was acknowAnglais, -e, English, Brave, brave, worthy. Monsieur, m., Sir, Mr., | ledged in 'many a place, while the whole of the Western Arabe, Arabian. Châle, m., shawl.

gentleman.

hemisphere was under his sway. By succession, by marriage, Aubergiste, m., inno! Couteau, m., knife. Parent, m., relation.

by purchase, or by conquest, the territory of the Spanish king Français, -e, French. Soldat, m., soldier.

was so great that it was well said the sun never set in his Beaucoup, much, many. Guère, little, but little. Terre, f., land.

dominions. The wealth of the mines of Mexico and Peru was Belge, Belgian, Guitare, f., guitar.

his; the most splendid troops that Europe could produce did EXERCISE 23.

his bidding; diplomatists the most subtle and the most accom1. Avez-vous une bonne guitare ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai une plished were his servants, and among his naval and military guitare excellente. 3. Avez-vous de bons habits ? 4. Qui commanders were men of names the most renowned and Madame, j'ai de bons habits noirs et de belles robes blanches. illustrious. No other power in Europe, whether allied or single5. Votre mère n'a-t-elle pas un châle de soie ? 6. Oui, Made-handed, was willing to measure itself with Spain; the odds moiselle, elle en a un de soie et un de laine. 7. L'aubergiste were so great, the issues so momentous, that lesser nations a-t-il de bons chevaux anglais ? 8. L'aubergiste a des chevaux preferred to put up almost with anything rather than bring anglais, français, et arabes. 9. Il en a de superbes. 10. L'ami down upon their people the wrath of the cruel and haughty de votre frère a-t-il des bijoux d'or? 11. Oni, Monsieur, il en a. Spaniards. It was only when desperation made men blind to 12. A-t-il aussi des bijoux d'argent. 13. Il en a aussi. 14. Er the consequences that resistance was offered to the dominant 2-t-il beancoop? 15. Non Monsieur, il n'en a guère. 16. Votre and domineering power-and then, as in the Netherlands, where

keeper.

the people were goaded into insurrection, the fight was long over. Protestants and freedom-loving Catholics learned in the and bloody, and the victory dearly won.

Low Countries, from the Duke of Alva, Requesens, and other The strength of Spain was tremendous, crushing ; but there Spanish rulers, how that the tender mercies of the cruel are was a canker in it, which, eating through, eventually proved cruel also. In the newly-discovered regions of America, which fatal to the life of the tall tree. The King of Spain, Philip II., the enterprise of Columbus had opened to Spain, the religious arbiter as he was of the fate of millions, mighty and feared as system of the Spaniards was so unlike the religion of Him he was, was the abject slave of another power. The priests of the whom “the common people heard gladly,” that Roman Church were his masters, the Pope of Rome was his lord,

“the poor Indian, whose untutor'd mind and the mind of the man was in perfect subjection to the rule

Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind," of his spiritual guides. So the interests, or supposed interests | fled in horror from it, preferring death to conversion. Champ

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of the Roman-Catholic Church becamɔ identified with those of lain, the navigator, after whom the American lake of that the Spanish crown. Wherever the Spaniard came, there came name is called, and who visited the West Indies in 1599-1602, the priest, and the two together represented pure despotism in thus wrote of the Spanish priests and the Indians :—"At the the State, and a Church system which was carried out through commencement of his conquests, he (the King of Spain) had the medium of the Inquisition. Countries in which the Roman established the Inquisition among them, and made slaves of, Church was already deeply rooted viewed the approach of the or caused them to die cruelly in such great numbers, that the Spanish ecclesiastics with jealousy and dislike, though they sole recital would cause pity. This evil treatment was the jere not necessarily in danger of injury at their hands. But in reason that the poor Indians, for very apprehension, fled to countries where the Roman faith was not the faith of the the mountains in desperation, and as many Spaniards as they people, where the Protestant form of Christianity, or no caught they eat them; and on that account the said Spaniards Christianity at all, was the popular religion, the coming of the were constrained to take away the Inquisition, and allow them Spaniards and the Pope was a thing to be dreaded and grieved personal liberty, granting them a more mild and tolerable rul:

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ENGLISH SHIP OF WAR.

TIME OF ELIZABETH,

of life, to bring them to the knowledge of God and the belief of could be nothing but perpetual war between the nations, and a the holy Church; for if they had continued still to chastise fresh declaration of an old fact would have been useless as well, them according to the rigour of the said Inquisition, they as tiresome. So whenever a Spanish treasure fleet was coming would have caused them all to die by fire.”

home, or a Spanish squadron of merchantmen was known to be Such then were the causes of the deep hatred already spoken on the seas, the English royal vessels slipped out of port, and of as existing among Englishmen during the reign of Elizabeth. smote the Philistines wherever they found them. The Spanish political power and the Spanish ecclesiastical One of the most courageous and indomitable of the English power, each lusted after dominion, and allowed no considera- rovers was Sir Richard Grenville, of Stowe, in Cornwall

, a Lions nor scruples to stand in their way. Each helped the other ; I gentleman of ancient family and large fortune, an enthusiastic the priests tanght the "right divine”

admirer of all that was generous and of the Spanish king "to govern wrong,"

manly. He hated the Spaniards with and the Spanish king in return up

an exceeding bitter hatred, and again held, with brutal obstinacy, the priests'

and again left his pleasant home in Inquisition-an institution of which

Cornwall to roam the seas after the more will be said in another paper;

enemies of God and man, as he conbut of which it will be enough here to

sidered them to be. He had been emi. say that it was a spiritual tribunal,

nently successful, both in distant exirresponsible and acting in secret, which

peditions and in repelling the attack panished men and women with all pun

of the Armada on the English coast ishments, including death, for not act

itself, and his name was a terror to ing in strict accordance with the rules

many a Spanish sailor. It happened, of the Roman Catholic Church.

in the year 1591, that a Government Englishmen, after the Reformation

expedition of the kind above-men. especially, hated both these powers.

tioned was about to sail under orders The one cramped their action and

of Lord Thomas Howard, to intercept their enterprise, forbidding them under

the Spanish treasure ships on their pain of being treated as pirates to trade

way from the West Indies. Sir Richto places where the Spaniards claimed

ard was appointed second in command, to have a monopoly, as in America ;

and hoisted his flag on board the the other oppressed their souls with

Revenge; the rest of the squadron in. burdens too heavy to be borne, and

cluding eight fighting ships, with tenthen killed them for stumbling. Gene

ders and victuallers. The account of rous sympathy also for those who suf.

the action in which the Revenge fought fered wrong at the oppressor's hands, and were unable to help single-handed for England is given here as best showing the themselves, glowed in the English breast; and that sympathy, in kind of spirit it was which animated Englishmen at the time an age of adventure and of chivalrous feeling, was not slow to when their enemies were the detested upholders of Absolutism express itself in action. It had received a fillip, too, in a point in Church and State. which nearly concerned the best interests of the nation. An Lord Thomas Howard sailed with his ships in August, 1591, attempt had been made after the death of Edward VI., in 1553, and after cruising about for some time, put into the Western to introduce both the detested powers into England. Philip II. Islands, to recruit his men, ill with scurvy, and to wait there of Spain, was actually married to Queen Mary of England, and for the treasure ships. On the 31st of August, 1591, the lookthough the nation was, to a man, hostile to the introduction out men reported a fleet in sight, and great was the joy and of the Inquisition, and swore it would

greedy, perhaps, the expectation of not have it at any price, the energy

the English warriors.

But a nearer and watchfulness of the best men were

view disclosed, not the Spanish trearequired to prevent the planting of

suro ships, but a fleet of fifty-three the Spanish political power. In 1558

ships of war, which had been equipElizabeth came to the throne, and not

ped and sent out for the very pur. only roused the wrath of disaj point

pose of pouncing on the pouncers. ment and jealousy by her prompt re

Half the English crews were on shore, jection of Spanish advances, but

ill, and the rest were busy watering directly and indirectly she challenged

and victualling the ships. Lord Thomas the Spaniards by the uncompromising

looked at his vessels and sickly crews, Protestantism of her policy.

and then at the enemy's ships, conHer subjects were imbued with the

cerning which the cry was still, “ They same spirit as the Queen. The Span

come.” Eight against fifty-three—the iards were looked upon as public ene

disproportion was too great. He demies, whom to destroy was to do God

termined not to try conclusions with service; and many was the private ad

them, and having recalled his crews by venture made by persons of good name

signal, stood out of the Bay of Flores, and reputation, to make war upon

and succeeded in getting away. them. In a time when the two govern

There was one ship, however, which ments were at peace, cruisers were

did not follow. Sir Richard Grenville fitted out in England notably in

felt it to be almost an immoral act to West-country ports—to prey upon the

retreat before a Spaniard, and though enemy's commerce on the Spanish

he was too good an officer wilfully to Main and in the West Indies. Such men as Sir John Haw. | disobey the orders of his superior, he was not loth to take kins, Sir Martin Frobisher, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Francis advantage of some unavoidable

delay which occurred in getting Drake, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and Sir Richard Grenville, sailed his men from the shore, to stay behind. The other English on their own account upon expeditions

which, directed against ships gained the offing, and thither, too, was sent the master, any other power than Spain, would have been called piratical, of one of the victuallers, who, seeing Sir Richard's danger, of at least, buccaneering; and they won honour and no small offered to stay and share it with him. profit in the course of them. After the Spanish Armada, sent On came the Spanish fleet, on the weather bow of the in 1588 for the avowed purpose of conquering England and Revenge. Some of the officers remonstrated

with the admiral, establishing despotism and priestcraft therein, had shown the and advised him to crowd all sail and try to outsail the enemy; depth of the Spanish ill-will

, the Government acted pretty much but Sir Richard declared "he would much rather die than as its subjects had done, and made war whenever iť chose. leave such a mark of dishonour ou himself, his country, and the There was no declaration of war. After the Arinada thero | Qucen."

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SPANISH THREE-DECKER.

TIME OF ELIZABETH,

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