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COHESION-FORCE OF AFFINITY.

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What is body?

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-I.

which has overcome the power of colesion, and therefore certain

particles have been wrenched from their neighbours. Now I INTRODUCTION-ATTRACTION OF GRAVITY-FORCE OF

may collect the filings and submit them to the greatest

pressure I can exert, but I cannot bring them back into their The object of Chemistry is to ascertain the nature and proper. solid state ; no pressure which we at present possess seems to ties of the substances of which the crust of our planet is com- be capable of bringing the particles sufficiently near to each posed. Of lato years, the curiosity of the chemist has pene

other to allow the force of cohesion to come into play. trated beyond the tangible, and by the aid of the “spectrum But although particles of bodies are bound thus closely analysis," of which in due time we shall treat, a new chapter together, yet in no body do they seem to be in actual contact, has been added to the science on “Stellar Chemistry," which for all solids are porous. Two hundred years ago this was gives some insight into the composition of the great centre of proved in the case of gold by the “Florentine Experiment;" and oaz solar system, and even of the distant stars. In pursuing if gold, which is almost the densest of metals, can be shown to his investigations, the chemist submits the bodies under his be porous, we may well believe it of the rest. The "Florentine consideration to experiment. he operates upon them with various Experiment is so celebrated that it demands recital. The fotos-beat, electricity, etc.-brings them within the action question was raised concerning the compressibility of water, and of reagents, watches their behaviour in all circumstances, and it was determined to try the experiment in the following DEFer predicts a result, but determines all by experiment; manner :-A hollow sphere of gold was filled with that liquid; bener chemistry is purely an experimental science.

and seeing that a sphere is that solid which possesses the maxi. Seeing that we have to do with bodies, let us in this lesson mum capacity, any alteration in its shape would therefore lessen

upon the forces which act upon “substance,” and which the quantity of water it could contain. The gold globe was oppose or assist the chemist in his research.

accordingly slightly flattened, and the water oozed through the “ That which has weight” is, perhaps, the gold, appearing as dew on the outside. The Florentines, thereleast objectionable definition. Gases, although they are so fore, declared the water was not compressible--a conclusion intangible, and unlike anything solid, are yet bodies ; they have they had no right to draw unless they could have collected the Freight. The weight of air on every square inch is 14:67 lbs., and dew, and found that it exactly filled the space by which the Then set in motion it becomes wind, which sways the trees, carries pressure had diminished the capacity of the hollow sphere. before it clouds of dust, or sweeping in the hurricane it devas. Water has been proved to be slightly compressible, and the bates a country, which it could not do if the air were imponder- only use of the "Florentine Experiment” is to assert that gold able . There are, however, existences present in the world

is porous. which have no weight. Caloric, which produces the phenomenon This truth, that the particles of bodies, in spite of the great o beat; electricity; ether, whose waves cause the sensation of force of cohesion, are not in actual contact, may be inferred dipht

, and the different forces of attraction-these, not being from the fact that all bodies contract when cooled, which they bodies," do pot strictly come within the range of Chemistry : could not do if their particles were already in contact. Thus it key rather belong to the domain of the physicist; but it will would appear that the particles of bodies are under two forces necessary to speak of them, seeing they take such a promi. -one attracting, the other repelling them, for there must be sent part in the decomposition and combination of bodies. some force which keeps the particles apart; and that the state The forces of attraction, by which the particles of bodies are of the substance, whether it be solid, liquid, or gaseous, will Good together, are the attraction of gravity, the attraction of depend upon the ratio which these two forces bear to each klesion, the attraction of adhesion, and the force of affinity. other. In the solid state the molecular attraction, or cohesion, The attraction of gravity is that mysterious power by which is by far the stronger. In the liquid condition the repelling de Creator has linked to each other the suns and worlds which power almost balances the attractive; in a gas it entirely superbeupy space; for he has ordained that all matter should exert sedes it, and the atoms are solely under the influence of mole2 attractive force on all bodies in its neighbourhood. This cular repulsion. When the temperature of a body is raised, utca varies with the mass of the bodies and their distances this molecular repulsion is always increased, each atom being bom each other. If a stone be dropped over the edge of a high repelled from its neighbour. The body expands, and at last the Spendicular cliff into the sea beneath, it will strike the rock cohesion is so nearly overcome that the solid becomes a liquid. dore it reaches the water, because the cliff attracts the stone If the temperature still increase, the atoms are still further od draws it towards it. If, however, the stone be carried away repelled, until they cease to have any attraction for each other, sun the cliff, the attractive force decreases. The power which and the body becomes a gas. Molecular repulsion is so closely ade the stone fall was “gravity,” that is, the attraction which allied to caloric, the one is so intimately dependent upon the 18 earth has for the stone ; the force of that attraction we call

other that they have been thought to be one and the sami "weight." That this force decreases with the distance the thing. one is taken above the earth, is proved by the fact that the That the physical condition of a body entirely depends upon

one would weigh less on the top of a high mountain than in heat may be shown in almost all bodies. Ice becomes, when * Talley beneath. Of course, to test this fact a spring balance heated, water-then steam. Put a small piece of zinc in the ruat be used.

flame of a blow-pipe : it first becomes red-hot, then melts, and The force of cohesion, which has more claim upon our attention, finally goes away in vapour, which burns with a bright white Mers from “gravity” chiefly in this, that “gravity" acts upon flame, into the oxide of zinc. There is the strongest evidence ahes at a distance, whereas the force of cohesion only begins that all bodies are capable of assuming these three states. operate when the particles of matter are brought into the Solids may be gases under certain circumstances; and gases, by

sufficiently reducing their temperature, may become, first liquids, It is due to this force that the bodies possess solidity, and it then solids. In future lessons we shall find many examples of could seem that in liquids" cohesion * Tistence at all in gases.

was very weak, and had this interesting fact.

Adhesion is a force which binds two bodies together by means I file a piece of iron, the teeth of the file separate small of some adhesive substance,

such as gum, glue, etc. poes of the metal from the rest ; that is, I have applied a force The force of affinity. This is eminently a chemical force.

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PAGE
PAGE

PAGE

PAGE The Greek Element Greek

Europe

283, 299, 323 KEY TO EXERCISES IN LES. Regular Verbs—The Second Stens 262, 358, 391, 409 Construction of Projection

SONS IN GERMAN:

Conjugation.

403 Conversitions on English

of Map of Europe. 355, 388
Exs. 49 27 Exs. 27-33, 222

The Key to the Exercises given Grammar 134, 302, 331 Table of Latitudes and

10
63 36-37

in avy Lesson in Latin will be Longitudes of Places

11-16 95

38-41 293 found at the end of the next ESSAYS ON JIFE AND DUTY: in Europe

389
17-2) 119 42, 43, 315

Lessou or the next Lesson but
MAPS :
Charity
11

21-23 156 4152 372

ope. Patience 77 Map of the World

14

2+26. 180 53-59 408 MECHANICS : Unseliishness 131 Atlantic Ocean 232

The Pulley Courige

12 193 Pacific Ocean

933

GREEK, LESSONS IN:
Fidelity
Europe

Principle of Virtual Velo-
209
Introduction The Groek

cities - The Three SysPerseverance Norway, Sweden, and Den.

2 Economy

tems of Pulley 8

Alphabet.
398
mark

300
Vowels - Consonants-

Compound Pulleys
France

61
301
Punctuation, etc.

34

The Inclined Plane - The FRENCH, LESSONS IN:

Spain

301
Central Europe
General Remarks on the

Wedge-The Screw

324 XLVIII, Unipersonal Verbs 10

Noun, the Adjective, and

Statical Forces-Friction 107 XLIX. Regimeu relating to Projection of Map of Europe 356

the Prepositious The

Illustrations of preceding Bome Verbs 10

Definite Article

66 Principles - Kite, Boat, L. The i ast Definite

GEOMETRICAL
42

PERSPEC-
Case-eudings of the Declen.

etc.-Elements of MaLI. The Past Definite of

TIVE:

sions
98 chinery

139 Irregular Verbs 42 Introduction Definitions The First Declension:

98, 130

Priine Movers Animal LII., LIII. The Imperfect

-Proportional Scales 161 The Second Declension 162, 195 Force, Water, Wind, Touse 74 Methods of Construction

The Third Declension 195, 229,

Steam

170 LIV. The Past Anterior Station Point, etc.-Pro

258, 31, 322, 354, 390 Dynamics Definitions and the Pluperfect Tenses 106

blom I.
225 The Second Declension Con-

The Three Laws of
LV. Idiomatic Construc-
Orthographic and Isome:

tracted

390 Motion . tions in Regimen 105 tric Projection Pro

Proof of Third Law of

The Key to the Exercises given
LVI. Idiomatic Uses of

blems II.-VI.
295

Motion-Laws of Falling Tens 28 of Verbs

in any Lesson in Greek will be
107 Problems. VII.-XI. :
353

Bodies Atwood's Mas

found at the end of the next LVII. Idiomatic Phrases 133

chine

Ieseou. LVIII. Rules for the Plu- GEOMETRY, LESSONS IN :

Laws of Falling Bodies ral of Compound Nouns 133 The Circle and its Proper

Projectiles-Collision or LIX, The Two Futures,

HISTORIC SKETCHES: ties

Impact . Simple and Anterior 172 Problems in Practical Geo

How England and Scotland

Impact-Centrifugal Force LX. Irregularities of the

metry on the Circle 49, 92, 123
became one

-The Pendulum--Centre Future

172
Regular Polygons

12+
How Iroland became part

of Oscillation.
LXI, The Two Conditionals 173
Problems in Practical Geo-

of Great Britain 85, 125 MUSIC, LESSONS IN: LXII., LXIII. Idiomatic

metry on Construction of
How England became pos-

Mental Effect of Notes 51
Phirasas
Regular Polygons 148, 191, 211

sessed of India

157

Character and Effect of LXIV. Idioms : Faire used Copic Sections—The Ellipse 251

The Dagger Scene in the Reflectively and Uuiper

Leading Notes

113 The Oval-Parabola. 284, 307 House of Commons 181

Mental Effect-Consonance Bomully.

202
The Hyperbola, Cycloid,

Origin of the United States 219
LXV. Idioms relating to

of Notes, etc..
Spiral, etc.

308
Charles Edward Stuart and

Measurement of Intervals Avoir, etc. 237

the Rebellion of 1745 253 LXVI. Idioms relating to

--The Glass Harmonicon

The Massacre of Glencoe 285
Avoir and Epouser
237 GERMAN, LESSONS IN :

-German Concertina
Wilkes and Liberty

317 LXVII. Idioms relating to XLV. Peculiar Idioms

Relation of Notes, etc. 316, 379

26 The Right Noble and Va. Dimension, Weight, etc. 266 XLVI. Verbs governing the

lorous Sir Walter Raleigh 341

OUR HOLIDAY :
LXVIII. Idioms relating

Genitive
27 Admiral Byng on the 14th

Gymnastics.
to Mettre, etc.
266 XLVII. Adjectives re-

of March, 1757
373 The Hanging Rope

31 LXIX. The Imperative 297 quiring the Genitive 62

Summary of Sketches in

The Giant's Stride.
LXX The Imperative and
XLVIII. Adjectives re-

Vols. I. and II.

405

The Hanging Bar or Trathe Intinitive Idioms 298 quiring the Dative

peze LXXI. The Subjunctive 330 XLIX. Verbs requiring the HYDROSTATICS:

The Hanging Stirrnps
LXXII., LXXIII. The Use

Dative
91

The Hanging Rings of the Subjunctive

330, 361
L. Verbs requiring an Ac.

Objects of the Science-
LXXIV.

Swimming
The Imperfect
cusative of a Person and

Principle of Equality of

Croquet and Pluperfect of the

a Genitive of a Thing

91
Pressure
Hydrostatic

Laws of Croquet
Subjunctive

365
LI. Verbs requiring the

Press

366 LXXV., LXXVI. Regimen,

Dative or Accusative 117

Pressure of Liquids arising PENMANSHIP, LESSONS IN: or Government of Verbs 386 LII. Verbs requiring two

from their weight

Oficial Handwriting .33, 61, 129 Accusatives, and those

Ceutra of Pressure

Business Handwriting KEY TO EXERCISES IN LES- governing the Accusative

Levels---Springs and Ar- Legal Handwriting
SONS IN FRENCH:

with the Dative
118 tesian Wells

396

Germau Handwriting.
LIII. Prepositions re-

Greek Handwriting
Exs, 1-3 11 Exs.29-35 . 233

quiring the Genitive 119 LATIN, LESSONS IN : 49 36 -- 11 .237 LIV. Prepositions

READING AND ELOCUTIUS re. Adverbs

18 10 -15 75 12-19 . 293 quiring the Dative 155 Personal Pronouns

19 Analysis of the Voice : 16, 17 107 50-53 . 331

LV. Prepositions requiring 18-20

Possessive or

Exercises on Inflections , 139 54-56 . 353

Adjective the Accusative

155 21--25

Pron-uns

Just Stress 171 57-60 , 387

LVI. 86--23.

Prepositious

re2031

Deinopstrative Pronouns 54 Expressive Tones, Rules quiring the Dative Relative and Interrogative

On

126, 147, 1 Accusative

156
Pronouns

83 GEOGRAPHY, LESSONS IN:

Appropriate Modulation LVII. Examples illustra

Indefinite Prououns

87

Promiscuous Exercises Astronomical Principles of

ting the various uses of

Correlativo Pronouns

81

214, 250, 278, 306, 316, Geography

4, 44, 79
Prepositions
178 The Nuuerals

122

RECREATIVE NATURAL HIS The Gicat Circles of the LVIII., LIX., Lx. 'Pecu:

Prepositions

150

"OR": Earth - The Meridian liar Idioms 18), 222, 216 The Latin Verb.

190 The Equator 102 LXI. Regimen of Nume.

The Butterfy Latitude and Longitude --

Paradigin of the Verb Suin

The Frog rals, etc

216

-Coinpounds of Sum 210
First Jcridian, etc.

1.13
LXII. LXX. Various

English Snakes

The Latin Verb: its several Coustruction of the Map

The Swallow

23 Idioms 282, 283, 314, 315, 316,

Terminations

259, 274 of the World

The Spider 161

, Natural Divisions of the

371, 107

Regular Verbs --The First
LXXI. Passive Verbs in

Conjugation

310, 350

WHITWORTH SCHOLSREarth's Surface

196, 231
the Indicative

407
Ou Parsing

SHIPS, THE

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POPULAR EDUCATOR .

INTRODUCTION-ATTRACTION OF GRAVITY-FORCE OF

COHESION-FORCE OF AFFINITY.

SO

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-I.

which has overcome the power of cohesion, and therefore certain particles have been wrenched from their neighbours. Now I may collect the filings and submit them to the greatest

pressure I can exert, but I cannot bring them back into their The object of Chemistry is to ascertain the nature and proper- solid state ; no pressure which we at present possess seems to ties of the substances of which the crust of our planet is com- be capable of bringing the particles sufficiently near to each posed. Of late years, the curiosity of the chemist has pene

other to allow the force of cohesion to come into play. trated beyond the tangible, and by the aid of the “spectrum But although particles of bodies are bound thus closely analysis," of which in due time we shall treat, a new chapter together, yet in no body do they seem to be in actual contact, has been added to the science on “Stellar Chemistry," which for all solids are porous. Two hundred years ago this was gives some insight into the composition of the great centre of proved in the case of gold by the “Florentine Experiment;" and our solar system, and even of the distant stars. In pursuing if gold, which is almost the densest of metals, can be shown to his investigations, the chemist submits the bodies under his be porous, we may well believe it of the rest. The "Florentine consideration to experiment. he operates upon them with various Experiment " is so celebrated that it demands recital. The forces—heat, electricity, etc.-brings them within the action question was raised concerning the compressibility of water, and of re-agents, watches their behaviour in all circumstances, and it was determined to try the experiment in the following never predicts a result, but determines all by experiment; manner :-A hollow sphere of gold was filled with that liquid; hence chemistry is purely an experimental science.

and seeing that a sphere is that solid which possesses the maxi. Seeing that we have to do with bodies, let us in this lesson mum capacity, any alteration in its shape would therefore lessen dwell upon the forces which act upon “substance," and which the quantity of water it could contain. The gold globe was oppose or assist the chemist in his research.

accordingly slightly flattened, and the water oozed through the What is body?

“ That which has weight” is, perhaps, the gold, appearing as dew on the outside. The Florentines, thereleast objectionable definition. Gases, although they are fore, declared the water was not compressible--a conclusion intangible, and unlike anything solid, are yet bodies ; they have they had no right to draw unless they could have collected the weight. The weight of air on every square inch is 14:67 lbs., and dew, and found that it exactly filled the space by which the when set in motion it becomes wind, which sways the trees, carries pressure had diminished the capacity of the hollow sphere. before it clouds of dust, or sweeping in the hurricane it devas- Water has been proved to be slightly compressible, and the tates a country, which it could not do if the air were imponder-only use of the “Florentine Experiment” is to assert that gold able. There are, however, existences present in the world is porous. which have no weight. Caloric, which produces the phenomenon This truth, that the particles of bodies, in spite of the great of heat; electricity; ether, whose waves cause the sensation of force of cohesion, are not in actual contact, may be inferred light, and the different forces of attraction—these, not being from the fact that all bodies contract when cooled, which they bodies,” do not strictly come within the range of Chemistry:

could not do if their particles were already in contact. Thus it they rather belong to the domain of the physicist; but it will would appear that the particles of bodies are under two forces be necessary to speak of them, seeing they take such a promi. -one attracting, the other repelling them, for there must be nent part in the decomposition and combination of bodies. some force which keeps the particles apart; and that the state The forces of attraction, by which the particles of bodies are

of the substance, whether it be solid, liquid, or gaseous, will bound together, are the attraction of gravity, the attraction of depend upon the ratio which these two forces bear to each cohesion, the attraction of adhesion, and the force of affinity. other. In the solid state the molecular attraction, or cohesion,

The attraction of gravity is that mysterious power by which is by far the stronger. In the liquid condition the repelling the Creator has linked to each other the suns and worlds which power almost balances the attractive; in a gas it entirely superoccupy space ; for he has ordained that all matter should exert sedes it, and the atoms are solely under the influence of molean attractive force on all bodies in its neighbourhood. This cular repulsion. When the temperature of a body is raised, force varies with the mass of the bodies and their distances this molecular repulsion is always increased, each atom being from each other. If a stone be dropped over the edge of a high repelled from its neighbour. The body expands, and at last the perpendicular cliff into the sea beneath, it will strike the rock cohesion is so nearly overcome that the solid becomes a liquid. before it reaches the water, because the cliff attracts the stone If the temperature still increase, the atoms are still further and draws it towards it. If, however, the stone be carried away repelled, until they cease to have any attraction for each other, from the cliff, the attractive force decreases. The power which and the body becomes a gas. Molecular repulsion is so closely made the stone fall was “gravity," that is, the attraction which allied to caloric, the one is so intimately dependent upon the the earth has for the stone; the force of that attraction we call other that they have been thought to be one and the sama its "weight.” That this force decreases with the distance the thing. stone is taken above the earth, is proved by the fact that the That the physical condition of a body entirely depends apon stone would weigh less on the top of a high mountain than in heat may be shown in almost all bodies. Ice becomes, when the valley beneath. Of course, to test this fact a spring balance heated, water-then steam. Put a small piece of zinc in the must be used.

flame of a blow-pipe : it first becomes red-hot, then melts, and The force of cohesion, which has more claim upon our attention, finally goes away in vapour, which burns with a bright white differs from "gravity” chiefly in this, that “gravity" acts upon flame, into the oxide of zinc. There is the strongest evidence bodies at a distance, whereas the force of cohesion only begins that all bodies are capable of assuming these three states. to operate when the particles of matter are brought into the Solids may be gases under certain circumstances; and gases, by closest contact.

sufficiently reducing their temperature, may become, first liquids, It is due to this force that the bodies possess solidity, and it then solids. In future lessons we shall find many examples of would seem that in liquids " cohesion” was very weak, and had this interesting fact. no existence at all in gases.

Adhesion is a force which binds two bodies together by means II file a piece of iron, the teeth of the file separate small of some adhesive substance,

such as gum, glue, eto. pieces of the metal from the rest; that is, I have applied a force The force of affinity. This is eminently a chemical force.

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But before it can be understood, we must explain what is we can easily separate them again by throwing the powder into meant by an atom. Suppose we had the power of dividing a water; the heavier, copper, will sink to the bottom first. But if grain of iron an unlimited number of times, it is believed that we apply heat the whole will begin to glow, and a black substance at last a particle would be reached, which would defy all power will be the result, in which the microscope is unable to discern either to divide it, or change it in any way. This would be an any copper, for another substance has been formed—the sul. atom (a Tekvi, not to be divided). These ultimate and unchange-| phide of copper —which is as different in its properties from able particles were formed at the creation, and they will exist sulphur and copper as they are from sand. The glow which unaltered until the Creator wills otherwise. We have no power passed over tho mixture when heat was applied, is an example to change or destroy them.

of a universal law-namely, that whenever chemical combination The most minute particle, which even the microscope can only takes place heat is always developed. just discern, may contain millions of theso atoms, so that they In summing up this chapter, it appears that the three forces, are far beyond the reach of the recognition of our senses. gravity, cohesion, and affinity, act thus :

A molecule (a little mass) will bear a definite meaning in these Gravity attracts masses of matter at any distance. pages-Aamely, the least particle of a compound body which is Cohesion attracts particles generally of the same kind, and capable of existing by itself. In fact, it is the ultimate particle comes into play only at very limited distances. of such a body. Thus we shall find that water is composed of Affinity attracts atoms of different substances, producing new two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen ; hence the molecule bodies, and its action is infinitely more close and intimate than of water would be a group of these three atoms.

either of the two other forces. Of the extremo minuteness of these atoms we may gain some idea, by the extent to which we can subdivide matter by mechanical means. If a bar of silver be gilded and then

LESSONS IN GREEK.-I. drawn out into a wire, the thread may be so fine that the gold covering one foot weighs less than ww of a grain; an inch

INTRODUCTION. of this wire will contain row of a grain ; this may be divided The Greek Language is the language of the Hellenes, or ancient into 100 parts, each visible to the eye, and each being covered Greeks. The ancient Greeks were early divided into three great by madow of a grain of gold. Under a microscope magnifying races, each of which originally used a different dialect both in 500 times, each of these pieces may be subdivided by the eye poetry and in prose. The Ionic dialect was spoken by the Ionic into 500 parts, the gold retaining its original appearance, and race in Asia Minor and in Attica, and latterly passed into the showing no signs of dividing into its separate atoms ; and yet Attic dialect. The Æolic dialect was spoken by the Æolians in the particle visible to the eye, that which covers the upper part parts of Asia Minor, Bæotia, and Thessaly. The Doric dialect of the wire, is door of a grain.

was spoken by the Dorians, chiefly in Northern Greece, in the One hundred onbic inches of a solution of common salt will Peloponnesus, as well as in Crete, Sicily, and Magna Græcia by be rendered milky by adding to it a cube of silver, each side the Dorian colonists. The Greek language and the Latin lanof which measures too of an inch, dissolved in nitric acid. The guage form what are termed the classical languages. By the atoms of silver found their way into every particle of water, term classical languages we designate those languages in which and there with the salt formed the white chloride of silver, are written the works which, in modern times, learned men which rendered the solution milky; that is, the small cube of have agreed to regard as classical ; that is, works that stand metal has divided itself into at least 100 billion parts, a number in the first or highest class of the productions of the human which the seconds' pendulum of a clock would beat in 31,688 mind. The Greek language is a branch of the great family of years! and even yet we are not sure that we have approached languages which, under the name of Indo-Germanic, is now the measure of an atom of silver-we have only reached the known to have extended from Scandinavia to the Indus, emlimit of our own powers of subdivision.

bracing, as its two principal components, the Sanscrit, or ancient Affinity is that force, in virtue of which two or more of these languago of the Brahmins, on the East; and on the West, the atoms combine to form a molecule of a compound body. This Teutonic, including the German, the Dutch, and the English. It body exhibits properties very different from those possessed by is thus seen that the Greek is allied to our own tongue. It is the combining atoms, and is said to be a chemical compound. | allied to the English in regard to structure. What is more

We say, then, that chemical combination takes place when two obvious to the beginner is, that the Greek is allied to the English or more bodies so unite as to form a compound body, which in words: thus, for example, our word one is the Greek év (hen); differs in its properties from its components. For example, if two is the Greek Ovo (du'-o); three is the Greek tpers (trice). The we take a piece of chalk and put it in a glass of water, in due English pronoun I is only an abbreviated form of the Greek eyes time it will become softened, and if we stir the water the chalk (eg'-o), which signifies 1. Our verb know is the Greek yow (no) will ronder it milky; but no change has taken place, for if we in the verb geyvwokw, to know; the sound being identical, and let it stand the chalk will sink to the bottom, or if we evaporate the variation existing only in the letters. Many instances of the water we shall recover the chalk unaltered. But had we identity between words in English and Greek will appear in the added a little nitric acid to the water, bubbles of gas would have course of these instructions. At present, it is sufficient to state risen to the surface, and the water would have become clear. the general fact. Here a chemical change has taken place. The chalk was com- With the Latin the Greek is connected more intimately than posed of lime, and a gas called carbonic acid, held together by with the English. So much in common have the two, both in affinity ; but the nitrio acid had a stronger affinity for the lime words and in the inflection of words, that a knowledge of the one than the carbonic acid possessed, therefore it displaced the gas, affords great assistance in the study of the other. In general, which came away in bubbles, and with the lime formed the indeed, a thorough acquaintance with any one language conduces nitrate of lime, which is soluble in water, hence the water to the attainment of others. But here the relationship is so close became clear; and if we now evaporate the solution we shall that the aid is special. That aid may extend its operation to find no longer chalk, but a transparent crystallised substance, the whole class of languages known as the Indo-Germanic: so nitrate of lime-very differert from either the lime or the nitric that those who become familiar with Greek thereby acquire acid, of which it is composed. Here, then, chemical combina- facilities for studying not only Latin, but also Sanscrit, German, tior: has taken place.

and English. The observing reader will have gathered from this experiment The Greek is a very old language. Homer's works go back that bodies differ in their affinities; some have strong inclination to nearly a thousand years before the birth of Christ, and at the to combine with each other, while others exhibit little or no time when thoy were produced the Greek language was already desire to do so. It is this fact which enables us to carry on a settled tongue; and it must have existed and have been spoken chemical investigations. The difference between a mechanical by persons of no small culture for centuries. Under the name mixture and a chemical combination is so important, that we of the Romaic, the Greek language—a good deal modified-i select another illustration.

still spoken and written, being the vernacular or native tonguh If we take some flowers of sulphur and copper filings, and mix of the modern Greeks, who are the descendants of the ancient them together, we shall produce a greenish powder; looking at Greeks, and dwell on the same soil. it with a magnifying glass, the particles of copper will be seen The Greek language, as developed and perfected in its attie lying side by side with those of sulphur, both unchanged, and form, is the richest and most perfect and philosophical language

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in the world. No modern tongue, except the German, can example, the word bronchitis. Now I have never studied medi. endure a comparison with the Greek. The Greek language cine, yet, from my knowledge of Greek, I know that bronchitis is owes its superiority to the richness of its vocabulary, the a disease whose seat is in the Bpoyxia, (bron'-ki-a), that is, the variety of its inflections, its power of forming compounds, extremity of the wind-pipe. its expressiveness, its adaptability, and its harmony. It was In proceeding to the study of Greek, you are stopped at the said of old that if the gods were to descend to earth, they would / very threshold, for the characters of the letters are not the speak the language of Plato, the famous Greek philosopher. same as those of your native tongue. The diversity, however, The spirit of the saying is borne out by fact. The Greek is a is in appearance more than in reality. In fact, the English wonderful and beautiful instrument of human thought.

alphabet was derived from the Latin, and the Latin alphabet But the study of Greek is worthy of attention, if only as a was derived from the Greek. It may be added, that the means of self-discipline. Self-discipline is the true end of edu. Greek letters can be traced back to the Phænician. Thus we cation. Nothing better can be given to any mortal than a well- learn from this statement that the English and the Phænician cultivated mind. The man whose faculties are in their highest alphabets are related to each other. In the descent of the state of development, and their greatest degree of activity and letters, however, from age to age, and in their passage from one productiveness, stands at the summit of humanity, and now en- people to another, they underwent considerable changes; so joys what he has reached, namely, the perfection of his earthly that, at least in some instances, it is only a practical eye that, being.

by supplying the intermediate forms, can discover the idenPre-eminently fitted is the study of the Greek to educate our tity. Yet scarcely is the difference in any case much greater mental powers. All linguistical studies are useful for that pur. than exists between what we call Old English or Black Letter, pose. Looking at their effects in their several bearings, I am and the letters now employed in ordinary printing; or those free to declare that the study of languages is of all studies the you see when you compare a written with a printed composition. most useful. But the Greek has the special recommendation of I have made these remarks in order not only to stato an being more subject to rule than other languages. The Greek, important fact, but to induce you to compare the forms of the too, deals with wider reaches of intellect and subtler distinc- Greek letters with the corresponding English forms. By so tions of thought than most other tongues can comprise or define. doing you will be much aided in becoming familiar with the

But there is a recommendation of the study of Greek which Greek letters. throws all others into the shade, for in Greek are the Scriptures

THE GREEK ALPHABET. of the New Testament written. Strange is it that, in a Chris

Characters.

English tian country, the records of salvation should be so little read in

Small Equivalents Name in

Name in their originals. What a privilege is the power to do so! How Capitals. Letters.

English.

Greek, much better are the teachings of the Apostle to the Gentiles un. А

Alpba

Αλφα. derstood, when the student applies his mind to the very words

B
b
Beta

Βητα. which fell from his lips or flowed from his pen! How much

g (hard) Gamma

Γαμμα. more easily, and how much more thoroughly, do we enter into

d
Delta

Δελτα. the spirit, and feel at once the beauty and the power of the E

e (short) Epsilon

Εψιλον. lessons of the Divine Master, when we have thrown aside the

Zeta

Ζητα. Feil of a translation, and reverently with our own eyes look upon H

e (long)
Eta

Ητα. his sacred presence!

th
Thēta

Θητα. In connection with the study of theology, we may observe

i
Iota

Ιωτα. that the word “ theology,” and almost all our ecclesiastical and

k
Kappa

Καππα. theological terms, are derived from the Greek. The English

1

Lambda Λαμβδα, Fords bishop, baptism, atheist, liturgy, diocese, cathedral, with

Nu

Μυ. a host of others, are all drawn from the Greek.

Nu

Nu. While, however, the Greek language commends itself very

Xi

EL. specially to the attention of all who seek an acquaintance with

o (short) Omicron Ομίκρον. Divine truth, and offers its aid for the general culture and im

п

р
Pi

Πι. provement of human intelligence, it is not without a claim

Rho

'Pw. which, though more humble, may with some persons be more

Sigma

Σιγμα. valid. That claim it lays before all who stady or propose T

Tau

Ταυ. to study the sciences. Though some of the sciences existed

Upsilon Υψιλον. not, even in rudiments, during the classical days of Aristotle,

ph

Phi and though other sciences have been carried far beyond the

ch

Chi (like ki) XI. boundaries where they were left by Enclid and by Galen, yet in

p8
Psi

V. general the language of science is Greek; for such is the readi

o (long) Oměga

Ωμεγα. Dess with which the Greek lends itself to combination, that the moment a new science is elaborated-nay, the moment a new Of these five columns the first gives the Greek letters in capifact is ascertained, or a new elementary substance is discovered tals; the second gives the same letters in small forms; the third that moment some form or forms of words are produced from gives the corresponding English letters, that is, the forms in Greek elements, which exactly set forth the novelty. Hence English which have sounds similar to the several Greek letters ; these scientific names are so many definitions, and being defini- the fourth gives the Greek name of the letters ; and the hfth tions they describe the objects which they are used to designate; gives the same name in Greek characters. The names, as they they, I say, describe those objects to such students as are fami- appear in the last column, are the designations which you are liar with Greek. Take photography as an instance. This word to assign to the Greek letters; that is, you are to call a not a, is made up of two Greek words, ows (phose), light, and ypaon but alpha ; B not b, but beta, and so on. (graph'-pbee), a painting, and so means light-painting; that is, a Before you can advance another step, you must make yourself painting made by the solar rays. If the student will take the thoroughly familiar with these characters—with their names and troable of turning to the Greek sterns as set forth in the lessons their values or sounds. In general, you may follow your ordi. on the English language published in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, nary English methods of pronunciation; one or two exceptions be will find many illustrations of the fact that, in English, Greek will be pointed out immediately. Your present business is to is the langnage of science.

acquire a facility of transferring the Greek characters into correAs the language of science, Greek is of special service to sponding English characters, and to read the former in the all nen of science; in particular is it of great service to sounds of the latter. In the requisite application I advise you Tzedical men.

A vast number of the words with which they to employ a slate and pencil. Write the alphabet several times have to do in their studies are of Greek origin. Those words, merely in Greek. Then compare together such Greek characters to persons ignorant of the Greek tongue, are so many unknown as resemble each other, and carefully mark wherein they differ. terms, the meaning of which has to be learnt as a mere matter Having become familiar with the mere forms, associate with C routine ; but to the proficient in Greek they define themselves, each its own name. Then study the sounds, that is, pronounce and so describe the objects which they represent. Takė, as an each Greek letter in the corresponding English sound. These

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