Imágenes de páginas

EXAMPLE 3.-Reduce 52 tons 3 cwt. 1 qr. 25 lbs. to pounds. 55. 5623180 seconds to days, eto. 83. How many acres in a field

56. A solar year to seconds. 50 rods long by 45 wide ? 53 tons

57. 30 Julian years to seconds. 84. How many sq.yds. in a ceil20

58. The time from 9 o'clock ing 35 feet long by 23 wide ?

a.m. Jan. 2, to 11 p.m. March 1, 85. How many acres in a field 1000 + 3 = 1043 cwt.

1868, to seconds.

420 rods long and 170 wide ? 4

59. 110 days 20 minutes to se- 86. Find the area of a field so conds.

rods square. 4172 + 1 = 4173 qrs.

60. 27} degrees to seconds.

87. How many yards of carpet28

61. 7651314 seconds to degrees, ing, yard wide, will cover a room eto.

18 feet square? 33384

62. 1,000,000,000 minutes to right 88. How many yards of painting 8346

angles, degrees, etc.

will cover the four walls of a room

63. 1728 sq. rods 23 sq. yds, 5 18 feet long, 15 feet wide, and 9 116844 + 25 = 116809 pounds.

sq. ft. to square feet.

feet bigh? Proof of Correctness.

64. 100 acres 37 sq. rods to 89. Find the area of a pitched 28 ) 116869 ( 4173 qrs.

square feet and to square inches. roof whose rafters are 20 feet and

65. 832590 sq. rods to square ridge-pole 25 feet long. 112


90. How many cubic feet in a

66. 25363896 sq. feet to acres, box 5 feet long, 4 wide, and 3 deep? 48

etc. 28

91. How many cubic inches in a

67. 150 cubic feet to cubic inches. block 65 inches long, 42 wide, and 206

68. 97 cubic yards 15 cubic feet 36 thick ? 196

to cubic inches.

92. In 10752 cubic feet how

69. 49 cubic yds. 23 cubic ft. to many imperial bushels ? 109

cubic inches.

93. In 1155 cubic feet 33 inches 84

70, 84673 cubic inches to cubic how many imperial gallons ? feet.

94. How many bushels in a bin 25 pounds.

71. 39216 cubic feet to cubic 5 feet long, 5 wide, and 4 deep ? yards.

95. How many cubic feet in a 4) 4173

72. 65 loads of rough timber to 100 bushel bin ? cubic inches.

96. How many yards of carpet20 ) 1043... 1 qr.

73. 4502100 cubic inches to tons ing yard wide will cover a room of hewn timber.

25 feet long and 18 feet wide ?

74. 700 lbs. of silver to pounds, 97. How many cubic inches in a 52 tons 3 cwt. 1 qr. 25 lbs.

etc., avoirdupois.

mass of earth 40 yards long, 5 Hence the process has been correctly performed.

75." $10 lbs. 6 oz. 10 dwts. to yards wide, and 3 yards deep? EXERCISE 42.

pounds, etc., avd lupois.

98. Reduce 93756 cubic yards to

76. 1000 lbs. Troy to pounds, inches. 1. Work the following examples in Reduction, bringing each etc., avoirdupois.

99. How many pieces of paper quantity, whether simple or compound, to the denomination or

77. 1500 lbs. Troy to pounds, 12 yards long, and 2 feet 3 inches denominations required.

etc., avoirdupois.

wide, will it take to cover a room 1. £7 10s. 6d. to pence.

28. 45 leagues to feet and inches. 78. 48 lbs, avoirdupois to pounds, 20 feet long, 16 feet wide, and 13 2. £71 133. 6 d. to farthings. 29. 3,000 miles to perches and etc., Troy.

feet high, allowing for 3 doorways, 3. £90 78. 8d. to farthings. to yards.

79. 100 lbs. 10 oz. avoirdupois to each measuring 8 feet by 3 feet 9 4, £295 189, 330. to farthings. 30. 290375 feet to furlongs and pounds, etc., Troy.

inches T 5. 95 guineas 178. 94d. to farth- miles.

80. 5656 carats to pounds, etc., 100. The moon is about 240,000 ings,

miles from the earth : if it were 31. 1875343 inches to miles, and avoirdupois. 6. 24651 farthings to pounds, also to leagues.

*81. How many sq. yds. in a room possible to go there in a balloon, shillings, etc. 32. 15 m. 5 fur. 31 r. to rods 4 yurds long and 3 wide ?

how many days would it take to 7. 115739 farthings to pounds, and to yards.

82. How many sq. ft. in a floor accomplish the journey, moving as

the rute shillings, etc. 33. 1081080 inches to yards, fur. 20 feet long by 18 feet wide ?

12miles per hour? 8. 67256 farthings toguineas, etc. longs, and miles.

9. £36 4s. to sixpences and to 34. The earth's circumference Toats. (25,000 miles) to feet.

LESSONS IN DRAWING.—XIV. 10. £75 123. 60. to threepences. 35. 160 yards to nails and quar11. 29 lbs. 7 oz. 3 dwts. to grains. | ters.

WINTER, as we have said before, is the best time for studying 12. 37 lbs. 6 oz. to pennyweights. 36. 1,000 English ells to quarters the ramifications of trees; close observation at that period of 13. 175 lbs. 4 oz, 5 dwts. 7 grs. and yards.

the year is very necessary, and much profitable information may to grains.

37. 102345 nails to yards, etc. bé gained. A country walk, if only to the extent of a mile, will 14, 12256 grs. to pennyweights, 38. 223267 nails to French ells. afford abundant material for observation; the mind may then be ounces, etc.

39. 634 yds. 3 qrs, to nails and exercised in comparing one tree with another, for by comparison 15. 42672 dwts, to ounces and to inches.

only will their characteristic differences be made apparent, and ponnds.

40. 12256 pints to barrels of 30 facts will be revealed which the mind can store up for future uso. 16. 15 cwt. 3 qrs. 21 pounds. gallons.

17. 17 tons 12 cwt. 2 qrs. to 41. 475262 quarterns to gallons. To employ the pencil only in noting down the forms and growth ounces.

42. 50 tuns of 250 gallons each of trees would be of little service, unless the mind is doing more 18. 52 tons 3 cwt, 1 qr. 25 lbs. to pints. •

than the pencil can perform. There are innumerable peculiarities to pounds.

43. 45 pipes of 120 gallons each and points of difference which distinguish trees, and enable us to 19. 140 tons 17 cwt. 3 qrs. 27 lbs. to pints.

recognise them independently of their foliage, and close observato drams.

44. 25264 pints to barrels of 30 tion will make that easy which at first sight might seem to be 20. 16256 oz. to hundredweights, gallons each.

difficult; for although we advise the pupil to make good use of etc.

45, 136256 quarts to hogsheads his pencil whenever he is engaged in studying trees divested of 21. 267235 lbs, to stones, quar- of 63 gallons each. ters, hundredweights, etc.

46. 45 hogsheads 10 gallons, to their leaves, yet we must at the same time remind him that it 22. 563728 drams to tons, | pints.

will be more to his advantage to reflect without drawing than to pounds, etc.

47. 15 bushels 1 peck to quarts. draw without reflecting. 23. 95 lbs. (apothecaries' weight) 48. 763 bushels 3 pecks toquarts: From the observations we have made, it will be understood to drams.

49. 56 quarters5 bushels to pints. 'that we fully intend the pupil should take Nature for his guide, 24. 130 lbs. 7 oz. to scruples 50. 45672 quarts to bushels, etc. yet we can assist him in this part of his study by introducing and to grains.

51. 260200 pints to quarts, pecks, some examples, which he must copy as well as compare. Copying 25.6237 drams (apothecaries' etc.

will not only be a practical benefit, but also a means for estaweight) to pounds, etc.

52. 25 days 6 hours to minutes, blishing in his own mind the facts and principles we have endea. 26. 25463 scruples to ounces,

and also to seconds. pounds, etc.

53. 365 days 6 bours to seconds. voured to make clear to him. Let him compare the outline of 27. 27 miles to yards, to feet, 54. 847125 minutes to weeks, the oak (Fig. 98) in the last lesson with the lime (Fig. 100). His and to inches. etc., and to days, etc.

attention must also be given to the bark, which in some treeg

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the oak and willow, for example—is hard and rough, while in the in the light, will have their own especial forms in mang to beech and birch it is smooth. The straight parts of the branches characterise them, and it is those forms in masses which we of some trees are short, from their slow growth, while others that must copy. But lest our pupil should suppose from these increase more rapidly shoot forth their stems in one direction to remarks upon generalising foliage that we intend him to stop a greater extent. The smaller twigs and shoots of some, like here, and to represent nothing more than the breadth of light and the birch, are very slender, numerous, and drooping; the horse shade, we must remind him of what has been said above respectchestnut has fewer shoots, but they are thicker, and growing the details in light; we must remember also that, however apwards. Much more might be added to our consideration of broadly and definitely the light may fall upon a tree, since it is this important subject, but we think enough has been said to not a flat surface like a wall, there will be hundreds of minor point out the way, trusting our pupils will perfectly comprehend shadows and semi-tones scattered all over the extent of light, and our intention by these remarks, and be prepared to accompany there is as much individuality amongst these as in the whole us in the consideration of foliage.

mass, and their characteristics in detail are not less striking and In our last lesson we mentioned that, in drawing foliage, the significant because they are small : in short, they are reduced mode of treatment must in a very great measure be influenced repetitions of the general masses of light, and must be treated by the light and shade. We propose now to proceed with this with the same feeling if we wish to make a faithful represen. interesting part

tation. Here of our subject,

again is the and show what

point of differ. is meant by the

ence between a term "massing

first-rate and an in the foliage.

inferior artist, There are some

mentioned in who think that

a former les it is necessary to

namely, have for each

the ability he kind of treesome

possesses to redistinct and es.

present the mi. pecial touch,clas

nor shades and sifying them as

semi-tones, both “the oak touch,"

in regard to their “the elm touch,”

number and ex. “the beech

pression, and his touch," and nu

capability for merous others,

doing this will regardless of the

determine his fact that as the

rank as an artist. sun casts its

Sir Joshua Rey light upon a tree

nolds mentions it brings out the

a landscape shape and indi.

painter who was vidual character

remarkable for of its branches

his patience in Bo definitely that

what he consieven at a con

dered “high siderable dis

finish," and tance, when it

thought that the would be impos

greatest excelsible to recognise

lence to be atthe leaves, we

tained consisted pronounce

in the represen the tree to be an

tation of every oak, or elm, or

leaf on a tree. whatever else it

“ This picture," may be, simply

says Sir Joshta, from the manner

“I never saw; in which, as an

but I am very artist would say,

sure that an ar" the sun lights

tist who regards it up." The Fig. 100.

only the general most important

character of the consideration in

species, the order drawing a tree is

of the branches, to devote much attention to the light, and the parts that are made and the masses of the foliage, will in a few minutes produce a out in light. There are two reasons why the lights are considered more true resemblance of trees than this painter in as many to have such special importance (this principle belongs not to months.” We must dwell for a few moments upon the printrees only, but to every other object that claims the attention of ciples here inculcated, and explain by what means a painter the painter): the first is, because the details are more recognisable obtains the enviable power of making a faithful resemblance in the light than in the shade, and require particular care to with comparatively slight labour: it is because he adopts the represent them faithfully, for without the details in light there excellent practice of making separate studies of details, such as would be very little to show for our pains, as the shadows to a branches, trunks, stems, weeds, and foregrounds-in short, great extent absorb or obscure not only the colour but also the everything that may be deemed worthy of note. It is this form; the other reason is, that the eye naturally rests upon the method of copying parts of objects with close accuracy that lights and all the brighter parts first-afterwards, when we make gives him the power of representing them generally and yet a further and closer examination, we see the parts in shadow. | faithfully, with the natural effect which they bear to one another Nor must we enter into laborious and painful detail, as in the as a whole. An eminent English landscape painter, whose practice of mere leaf-painting. As we have said before, we do i manner was as remarkable for its freedom of execution as it not look at leaves singly, but at foliage collectively; therefore was for the truthfulness of its results, once remarked to us :those branches of a tree, let its kind be what it may, which are “ The secret of my success is in having bestowed mnch time




upon the close examination of the anatomy of trees; how their marking in. We were once asked by a pupil, " When shall I branches spring from the trunks; the forms of their leaves, and leave off marking in ?" We replied, never; it is not desirable the manner in which they grow or cluster in masses from the that you should ever leave off the practice, because all who do stems." When such labour and painstaking as this is the rule, mark in find that they make progress in drawing, and that it we need not wonder at a successful result.

saves time, and produces a more satisfactory result. A young Having said thus much upon the theoretical part of our mechanic whom we know, who had very much improved his subject, we will now turn to the practical. We adviso our power of drawing from attending a night class at a Mechanics' pupils to make a drawing of Fig. 101, leaves of the lime tree, Institute, offered himself as a candidate for a situation as with an 1 B pencil. He must first make the arrangement of the draughtsman at a manufactory where drawing was essential. whole of the stems, and then proceed with the leaves, beginning Having obtained it, one of his employers, after a few days, when where the two stems join, arranging every leaf in succession, he had become familiar with his work, brought him three or without passing over any, to the end, then faint the arrangement, four subjects to draw for working purposes, telling him at the and draw carefully every particular : it will be much better at same time that they would, no doubt, occupy him four days at first to make an enlarged drawing, say double the size ; do the least: at the same hour on the following day he returned the same also with Fig. 102. Fig. 103, the cluster of leaves, will whole finished. His master was agreeably surprised, and also require more time and attention, which must be especially much pleased with the excellence of the work, and asked him bestowed on

how he had the lights

done it go end sha

Fig. 101.

well and so dows. The

quickly. He Fig. 102. pupil will ob

replied:"I serve five or

am very parsix leaves

ticular in ar. apon the

ranging my dark mass in

drawing the centre of

first, and the branch ;

always make and here we

marks to in will particu

dicate the larly advise

course of the him not to

outline; the begin the sha

consequence ding until the

is I have outline is


little completed,

rubbing out adding, that

and altera. this should

tion, and that be a rule under all cir.

has enabled me to finish cumstances ; therefore

the drawing so quickly." after the outline has been

Therefore, in copying carefully made, he must

Fig. 100, note every tone dowon, that is, draw

angle, and the distances even and close lines over

between each angle, and the part in shade up to

do the same respecting the ontline of the leaves,

the positions of the and further, to make the

branches as they grow tint even, he may cross

from the trunk, the directhe lines with others simi.

tion and inclination of lar to the flat tint (Fig.

the branches, and their 82, Lesson XII.). He

extent, and you cannot must be careful to go

fail to make a satisfacnearly up to the edges of

tory drawing. the leaves, as they will

The illustrations that come out very forcibly Fig. 103.

accompany the present against the dark ground;

lesson are representaan A B pencil will make

tions of the stem, bran. this tint sufficiently dark,

ches, blossom, and leaves as all blackness must be

of the Tilia Europea, avoided. Here again we must introduce another caution respecte ; the European or common lime tree, which is the most valuable of ing the treatment of shadows amongst foliage-namely, never the different varieties of this useful tree. It grows most extenmake the interior shadows too dark; a moderate, clear, and yet sively in the middle and northern parts of Europe, and is very decisive tone will be enough, because there must be in all cases, common in England. Its large size, handsome appearance, and but especially with regard to trees, sufficient opportunities left profusion of sweet flowers, make it a very general favourite for marking in more forcibly any form which may be remarked throughout this country and most parts of the Continent, where in the shadows, observing that the making out details in it is extensively planted in parks and other places of public shadows cannot be carried to the extent of making out details recreation. Its wood is well adapted for carving, being white, in the lights. Trees, as we have previously said, are not flat close-grained, and smooth. The carvings at Windsor Castle, like walls, but their branches and leaves project and recede those of Trinity College, Cambridge, and those at Chatsworth, indefinitely, and consequently those leaves which come out nearer are of limewood, as, indeed, are most of the other fine specimens to the light will require a different tone to those which are in of this branch of art in England. The fibres of the bark, which shadow; the pupil's own observation must be his guide in this is tough, form the material of an extensive manufacture of matter as to which leaves must receive the minor tones and the cordage and matting in Russia and Sweden. Many specimens depth of tint to be laid upon them. In Fig. 103 the light falls of this tree exist which are remarkable for their great age and upon the right side, where less shading is required, but the whole size. At Neustadt, in Würtemberg, there is a prodigious lime of the leaves to the left, away from the light, must be toned tree, which adds its name to that of the town, this being called dowo, though not to the extent of the deep shadow in the middle Neustadt an der Linden (Neustadt at the lime tree). The age and interior of the branch. Fig. 100 we recommend should be of this enormous tree is said, probably with some exaggeration, copied double the size, and according to our old principle of to be one thousand years.

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1. How much is my house worth ? 2. It is worth about

twenty thousand francs. 3. Is that horse worth as much as 1. The verb seoir [3, ir., Sect. XLVI. 3] is also used uniper. this one P 4. This horse is worth two hundred dollars, and sonally.

that one three hundred. 5. Is it worth the while to write to Il ne vous sied pas de parler ainsi, It does not become you to speak thus. your brother ? 6. It is not worth the while. 7. Is it worth

2. The verb convenir [2, ir., see § 62], to suit, is at times the while to go out when one does not wish to walk ? 8. It
used unipersonally. It then signifies to be suitable, advisable, etc. is not (n'en) worth the while. 9. Does it suit you to write to
I convient de lui écrire,
It is advisable to write to him.

my brother to-morrow? 10. It does not suit me to write to

him. 11. Does it become you to reproach me with my neglect ? 3. The irregular verb valoir (see table, $ 62] corresponds in 12. It becomes me to blame you when you deserve it. 13. signification to the English expression to be worth.

What is that man worth ? 14. I cannot tell you exactly, abont Cette maison vaut cinq 'mille That house is worth five thousand fifty thousand francs. 15. Is that cloth good ? 16. No, Sir, it francs,


is good for nothing. 17. Is your gun worth as much as mine ? 4. Ne rien valoir means to be good for nothing; ne pas valoir 18. Yes, Sir, it is worth more. 19. Will you go to my father's? grand'chose, to be worth little, not to be good for much.

20. No, Sir, I have something else to do. 21. Is it better to go Ce drap ne vaut rien, That cloth is good for nothing.

to market early than late? 22. It is better to go early. 23. How Notre maison ne vaut pas grand'. Our house is not good for much. much may your horse be worth ? 24. It is not worth much, it is chose,

very old. 25. Is your watch better than mine? 26. It is not 5. Être riche de . . : means to be worth, to possess ; when a

worth much, it does not go. 27. Is that book worth two francs ? person is the nominative of the verb, valoir is never used in 28. It is worth one, at most. 29. Have you asked your sister this sense.

what that book is worth ? 30. I have not. [Sect. XXIV. 1, 2; Cette personne est riche de cinq That person is worth five thousand XLV. 4.] 31. What must I do? 32. You must speak to your

father. 33. Must he have money ? 34. He must have some. mille piastres,


35. Has he not sold his horse ? 36. He has sold it, but it was 6. Valoir mieux, conjugated unipersonally, means to be better; not worth much. valoir la peine, to be worth the while.

SECTION XLIX.--REGIMEN RELATING TO SOME VERBS. Il vaut mieux travailler que d'être It is better to labour than to be idle. oisif,

1. When the verbs prendre [4, ir., see § 62], to take ; voler, Il ne vaut pas la peine de parler It is not worth the while to speak to rob, to steal; acheter, to buy; demander, to ask for; payer, quand on n'a rien à dire,

when one has nothing to say.

to pay, are followed by one regimen only, or by several regimens

in the same relation, these regimens, if nouns, must not be RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

separated from the verb by a preposition; if pronouns, they n ne vous sied pas de nous faire It does not become you to reproach us.

take the form of the direct regimen, le, lu, les. des reproches. Il ne vous convient pas de parler It is not suitable for you to speak so.

Avez-vous pris le livre ?

Have you taken the book ? de la sorte.

Avez-vous payé le libraire ?

Have you paid the bookseller ? Il ne nous convient pas d'y aller. It does not suit us to go there.

Avez-vous demandé votre argent ? Have you asked for your money? Combien votre jardin vaut-il ? How much is your garden worth ?

L'avez-vous demandé ?

Have you asked for him ? Il vaut beaucoup plus que le vôtre. It is much more valuable than yours. 2. When the verbs above mentioned are accompanied by Il ne vaut pas autant que le mien. It is not worth so much as mine. several regimens holding different relations, the regimen reNotre maison ne vaut rien.

Our house is good for nothing. presenting the thing or object will be direct, and come under Votre habit ne vaut pas grand- Your coat is not good for much. the above rule, and that representing the person will, if a nonn, chose.

be preceded by the preposition d, and, if a pronoun, assume the Cela ne vaut pas la peine.

That is not worth the while. Ce château peut valoir cent mille This villa may be worth one hundred form of the indirect regimen—lui, to him, to her ; leur, to them. francg.

thousand francs.
J'ai pris le livre à mon frère, I have taken the book from my

brother. De combien votre oncle est-il riche? How much is your uncle worth? n est riche de deux cent mille He is worth two hundred thousand J'ai payé le livre au libraire, I have paid the bookseller for the

book. francs.

francs. Ne vaut-il pas mieux lire que jouer? Is it not better to read than to play?

Je le lui ai payé, etc.,

I have paid him for it.

3. Demander is used also in the sense of to inquire for, to VOCABULARY.

ask for.
Assur-er, 1, to assure. Chaîne, f., chain. Pouvoir, 3, ir., to be J'ai demandé ce monsieur, I asked for that gentleman.
Au juste, precisely. Couteau, m., knife. able.
Autre chose, something Marché, m., market. Reproch-er, i, to re-

Mérit-er, 1, to deserve, proach.

Vous a-t-on volé vos livres ? Has any one stolen your books from Blåm-er, 1, to blame. merit.

Tout au plus, at most. Cass-er, 1, to break. Montre, f., watch. Va from aller, to go.

On me les a volés (Sect. XXXIV.1,2.] They have been stolen from me. Centaine, f., about a Négligence, f., neglect. Vingtaine, f., about

A-t-on payé les souliers au cordon. Has the shoemaker beon paid for the hundred. Négociant, merchant, twenty.

nier ?

shoos? EXERCISE 91.

On ne les lui a pas encore payés. Ho has not been paid for them,

What has been taken from your father! 1. Vous sied-il de nous reprocher notre négligence P 2. n Qu'a-t-on pris à votre père ?

On lui a pris son argent.

His money has been taken from him. me sied de vous faire des reproches quand vous le méritez. 3.

Ne vous a-t-on rien payé ?

Has nothing boon paid you ! Vous convient-il d'aller trouver mon frère ? 4. Il ne me con.

On m'a payé presque tout.

I have been paid almost all, vient pas d'aller le trouver, j'ai autre chose à faire. 5. Com- J'ai acheté des livres au libraire. I bought books from the bookseller, bien ce champ peut-il valoir ? 6. Il peut valoir une vingtaine Qui avez-vous demandé ?

Whom have you asked for 1 [$ 27 (2)] de mille francs. 7. Valez-vous mieux que votre J'ai demandé mon frère aîné. I inquired for my eldest brother. frère ? 8. Mon frère vaut beaucoup mieux que moi. 9. Ce Avez-vous demandé de l'argent à Have you asked your friend for couteau ne vaut-il pas plus que le vôtre ? 10. Le mien est

votre ami ?


I have not asked him for any. meilleur, il vaut davantage. 11. Combien votre montre vaut- Je ne lui en ai pas demands. elle ? 12. Ello no vaut pas grand chose, elle ne va pas bien.

VOCABULARY. 13. De combien le négociant est-il riche ? 14. Je ne puis vous Chapelier, m., hatter. Loyer, m., rent. Renseignements, le dire au juste, il est riche d'une centaine de mille francs. Crayon, m., pencil. Pantoufle, f., slipper. information. 15. Ne vaut-il pas mieux rester ici que d'aller au marché ? 16. | Demeur-er, 1, to dwell. Paysan, m., peasant. Perenu, m., incoino. n vaut mieux aller au marché. 17. Votre chaîne d'or vaut- Fenêtre, f., window. Propriétaire, m., land. Tout, -e, all. elle plus que la mienne ? 18. Elle vaut tout autant. 19. Elle ne Frapp-er, 1, to knock. lord.

Voyageur, m., traveller. vaut pas grand'chose, elle est cassée. 20. Cela vaut-il cinquante Légume, m., vegetabls. I Rend-re, 4, to return. francs ? 21. Cela vaut tout au plus deux francs. 22. Avez-vous

EXERCISE 93. demandé au marchand ce que cela vaut? 23. Je ne le lui pas 1. Que vous a-t-on pris ? 2. On m'a pris mes livres, mes demandé. 24. I m'assure que cela vaut une centaine de francs. crayons et mon canif. 3. Savez-vous qui vous les a pris? 4.

you ?

Je ne connais pas celui qui me les a pris, mais je sais qu'il 11. The butcher has the meat. 12. The miller has the meat, and I demenre ici. 5. Avez-vous demandé vos livres ? 6. Je les ai have the coffee. 13. Have you the water and the salt?

14. Yes, demandés à mon cousin. 7. Vous les a-t-il rendus ? 8. Il me

Sir; we have the water, the salt, and the oats. 15. Have we the

tea? 16. No, Sir; the girl has the tea, the vinegar, and the salt. les a payés. 9. Vous a-t-on volé beaucoup de fruit cette année ?

18. No, Madam, you have only the vinegar and 10. On m'a volé des légumes, mais on ne m'a point volé de fruit. 17. Have I the wine ?

the meat. 19. Have you the table ? 20. Yes, Madam, I have the 11. Avez-vous payé votre chapeau au paysan? 12. Je ne le lai

table. ai pas payé, je l'ai payé au chapelier. 13. À qui avez-vous

EXERCISE 2 (Vol. I., page 3). demandó des renseignements ? 14. J'en ai demandé au voya

1. Avez-vous le blé ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai le blé. 3. Qui a la geur. 15. Savez-vous qui vient de frapper à la porte ? 16.

viande ? 4. Le boucher a la viande et le sel. 5. A-t-il l'avoine ? 6. C'est M. L., qui vous demande. 17. Qui avez-vous demandé ? Non, Madame, le cheval a l'avoine. 7. Avons-nous le blé? 8. Vous 18. J'ai demandé votre frère. 19. Votre frère a-t-il payé toutes

avez le blé et la farine. 9. Qui a le sel ? 10. J'ai le sel et la viande. ses dettes ? 20. Il ne les a pas encore payées, parce qu'il n'a 11. Arons-nous le vinaigre, le thé, et le café ? 12. Non, Monsieur, le pas reçu ses revenus. 21. Lui avez-vous payé ce que vous lui frère a le vinaigre. 13. Qui a le cheval ? 14. Le boulanger a lo avez acheté ? 22. Je le lui ai payé. 23. Ne leur avez-vous cheval. 15. Avons-nous le livre et la plume ? 16. Non, Madepas payé votre loyer ? 24. Je le leur ai payé. 25. Ils nous ont moiselle, la fille a la plume, et le meunier a le livre. 17. Avez-vous la payé notre maison.

table, Monsieur ?


18. Non, Monsieur, j'ai seulement le livre. EXERCISE 94.

Qui a la table ? 20. Nous avons la table, la plume, et le livre, 1. Have you paid your landlord ? 2. I have paid him my

EXERCISE 3 (Vol. I., page 3). rent. 3. Have you paid him for the windows which you have

1. Have you the gold watch? 2. Yes, Madam, I have the gold broken? 4. I have paid him for them. 5. Has the hatter watch and the silk hat. 3. Sir, have you the tailor's book ? 4. No, paid for all his hats ? 6. He has not paid for them, he has Sir, I have the physician's book. 5. Have they the baker's bread bonght them on credit (à crédit). 7. Do you pay what you 6. They have the baker's bread and the miller's flour,

7. Have you owe every day? 8. I pay my butcher every week. 9. Have the silver pencil-case ? 8. Yes, Sir, we have the silver pencil-case. 9. you paid him for his meat ? 10. I have paid him for it. 11. Have we the horse's oats ? 10. You have the horse's oats and hay. For whom did you inquire this morning ? 12. I inquired for 11: Who has the carpenter's cloth coat ? 12. The shoemaker has the

tailor's silk hat. 13, The tailor has the shoemaker's leather shoe. 14, your brother. 13. Why did you not inquire for my father ? Have you the wooden table ? 15. Yes, Sir, I have the carpenter's 14. I know that your father is in England. 15. Has the hatter wooden table. 16. Have they the silver knife ? 17. They have the been paid for his hats ? 16. He has been paid for them.

17. silver knife. 18. The physician's brother has the silver watch. 19. Has your money been taken from you? 18. My hat has been The shoemaker's sister has the silk dress. 20. Has she the leather stolen from me. 19. Have you asked your brother for your shoe? 21. No, Madam, she has the satin shoe. 22. Have we the money? 20. I have asked him for it, but he cannot return it woollen stocking ? 23. No, Sir, you have the tailor's silk stocking. to me. 21. Has he no money? 22. He has just paid all his 24. Who has the cotton stocking ? 25. The physician has the cotton debts, and he has no money left (de reste).

23. Have you

stocking. 26. The lady has the satin shoe of the baker's sister. asked your father for money ? 24. I have not asked him for any, I know that he has none. 25. From what bookseller have you bought your books ? 26. I bought them from your book- ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-V. seller. 27. Are you wrong to pay your debts ? 28. I am right

CHARITY. to pay them. 29. Who is inquiring for me? 30. Tho physician is inquiring for you. 31. Who knocks ? 32. Your shoemaker CHARACTER can never be said to be complete without the knocks.

presence of the element of charity. So many false ideas, how.

ever, are current concerning the nature of charity, that it may KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. be well to preface this article by reminding the reader that

For the use of those who are studying our Lessons in charity is not the synonym for a mere mawkish sentimentality. French, we now give the first portion of a Key to the exercises To be charitable, according to some theorists, is to be indifferent contained in those lessons. We have deferred its commence.

to the distinction between honour and dishonour, good and evil, ment until the present time designedly, that we might not and to treat even the most flagrant faults with palliative excuse subject our readers to the temptation of consulting the Key and toleration. Charity, like each of the virtues, must exist in until after they had written the Exercises to which it relates, harmony with others, or it loses its claim to be considered a and made such progress as will enable them to detect and

virtue. A charity which could exist apart from truth, righteousamend any errors they may have made when beginning our

ness, and justice, would only serve to put a premium upon vice conree of lessons. The only way to acquire a thorough know and crime. What then, it may be asked at the outset, is ledge of a living language is to practise one's self in the usg charity? It is the wise exercise of the affectionate side of our of it; and the best exercises will be of no service unless they naturo; it is the letting love operate as a motive power in are written without any other assistance than is supplied by all our varied relationships, as citizens and members of a general grammatical information. When, however, the self. commonwealth in which each ought to consider the best teacher has thoroughly studied both lessons and exercises, it interests of the other. This can never be done by more exis useful for him to be able to turn to a key, such as we are pediency, nor from a sense of utilitarian morality; it must be now going to give him, for the purpose of comparison and the the result of innate beneficence or kindness. Charity refers to final correction of any mistakes he may not be able to perceive our estimates, as well as our actions ; it considers the weakness himself.

incidental to its own nature, and is therefore lenient in its judgIt may be objected that we have given a Key to the exercises ment about others, not as blind to their faults, but as looking in each Lesson in Latin in the

lesson that immediately

follows to the frailties of our common humanity, and finding in the it. It must, however, be remembered that Latin is a highly errors of others counterparts of the shortcomings which

exist inflected language, and one which the learner will never attempt in ourselves. Charity considers that there is a common weal, as to speak; while the grammatical construction of the French well as a private weal, and feels the claim of the outside world language is less complicated; and that it should be the chief upon its powers of help and sympathy: thus realising that with object of the learner to speak French ; and, for this purpose, all the distinctions which are evidently inherent in the system to drill himself thoroughly in the rules of which each lesson of things, such as rich and poor, high and low, there is yet a is composed. To induce him to rely as much as possible on

brotherhood of humanity, in which the stronger are expected to his own resources, we have, therefore, deferred commencing help the weaker. Charity considers the terrible exigencies of 2. Key to the Exercises in Lessons in French until the present life into which many are born, and in looking at the lamentable

phases of character continually brought to light, it is ever on the EXERCISE 1 (Vol. I., page 3).

alert to educate the masses and to ameliorate the condition of 1. Who has the bread ? 2. The baker has the bread.

their dwellings. Charity, moreover, is no spasmodic exercise of

3. Has he the flour? 4. Yes, Sir, he has the flour. 5. Have we the meat ? 6.

generosity, no sudden surprise of human nature into an act of Yea, Sir, you have the meat and the bread. 7. The miller has the startling goodness, but it is the spirit of the life, that which four. 8. The baker has the flour and the wheat. 9. Have we the underlies all our judgments of and our actions towards others. book and the pen? 10. Yes, Miss, you have the book and the pen. Charity, thus interpreted, is the co-existence and exercise of


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