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Pitch.”

For HEAVEN's sake, Hubert ! let me not be BO'UND! [O] "high ;" [oo] “ very high ;" [o] “low;" [oo] “very low."

Nay, HE'Ar me, Hubert! drive those mén away, Key.

And I will sit as quiet as a LA'MB;

I will not stir, nor wi'NCE, nor speak a wo'RD, [+] “ lively"-fall tone); 6] "plaintive”-(semitone).

Nor LOOK | upon the irons / ángerly ; “ Time."

Thrust but these men away, and I'll FORGI VE you, [u] " quick ;" [w] "very quick;" [-] "slow;" [=] " very

Whatever torments you do put me to. slow." “Stress." *

Terror. [r. s.] “ radical stress ;" [m. s. ] “ medial stress ;" [v. s.]

AWA'KE! AWA'KE!"vanishing stress ;" (c.8.]“compound stress ;” (th.s.] "thorough

RING the ALARUM BELL: MURDER! and TREASON ! stress ;” (s. s.] "suppressed stress;" (tr.] “ tremor ;" [ef.s.]

BANQUO, and DONALBA'IN! MA'LCOLM! AWA'KE ! “expulsive stress ;” [explo. s.]

Shake off this downy sleep, death's counterfeit, "effusive stress ;” [expul. s.]

And look on death itself !-UP! Up! and see "explosive stress.”

The great Do'om's image !-MA'LCOLM! BANQUO! “ Quality.” +

As from your GRAVES rise up, and walk like sprites, [h.q.] "harsh quality ;” (sm. 9.] “smooth quality;" [a.q.]

To countenance this horror! "aspirated quality;" [pu. t.] "pure tone;" [p.q.] "poctoral Rule 2.-Wonder and astonishment are expressed by “loud, quality;" [9. 9.] "guttural quality;" [o.q.] oral quality;" high, and slow utterance ;” “vanishing stress ;" “ aspirated [oro. q.] “orotund quality."

and slightly "guttural" quality ;' and prolonged downward « Combinations."

slide." Astonishment exceeds wonder, in the degree of these [h.9.q.] "harsh guttural quality;" [sm. p.q.]“ smooth pec- properties. tor quality,” etc.

Example of Wonder. The above Key, though at first sight intricate, will occasion

What is't?--a spirit ? no serious difficulty to students who have read attentively the

Sèe! how it looks about ! Believe me, sir, Sections on “ Stress” and “Quality." The notation will be

It carries a bràve form !-but 't is a spirit !found of great service, not only by suggesting appropriate “ex

I might call him pression," which a young reader might otherwise overlook, but

A thing divine; for nothing natural by enabling the pupil to prepare for the exercise of reading or

I ever saw so nóblo ! declaiming, by previous study and practice.

Astonishment. It is a Himiliating fact that, in many schools, the sublimest Alonzo. What harmony is this ?-my good friends, HA'RK ! and most beautiful strains of poetry-take, for example, Milton's Gonzalo. Marvellous sweet music! invocation, “ Hail, holy Light!”-are, from the neglect of Alon. Give us kind kècpers, HEAVENS !-What were THESE ? "expressive tone,” called out in the same voice with which a Sebastian. A living dròllery! Now will I believe clerk repeats the number or the mark on a bale of goods, or

That there are inicorns : that, in Arabia, read with tho "free and easy" modulation of a story told by

There is one trèe, the phonix' throne; one phanit

At this hour reigning there. the fireside ; or, perhaps, with the pompous mouthing of the

Antonio.

I'll believe both; juvenile hero of a "spouting club,” with the languishing tone

And what does else want credit, come to me, of & sick person, or with the suppressed, half-whispering utter- And I'll be suorn 't is TRU'S. ance of a conscious culprit.

Note.--Amazement, when it does not go to the utmost The notation of " expression” has been adopted with a view extreme, has a louder, but lower and slower utteranoe, than to the early formation of correct habit.

astonishment; the other properties of voice are of the game RULES ON EXPRESSIVE TONE.

description as those expressed in astonishment, but increased in Rule 1.-The tones of anger, vexation, alarm, fear, and terror, degree. have an utterance "extremely loud, high, and quick," "abrupt,'

Amazement. and "explosive," -or sometimes marked by “expulsive" and Gonzalo. I the name of something hòly, sir, why stand you by" vanishing' stress,-an “aspirated," harsh,” and “gut- In this strange stare ? tural” voice, and are characterised throughout by the "falling [] Alonzo.

Oh! it is MÒNSTROUS! MONSTROUS ! inflection.”

Methought, the billous spoke, and told me of it;
Example of Anger.

The winds did sing it to me; and the THU'NDER,

That deep and dreadful organ-pipe, pronounced He hath disgraced me, and hindered me of half a million ; laughed at

The name of PRÓSPER; it did bàss my trèspass ! my Wsses, mocked at my gàins, scorned my nation, thwarted my bàrgains,

Rule 3.-Horror and extreme amazement have a softened cooled my friends, heated mine enemies : and what's his reason ? I AM A JEW. Hath not a Jow eyes, hath not a Jew hands, órgans, dimensions,

"force,” an extremely "low" note, and “slow” movement, a sénets, affóctions, pássions ? fed with the same food, hurt with the same suppressed stress,” a deep "aspirated pectoral quality," and wéapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same méans, warmed a prevailing monotone." and cooled by the same winter and summer as a CHRI'STIAN is?

Example of Horror.
Vexation.

Now, o'er one half the world
Sáy you 80 ? sa'y yon so ?-I say unto you again, you are a shallow, Nāture seems dèad; and wicked drēams abuse
cówardly hind, and yon Li'e. Our plot is a good plot as ever was laid ;

The cũrtained sleeper; witchcraft cēlebrates our friends true and co'XSTANT; a go‘OD PLOT, good friends, and full of Pale Hécate's offerings; and withered murder, expectation : an EXCELLENT plot, VERY good frionde. What a FRO'STY.

Alārumed by his sentinel, the wolf, SPIRITED rogue is this !- An I were now by this rascal, I could brain

Whose howl's his watch, thûs with his stealthy pace, him with his LADY'S FA'n.-Oh! I could DIVIDE myself, and go to With Tārquin's rāvishing strides, towards his design BO'YTETS, for moving such a disy of SKIMMED MILK with go honourable

Mõves like a ghòst.-[oo] Thön süre and firm-set earth an detion !

Hear not my stēps which way they walk, for féar
Alarm.

The võry stones prāte of my whereabouts,
Strike on the tinder, ko'!

And take the présent horror from the time,
Give me a ZA PER ; cull up all my PEOPLE !

Which now suits with it.
Get xoʻRE tapers ;

Extreme Amarement.
Raise all my KI'NDRED I-

Oh! answer me:
Coll up my BROTHERI-

Let me not bùrst in ignorance! but těll
Somo | OʻNE way, somo ANOTHER !

Why thy canonized bones, hēarsed in death,
Get WEAPONS, HO'!

Have búrst their cèroments! why the sēpulchre,
And raise some special officers of night!

Wherein we siw thee quietly inūrned,
Fear.

Iath õped his ponderous and marble jaws,
Oh! BA've me, Hubert, SA'VE me: my eyos are O'UT,

To cast thee up again! [..] Whāt máy this mēnn,
Even with the fierce Lo‘OKS of these bloody men!

That thõn, déad corse, again, in complete stõel
Alds! what need you be so boisterous róugh ?

Revisit'st thus the glimpses of the moon,
I will not struggle, I will STA'ND | STO'NE | STI'LL.

Mäking night hideous; and we fools of nature,

So horribly to shake our disposition, See Section IX., " Stress." + See Section I., “ Quality."

With thoughts beyond the roaches of our souls ?

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LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XXX.

Our readers will readily understand that the specimen of hand.

writing which we have now brought under their notice forms OFFICIAL HANDWRITING. III.

merely a portion of the sheet of entries from which it is taken. The acoompanying model of official handwriting has been It is a part of the central column. The narrow column on the copied, by permission, from a specimen sheet of Treasury left contains reference numbers-numbers, most probably, of Journal Entries, annexed to one of the annual reports issued by folios in other books in which are entered the items which make Her Majesty's Civil Service Commissioners. It is inserted here up the gross totals inserted either on the debtor or creditor side, to furnish our readers with a reliable example of the style of opposite the entries in the central column. On either side of handwriting adopted for entries in the various accounts of the this column are, firstly, the entries for reference numbers, one publio income and expenditure kept in the different Govern. of which is shown in our model; and then, to the right and left ment officos. It should be said, that the sheet of entries from of those reference columns, are columns for pounds, shillings, which our model has been copied was sent from the Treasury at and pence, the whole forming a compendious balance-sheet. It the request of the Commissioners, and inserted, with other may be as well to note that the difference between this and an specimens of Government correspondence, in the report, of which ordinary balance-sheet is, that whereas in the latter, the debtor

154

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151 Exchequer Annuities

. Irish Life Annuities 153 Civil Lista

Annuities and Pensions.
Salaries and Allowances

.
Diplomatic Salaries
Courts of Iustice.

Miscellaneous: (Consolidated Fund) 155 Advances for Local Works for

be Army Navy. 215 Civil Contingencies. 219 Miscellaneous Votes

.

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SPECIMEN OF OFFICIAL HANDWRITING SUITABLE FOR BOOKKEEPING IN GOVERNMENT OFFICES.

it forms a part, for the purpose of showing candidates for the and creditor sides of the accounts are written on opposite folios, Civil Service the style of writing that they should endeavour to or divided by a double line when on the same folio, as is often acquire for what we may call Government book keeping. "They the case in printed statements of accounts, each series of may, we think,” say the Commissioners, in giving their reason pounds, shillings, and pence columns being on the right-hand for inserting in their report the specimens to which we have side of the folio; while in the former, the entries, whether they referred, “ be useful to those who are preparing for examina- belong to the debtor or creditor side of the account, are entered tion.”. Of this there can be no doubt whatever ; but as the consecutively in the central column of the sheet, the figures majority of those who may be intending to offer themselves as belonging to the entries on the debtor side being inserted in the candidates for appointments in the Civil Service may neither pounds, shillings, and pence columns on the left, while the have an opportunity of seeing the reports of the Commissioners figures belonging to the entries on the creditor side are placed on the one hand, nor care, on the other, to go to the expense of in the pounds, shillings, and pence columns on the right. procuring them, we have endeavoured to supplement what has There is no occasion for us to speak at length of the pecualready been done in these reports for the guidance and in liarities of the style of the handwriting shown in our model struction of candidates, by setting before our readers the It differs but little from the ordinary style adopted for copies specimens of official correspondence that have been given in in round-hand and small-hand, the chief point of difference previons lessons (see Lessons in Penmanship, XXVII., XXVIII., being that the capitals are rather smaller in proportion to the pages 33, 64), and the present model of official bookkeeping. size of the small letters.

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LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-V.

The four most elevated are executed in a superior style, and

apparently co-eval with Persepolis, and belonging to the early ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE OF PERSIA-GREEK ARCHITECTURE

kings of Persia. The lower tombs appear to belong to the THE PARTHENON-DORIC ORDER OF ARCHITECTURE.

period of the Sassanian dynasty, and therefore to a considerably SIMILAR to the excavated temples of India, are the excavated later period. The description of these remarkable tombs will tombs of Persepolis and Nakshi-Roustam. At the foot of the remind us of the “new tomb" of Joseph of Arimathea, " which rock of Istakhr, thirty miles south of Shiraz, stand the ruins of he had hewn out in the rock," and of the “great stone" which Persepolis, once the capital of the ancient and powerful Persian was rolled to “the door of the sepulchre, wherein was never empire. The platform, which first strikes the eye of the man yet laid,” till the "King of kings” himself became the traveller, appears to have been surrounded by a triple wall : I tenant of its walls. It explains also the meaning of the passage of the first two, as described by an

“she stooped down and looked into cient historians, no trace now re

the sepulchre,” which is so inaccumains; but the third, which still

rately translated in our version, and exists, is a square cut in the moun

SIIIIIIII

which ought to be simply "she peeped tain, and is 60 cubits high. It is

into the sepulchre." si To peep” is defended by palisades of copper, with

the exact translation of parakupto, doors of the same, 20 cubits high.

and, according to Johnson, signifies The first wall was to inspire awe, the

“ to look closely or curiously, to look second was for strength, and the

through any crevice;” the darkness third for the defence of the palace.

of the interior of the tomb requiring To the east of this, at the distance of

a close and narrow look, to ascertais 400 feet, is the royal mountain con.

if its tenant, the “King of Glory," taining the tombs of the kings. Hero

were there. the rock is hollowed out into several

After this short digression, we prochambers, to gain the entrance to

ceed to remark that the latest monuwhich the coffins are hoisted up by REMAINS OF THE PARTHENON AT ATHENS.

ments discovered at Khorsabad, near machinery ; no other way of ascend.

Nineveh, having exhibited no exam. ing them exists. This sacred en

ple of a column or even of isolated closure, connected with the platform below, comes within the pillars, no comparison can be instituted between the column bounds of what may be called the castellated palace. The constructed by the Assyrians, if they did erect any, and those illustration below is a sketch of one of the tombs in the Shah of the other people of Asia. The nations we have named in Kuh or Royal Mountain.

our preceding observations were in the beight of civilisation, On the ground above appear several mounds and rocky heaps, while the Grecian arts were in their cradle ; and it is difficult presenting the appearance of three distinct lines of walls and to admit that the Greeks had not learned their first lessons in towns. The steep faces of this rocky palace are formed of architecture by the study of the Asiatic or African orders dark-grey marble, cut into gigantic square blocks, exquisitely which we have described. In fact, the most ancient type of polished, and, without the aid of mortar, fitted to each other the Greek orders, the Doric, particularly at its commencement, with such closeness and precision, that the whole platform I is nearly the same as that exhibited in the tombs of the must have appeared as part of the

Heptanomis, and which Champollion rock itself. On the interior faces of

called Proto-Doric or primitive Doric. the walls of the platform within the

The genius of Greece developed this portal are sculptured two colossal

first idea, enriched it with details balls, symbolical of power, and suit

which the Egyptians had neglected, ably placed at the gate of the palace

and formed out of it the first basis of the great king. South of the

of its national architecture. The portal appears the magnificent ter

principal character of the Greek Dorio race which supports the Hall of

is the nobleness and dignity of the Columns. This series of columns is

whole order, the severe simplicity of called Chel Minar, or palace of forty

its details, and the moderation of its columns, and is approached by a

ornaments. The columns have no flight of steps remarkable for their

base; the shaft is ornamented by wide grandeur and the beauty of their de

and shallow futings; the capital is coration. But the columns them.

composed of a large moulding in the selves are the most surprising in

form of a cup or flat vase, which rests these respects ; they are each 60 feet

upon two or three little fillets, and is high, the circumference of the shaft

surmounted by a square tablet. The being 16 feet, and the distance from

triglyphs, the fluted ornaments at the the capital at the top of the shaft to

extremity of the architraves, which the bottom 44 feet. The shaft is

are seen in the frieze and entablature, finely fluted in 32 divisions ; at its

belong exclusively to this order ; the lower extremity begin a cincture and

square spaces or metopes between the torus--the first two inches deep,

triglyphs are frequently occupied and the latter one foot-whence de

TOMB AT PERSEPOLIS,

with sculptures of isolated subjects ; volves the pedestal in the form of the

but the polished frieze, and consecap and leaves of a lotus or lily. This

quently the continued subject, are in rests on a plinth of eight inches, and in circumference 24 feet 6 this order very rare. Still this order does not exclude all decoinches, the whole from the cincture to the plinth being 5 feet 10 ration; and in buildings of a common character it loses its inches in height. The capitals which remain, though much injured, heaviness, and becomes very elegant; the mouldings then beare sufficient to show that they were surmounted by the demi-bull. come finer, and some are decorated with various ornaments. The heads of the bulls forming the capitals look to the various An example of the Doric column is given in the next page. fronts of the terrace. But it is impossible in our limited space According to Vitruvius, it was in the temple of Juno, at to indulge in the details of these extraordinary ruins; we can Argos, where the Doric order of architecture first rose to a only refer our readers to the works which contain fuller descrip-marked eminence, and became the model for the magnificent tions of them, as those of Le Bruyn, Sir William Ouseley, Sir edifices afterwards erected throughout Greece. It was next Robert Ker Porter, and others. A few miles distant from Perse-employed in the temple of Jupiter Nemeus, at Nemea, between polis stands the excavated hill of Nakshi-Roustam. It is about Argos and Corinth; of Jupiter Olympius, at Olympia, in Elis, 1,200 feet high, and presents a precipitous face of whitish marble, in a splendid triple portico in the city of Elis; and in three nearly the whole of which is covered with sculptured tombs. temples of the same city-namely, those of Juno, Minerva, and

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πολίτα.

πολίται.

νεάνιαις.

Dindymeno or Cybele; at Eleusis, in the great temple to Cares, 9. Η τυχη πολλακις μεταβολας εχει. 10. Την πενιαν φερετε. in the temple of Minerva at Sunium ; and in the temple of the 11. Ai Nauapal tuxai padius FITTOVOL. 12. Φερε τας τυχας. 13. same goddess at Athens, called the Parthenon ; in the entrance 'H apety OUK Eikel Tais tuxais. 14. Απεχεσθε των χαλεπων μεριμto tho Acropolis, and in other public buildings of great magni- vwv. 15. Η βασιλεια λαμπραν βασιλειαν εχει. 16. Η στολη εστι tude and splendour at Athens. In many of the islands of | καλη. 17. Καλας στολας εχομεν. Greece and Magna Græcia, there were also temples of the Dorio

EXERCISE 6.--ENGLISH-GREEK. style of architecture, as that of Apollo, in Delos; of Juno, in

1. Fleo cares. 2. Baseness begets dishonour. 3. Virtue Samos; of Jupiter Panhellenius, of Ægina, and of Silenus, in Sicily; and many others in places of inferior note. Many of follows fame. 4. They bear poverty easily. 5. Poverty is these temples were of great magnitude. They were universally borne easily. 6. You bear poverty easily. 7. Thou hast changes, of an oblong form. In some the porticoes Do not yield to fortune. 11. They yield to fortune readily

. 8. Abstain from baseness. 9. They have a beautiful robe. 10. were only at the end, in others they were extended right round the interior of the 12. Do ye restrain (hold back) the tongue (that is, in English, building, some in single, and others in your tongue). 13. Wrong judgments are made right. double ranges. Some were covered with Having in the previous lesson treated of feminine nouns of roofs, others were left partly uncovered, the first declension, I now pass on to and some were divided by ranges of pillars

MASCULINE NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION. along the middle of the interior. The super

EXAMPLES.
structure was placed upon a platform com-
posed of three steps, which surrounded the

A citizen. Mercury.

A youth, whole building, and upon which the columns

Sing. Nom. πολίτης. 'Epuñs (eas). νεάνιας. were all placed without bases. The num.

Gen. πολίτου, 'Epuoû.

νεάνιου. ber of columns were either six along the

Dat. πολίτη. 'Epun.

νεάνια. ends, and thirteen along the sides, or eight

Aco. πολίτην. 'Epuñv.

νεανιάν. along the ends, and seventeen along the

Voo.

'Epuñ.

νεάνια. sides. When built upon so large a scale, Plur. Nom.

'Epuai.

νεάνιαι. with the ranges of columns so distinctly

Gen. πολίτων. Ερμών.

νεάνιων. isolated, the essential parts of the Doric

Dat. πολίταις. 'Epuais. order produced effects not surpassed for

Acc. πολίτας. 'Epuas.

νεάνιας. simplicity and majesty ; and even the im

Voc. πολίται. 'Epuai.

νεάνιαι. perfect remains which have escaped the

Dual. N.A.V. πολιτά. ravages of time and barbarity appear to

veavia.

'Epua. have far exceeded the expectations of con

G.D. πολίταιν. 'Epuaiv.

νεάνιαιν. noisseurs. In the earlier examples of this The vocative of such nouns as have ns in the nominative order the diameters of the Doric columns singular ends in a in the following cases, namelywere very considerable in proportion to 1. In all nouns in ons, as Totorns, an archer, vocative Togota; their height. For instance, the column #poontos, a foreteller, a prophet, vocative apopata.

of the temple of Silenus, in Sicily, was 2. In all substantives in ms compounded of a substantivo and DORIC COLUMN. only five diameters in height, but in the a verb, as gewuerpns, a land-measurer, a geometrician, vocative

course of time these relative dimensions | γεωμετρα και μυροπωλης, α perfumer, μυροπωλα. were changed, and a proportion more adapted to the pro- 3. In names of nations in ns, as lepons, a Persian, lepoth. duction of delicate effect was introduced. The Doric style of Several nouns in as have the genitive that is customary in architecture was, with very few crceptions, the only one em- the Doric dialect, * ending in à, e.g., hatpaloias, , the slayer of ployed in Greece or its European colonios in Sicily and Italy, a father; untpañolas, -ă, the slayer of a mother ; opviboompas

, -é and in Asia Minor, until after the period of the Macedonian (also ou), a bird-catcher ; also several proper names, as Zulas, -e, conquest. In Asia Minor, and particularly in Ionia, there Sylla; finally, contracted nouns in ås, as Boppas (from Bopeas). speedily arose, subsequent to that period, an order of architec- genitive Boppa, the north wind. ture more elegant than the Doric. But our notice of this order According to these models decline adjectives of one termimust form the subject of our next lesson.

nation, in ns and as—e.g., ededovTNS toàitns, a willing citizen; μονιας νεανιας, α lonely youth.

A masculine noun and adjective of the first declension are LESSONS IN GREEK.-V.

inflected thus : NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION (continncd).

EdOvTYS apotns, a willing ploughman. That the learner may have sufficient practice in declining femi- Sing. Nom. εθελοντης αροτης, a willing ploughman.

Gen. nine nouns of the first declension, he should write out the nouns

tDeRovtov apotou, of a willing ploughman.

Dat. and adjectives in the following vocabulary according to the

edeovtŋ apoty, to or by a willing ploughman. models given in the last lesson (pages 98, 99).

Acc. εθελοντην αρoτην, a willing ploughman.

Voc. εθελοντα αροτα, O willing ploughman.
VOCABULARY.

Plur. Nom.
Αστραπη, ης, ή, 1 Διαιτα, -ης, ή, man- Λαμπρα, shining,

DenovTai apotai, willing ploughmen.

Gen. lightning. ner of life (Eng. splendid.

EDEAOVTWv apotwy, of willing ploughmen,

Dat. Atila, -as, y, dis- diet).

Μεταβολη, -ης, ή,

εθελονταις αροταις, to or by willing ploughnen.

Acc. hozor.

change. Aoka, -7s, 7, glory.

εθελοντας αροτας, willing ploughmen.

Voc. Βασίλειά, ας, ή, α Ευνομια, ας, ή, re- Πιπτω, I fall.

eDeRovtal apotas, 0 willing ploughmen. queen. gard to law. 'Padiws, easily.

Dual. N.A.V. εθελοντα αροτα, two willing ploughmen. Βασιλειά, ας, ή, a | Εσθλη, good, honest. | Σκολια, crooked,

G.D. εθελονταιν αροταιν,

of two willing ploughmen. kingdom. Ευθυνω, I make

wrong.

In addition to the exercises given above, in declining adjective: Βλαβη, -ης, ή, in- straight, make Etonn, -ms, , a robe. of one tormination in ns and as, the learner should write out jury

right.

Tuxn,-ns, i, fortune, length the nouns given in the following vocabularies. Bport1,-975,ń, thunder Kann, beautiful.

fate. Γλωττα, ης, ή, a | Κατεχω, I hold Pepw (Lat. fero), I

* The "Doric dialect" was a form of the Greek tongue employed tongue, speech. back.

bear.

by the Dorians. As Greece was divided into several small states, 50 EXERCISE 5.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

there were several dialects, such as the Doric, tho Ionic, the Attic

These dialects must be distinguished from our provincialisms, for they 1. Τη κακια ατιμια επεται. 2. Ραδιως φερε την πενιαν.

3.

were in their own locality severally classical. The Attic, however, is the Βροντη εκ λαμπρας αστραπης γιγνεται. 4. 'H opetn eodanu dočar generally recognised form of the Greek tongue in sts highest perfectivo; εχει. 5. Ευνομια ευθυνει δικας σκολιας. 6. Δικη δικην τικτει και and the writings of Xenophon (Attic) are accounted the model for prose βλαβη βλαβην. 7. Αγαθην διαιταν αγε. 8. Katexe thu gwttav. in Greek, as Cicero's writings are held to be the model for Latin proses

*

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VOCABULARY.

EXERCISE 4.-ENGLISH-GREEK. Αδολεσχης, -ου, , α Θαλαττα, «ης, ή, the) Ορεγομαι, I reach 1. Απεχον της βιαr. 2. Απεχεται της βιας. 3. Ουκ απεχεται της βιar. 4. chatterer.

towards, strivo | Απέχονται της βιας, 5. Φευγε την αδικίαν. 6. Φευγετε την αδικίαν. 7. Φευγω Ακουω (with Gen. Θεάτης, -ov, ó, a

after (with Gen.). την αδικίαν ώς μανιαν. 8 Η βια λνπ ην επαγει, 9. Δια δικης γιγνεται ηδονη. or Acc.), I hear. spectator (Eng. Πρεπει, it becomes, | 10. Αληθιναι φιλιαι δια αρετης γιγνονται. 11. Η καρδια πενια τειρεται.

12. Ακροάτης, -ου, o, a theatre).

it is proper.

Ai

μεριμναι λυονται τη λυρα. hearer. Mavlavw, I learn.

Ilpoonkel, it is suit Blattw, I injure. Menet (with Gen. of able.

ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-VIL... Δεσποτης,

-OU,

છે, the thing, and sopia, -as, n, wisdom. a master (Eng. Dat. of the per- Etaptiãtns, -ov, d,

UNSELFISHNESS. despot).

son), it concerns ; à Spartan. No character has in it any moral worth or beauty unless there Ευκοσμια, ας, ή, de- Med et Mon, I have Lußapitis, -ov, d, a be in its outworkings a manifest consideration for others. Wo corum, politeness. to do with.

Sybarite.

live in a world where we are mutually interested and depondent, 'Houxia, -as, ý, tran. Nautns, -ov, è, a Texun, -ns, , art. and no man can live to himself alone without damaging his quillity; ησυχιαν sailor.

Τρυφητης, -ου, ο, και own interests quite as much as he damages the interests of ayelv, to be quiet.

voluptuary. others. Those words in the English language which speak of

the highest happiness—such as transport and ecstacy --come, EXERCISE 7.-GREEK-ENGLISH,

the one from a Latin compound, and the other from a Greek 1. Μανθανε, ω νεανια, την σοφιαν. 2. Πολιτη πρεπει ευκοσμια. | word which mean to be lifted out of ourselves. And, most cer3. Την νεανιου αδολεσχιαν ψεγομεν. 4. Φευγε, ω πολίτα, την tainly, any acquaintance with human life shows us that the αδικιαν. 5. Την ορνιθοθηρα τεχνην θαυμαζομεν. 6. Ακροαταις και selfish are seldom happy, and that the considerate and unselhsh θεαταις προσήκει ησυχιαν αγειν. 7. Φευγετε, ω ναυται, βορραν. | are commonly 80. 8. Βορρας ναυτας πολλακις βλαπτει. 9. Ορεγεσθε, ω πολίται, της Selfishness is an evil to be especially guarded against, inas. αρετης. 10. Συβαρίται τρυφηται ησαν, 11. Navtals uehet mos much as its growth is so rapidly developed. The I and the Me, θαλαττης. 12. Φευγε, ω Περσα. 13. Σπαρτιαται καλην δοξαν | and the My and the Mine, go often heard in conversation, έχoυσιν. 14. Φευγω νεανιαν τρυφητην. 15. Twv adoleo xwv bespeak very often an undue concern about self which has been απεχου. 16. Ακουε, ω δεσποτα.

the slow development of a long course of time: while, on the EXERCISE 8.- ENGLISH-GREEK.

other hand, it is equally certain that an unselfish disposition is

the result of much culture and care, and becomes habitual only 1. Flee, O Persians. 2. Bravery becomes citizens. 3. It concerns a citizen to be quiet. 4. Ở youths, learn wisdom. 5. through continuous exercises in the school of self-denial. They learn wisdom. 6. You learn wisdom. 7. I learn wisdom. It is the subordination, not the extinction, of natural inclina

What, then, it may be asked, is in the main unselfishness? 8. Wisdom is learned. 9. Decorum becomes a youth. 10. Otions for the good of others. Self-denial at some times, and north wind, injure not the sailor. 11. O sailor, avoid (peurw)

self-abnegation at others, is necessary for that consideration for the north wind. 12. The north wind is avoided. 13. O Spartan, strive after glory. 14. Chatterers, be quiet. 15. Abstain from

another's weal which constitutes an unselfish person. When

Sir Philip Sidney, on the battle-field of Zutphen, was borne a chatterer.

away dying from the conflict, he had just placed a cup of VOCABULARY.

cold water to his lips, when there was carried past him a Alkalorūvn, -ns, , | Klentns, -ou, o, a, Olketns, -ov, d, a wounded soldier, who looked with longing eyes on the draught of justice. thief.

servant.

the more favoured Sidney. He withdrew his lips, and instead Επιμελομαι (with Kpitas, -ou, ó, a ETPATIWT9S, -ov, d, of drinking himself, gave the cup to the poor maimed soldier, Gen.), I care for. judge.

a soldier.

with the simple utterance, " Thy necessity is yet greater than Εραστης, -ου, o, a Mαχομαι, I fight. Texvitns, -ov, d, an mine.” That was an illustrious instance of unselfishness, and lover, a friend. Navayıq, -as, ń, ship- artist.

does honour to his character in the sphere of heroic deeds more Eoti (with Gen.), it wreck (literally Tpeow, I nourish, than the most brilliant passage of arms. is the duty of. ship-break).

bring up.

But it may be asked, does not unselfishness clash with that Θαυμαστη, admirable)

Ψευστης, -ου, o, aliar.

proper self-love which is essential to the growth and development EXERCISE 9.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

of civilisation ? To which query it may be replied, that unselfish

consideration for others is quite consistent with the honour and 1. Η Σπαρτιατων αρετη θαυμαστη ην. 2. Φευγε, ω νεανια. 3.

advancement of ourselves; as the higher and wider the sphere Φευγετε, ω ερασται. 4. Οι κλεπται φευγονται. 5. Κριταις πρεπει | of our life, the more opportunities are afforded for the generous δικαιοσυνη. 6. Εστι των στρατιωτων περι των πολιτων μαχεσθαι. | exercises of an unselfish spirit. 7. Φευγε ψευστας. 8. Εστι δεσποτου επιμελεσθαι των οικετων.

Unselfishness is the secret of much real happiness. The selfish 9. Μη πιστευε ψευστη. 10. Τεχνίτην τρεφει η τεχνη. 11. EK

are often morbid and miserable concerning their own health or ψευστων γιγνονται κλεπται. 12. Etapriatas 808ns kai tiuns fortune, and become so susceptible about every insidious attack ερασται ησαν. 13. Ek Boppă tolakis yogvetai vavayıa. 14. of disease, lest it should enter the fortress of their nature, that Θαυμαζομεν την Ερμου τεχνην.

by their very intensity of anxiety, unconsciously to themselves, EXERCISE 10.-ENGLISH-GREEK,

they do their best to let the enemy in; with others there is often 1. The lovers of glory flee not. 2. Liars are not lovers of life becomes a feverish state of hope and fear. The unselfish, in

so much susceptibility to praise or blame, honour or insult, that virtue. 3. The virtue of the Spartan was admirable. 4. O Spartans, believe not liars. 5. The art of (Mercury) Hermes their thoughts driven from their own anxieties and their own

thinking about others as well as themselves, necessarily have was admirable. 6. We admire the virtue of the Spartans. 7. ailments, and so, becoming interested in the common weal, are 0 Spartan, avoid a liar. 8. It is the duty of a master to care for his servant. 9. It is the duty of servants to care for masters, less particular and sensitive concerning matters which, affect

themselves alone. 10. The arts nourish the artists. 11. It becomes the soldiers

Unselfishness is also the secret of true esteem and respect so to fight for the citizens. 12. Be quiet, 0 north wind. 13. I admire Mercury.

precious to most men. We ought not, indeed, to let that operato as a motive power, or selfishness would be actually present in the

latent desire to gain the honour of men; but we cannot exclude KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-IV.

from our considerations the fact that rewards of the highest kind EXERCISE 3.–GREEK-ENGLISH,

do fall upon the hearts of the unselfish, not only in the joys of 1. Yield not to force. 2. The lyre dissipates cares. 3. Friendship doing good, but in the love and veneration of mankind. ** promises refuge and aid. 4. Care corrodes the heart. 5. Worship

As unselfishness may very early form part of the training of (cultivate) the Muses. 6. Do not believe false accusations. often yields to injustice. 8. We are often worn down by hard (severe) most

people think, begins to be germinant in the breast of tho

7: Justice childhood, so selfishness, at an earlier period, perhaps, than poverty. 9. Flee from (avoid) talkativeness. 10. Wickedness brings grief. 11. Luxury begets injustice and avarice. 12. Avoid luxury as

young. The petulant moods of childhood ought not to be met & shame (or a bane). 13. True friendship arises through (from) virtue by the gratification of their wishes and desires, but in the initial and intercourse,

stages of child experience they ought to learn the lesson of giving

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