Imágenes de páginas

which is a little water, the oxygen of the air in the jar partly “The idea of contempt" ascribed to it by Latham does not becomes ozone.

necessarily, for it did not originally, belong to the word. This body is also formed when electric sparks pass between

"I will be a swift witness against those that defraud the hireling in two points. The sulphurous smell in the neighbourhood of a his wages.”—Malachi iii. 5 (compare Job vii, 1, 2; xiv. 6). strong electric machine, or of a flash of lightning, is the peculiar smell of ozone. Ozone is a very powerful oxidising agent. It

Stripling may be connected with the Latin stirpes, stirps, can even separate the iodine from the compound potassium offshoot; so that stripling is a little branch, a youngster. iodide—forming potash and liberating the iodine. This fact

“ He is but an yonglyng, has been used as a test for ozone. Iodine makes a blue com

A tall, worthy stryplyng."-Skelton. pound with starch, so that if a piece of paper be dipped in a The last line shows that nothing contemptuous belonged to the mixture of starch paste and potassium iodide, if any ozone be word in the olden time. Consult the ensuing :present the paper becomes blue. This test alone, however, is

“Now a stripling cherub he appears, not decisivo, for nitric acid, which is sometimes found in the air,

Not of the prime, yet such as in his face will do the same thing. It has been said that the health of a

Youth smiled celestial."-Milton, “Paradise Lost," district depends upon

the quantity of ozone in the atmosphere Lry, a termination of Saxon origin, having the force of our like, bat this fact is not satisfactorily established. Since it is a great and so forming an adjective or an adverb; as childlike, childly

, oxidiser it is a powerful bleacher, for by oxidising the colouring in German kindlich ; manlike, manly, manlich. When ly is added matter it destroys it. It is hoped to apply it to the bleaching to a noun, it forms an adjective, as love, lovely; when it is added of sugar, which has hitherto been effected by charred blood. to an adjective, it forms an adverb, as wise, wisely. Such a A powerful magneto-electric machine has lately been sent out to formation as “holily" (1 Thess. ii. 10) is to be avoided for the the West Indies to produce ozone, wherewith to bleach sugar. sake of euphony. Ozone was discovered by Professor Schönbein, of Basle, to whose Ment, from the Latin mentum (as in ornamentum, an ornament; genius we also owe gun-cotton.

adjumentum, an assistance), through the French ment (as in the French mandement, or Latin mandatum, a command), is a suffis

which denotes the result of the act indicated in the verb from LESSONS IN ENGLISH.--XVIII.

which the noun is derived: thus, velo means I veil or cover; and SUFFIXES (continued),

velamen or velamentum is a veil or covering; so aliment (from WORDS have been curiously formed by abbreviation; the word' the Latin alo, I nourish) is a means of nourishing, nourishment. omnibus affords an instance : derived from the Latin “omnibus, Hence, devotement properly indicates not the act, but the result; the dative case of the plural number of the Latin adjective omnis, not the doing, but the state of feeling which ensues from the doing, all, and so signifying for all—that is, every man's carriage—the the devotion. In practice, however, the usage seems reversed. word has been shortened into bus, and so it is now generally “Her (Iphigenia) devotoment was the demand of Apollo."-Hurd. tormed in common parlance. Mob appears to have been formed

“Oh, how loud in the same way. What is now called the mob used to be called

It calls dovotion genuine growth of night! the rabble. But as the rabble are mobile vulgus, a fickle crew,

Devotion! daughter of Astronomy ! so were they called mobile vulgus, and by contraction, mob.

An undevout astronomer is mad." Still mob and rabble are not identical. Rabble is the general

Young, The Complaint." term, the class, and mob is a collection of persons belonging to that olass. Palsy is a contracted form of the now more fashion

It is our intention now and then to enliven our lessons with a ablo paralysis. Between alms and eleemosynary there would conversation on English grammar, supposed to be held between seem to be no connection; both, however, come from the same an educated man on the one hand, and one whose education is Greek, torm, and the former is only a shortened form of the imperfect on the other. We do this because there are many root from which the latter is derived. Well do we remember of our readers who may gain much useful information from & kickshaws, a term of our youthful days, used to signify some- lesson brought under their notice in a conversational form, that thing contemptible. Little did we then suspect that it was they may fail to gather from lessons written in the ordinary only the English way of pronouncing the French quelque chose; way. We therefore recommend our readers to study the fol. i..., something, contemptuously travestied to mimic and ridicule lowing dialogue with care, and endeavour to re-write the substance French prisoners in England.

of it from memory when they have read it over three or four Kin, from the Anglo-Saxon cyn, kin, offspring, son, signifies times, and noted the principal points in it. the son of; as in Wilkin (Wilkins); seen in another form

CONVERSATIONS ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-I. namely, Wilson. Kin, from its signification, has also a diminutive forco; as in lambkin (a lamb's child), or little lamb. What

William. Well, I have failed again; a packor I am,

and is little is dear, hence diminutives are terms of endearment. packer I must remain, fond as I am of reading, and desirous as But what is little may be despised. Sometimes, therefore, I am of getting an employment more suitable to my tastes. diminutives imply contempt; as in manikin.

And yet, if I had fair play, I could, I am sure, do the counting.

house work as well as some that are there. “ This is a dear manikin to you, Sir Toby." - Shakespeare.

Thomas. Not quite, William ; true, you are intelligent and Le (see el), among the suffixes already given.

trustworthy; you also write a good hand, and are ready at Les, from the Anglo-Saxon læs (German, los, destitute of), has accounts; but you are a very poor grammarian. not a comparative but a negative force; as, an læs twentig, William. Not so poor as you think; though I am, I grant, one less twenty, or, as we should say, twenty minus one. Hence far behind you, Thomas; but then you have been to college, it appears that the idea of less is privation or negation. Con- and ought to know grammar. sequently less, the comparative of little, is altogether a different Thomas. Yes, and I am willing to teach you, for I am sure word. And thus we are also led to understand the true force you will never get forward as you wish, and as I should like to of less when employed as a suffix; as, motionless, or without see, until you can write your mother tongue correctly. motion ; deathless, free from death. Two negatives thus make • William. I know that, and I have studied English grammar; a positive: death, the privation of life, and less, the negation of but it is very difficult. death, combine to declare the idea of ever-enduring existence, Thomas. Yes, and you still write bad English: for instance, the most positive, the most real, the most permanent of all con- your letter of application for the vacant situation contains not ceivable things, the very essence of Deity; life itself.

less than three grammatical mistakes, and is enough of itself to Let, according to Latham, “ seems to be double, and to consist prevent your success. How can you expect to rise in the world of the Gothic diminutive l, and the French diminutive t.” It when you cannot speak and write English? In a counting. is found in streamlet, tartlet

, hamlet (Anglo-Saxon, ham, home; house they want their letters written grammatically. It would as in hamstede, homestead).

be a disgrace to a house to send out letters containing errors of 'Ling, of Saxon origin, denotes descent, and hence offspring; grammar liko those which you commit.. also that which is little, and that which is beloved ; e.9., darling William. I dare say you are right; and so I must remain (dear child), gosling (little goose), nestling. Hireling is properly packer. a child of hire, a person whose services are obtained by hire. Thomas. That does not follow; learn the English grammar.

William. A very easy precept, but a very hard job.

LESSONS IN DRAWING.-XVIII. Thomas. Not so hard as you think. William. Excuse me, I have tried, and I have failed.

TREATMENT OF REFLECTIONS IN WATER. Thomas. Because you have tried by yourself.

It is not the rule that because we can see the objects we must William. By myself I must still try, or give it up.

consequently see the reflections; and, on the other hand, it is Thomas. No, I will assist you, if you will make one more very common to see the reflection of an object, or of light, when effort. Let us talk over the matter; I think I can make the the eye does not see the object itself, something intervening study easy to you. Once a week we will converse together on between the eye and the object, but not between the eye and the English grammar, and if you will only reflect in the intervals reflection. The leading principle, upon which is founded all on what I say, and follow my guidance, I have no doubt you other data connected with our subject, is that the reflections of will in time understand the subject thoroughly.

all objects and their parts are always perpendicularly beneath the William. I agree, and am very much obliged to you for the objects and the parts themselves respectively. Fig. 112, a simple offer.

subject of posts, etc., will explain this. The top of the post a Thomas. Oh, never mind the obligation; men should always is perpendicularly over the reflection b, and so with the rest; try to assist each other, and I am very desirous to see you in but it must be borne in mind that the proportion to be drawn such a position as your character and talents mark you out for. of the reflection of an object is regulated by or according to William. Let us begin this evening.

the position of the object, and also with regard to the point Thomas. Very well, and you must come to my house every from which we view it. If we view the posts (Fig. 112) as they Tuesday evening at eight o'clock, and we will see what can be are drawn, perpendicularly and parallel with the picture plane done. But to begin :-As a fundamental rule, you must observe that is, the upper parts neither advancing towards the eye that grammar is a science in which authority goes a very long nor receding from it, but exactly over the position of the lower way. At first, you will do well to consider that everything parts—then the reflections will be the same in length, with the depends on authority.

slight exception resulting from the perspective of distance. William. What authority ?

We will endeavour to make this clear by the help of a few Thomas. That of the best writers in the language. If you problems. In order fully to understand these problems, we study English grammar, then you take as your authorities or recommend the pupil to work them out, and as the principles guides such men as Shakespeare, Milton, Dryden, Johnson, of construction are the same throughout, we advise him to Pope, Macaulay. Their practice is your model. As they write, repeat them with a few of the conditions varied—for instance, 60 you must write. Grammar then, you see, is, for our purpose, greater or less inclinations of the slopes, and greater or less imitation. Those who write English grammar derive the in- elevations of those objects which are most in advance. Our structions they offer from the usages of the best English authors, first subject will be to draw the reflection of a wall (Fig. 113). or, as they are termed, the English classics.

Let A be the end section of a wall situated on the margin of a William. “Classics !" why, I thought the term "classics" was river. It is required to show its reflection, B, below the water's confined to the Greek and Roman authors, such as Homer and edge, CD; s being the position of the eye on the horizontal line. Virgil

Draw a line, si sa, perpendicularly as much below the base CD Thomas. Oh, no; every literature has its “classics.” The as it is above it, making s? E equal to s' E. From the upper part word is derived from “class,” and denotes those writers who, of the wall F draw a line to s?, and where this line cuts the by common consent, are placed in the first class. The practice base cd in will give the point through which a line is to be of such writers sets the fashion in the language in which they drawn from si to meet a perpendicular line from F, which will write, and they are followed by all who wish to speak and write give the depth of the reflection required. Now in order to that language correctly. Now you are to suppose that I have apply the above rule in showing the face of the wall and its studied our English classics, and have hence ascertained how I reflection, we must proceed as follows :-In Fig. 113 draw at ought to speak and write. In that study I have been preceded pleasure the line ac db, and repeat this line, with its respective by others. Their conclusions afford me aid. Under that aid divisions, in Fig. 114 ; through the several points a cdb draw I have formed a system of rules, and that system of rules is horizontal lines at right angles with ab; make A B equal to called “ English grammar." English grammar, then, you see, the length of the given wall, and draw the rectangle A GH B; is a science. Science, you know, means knowledge; it is know-AEPE will represent the wall, EFHG the reflection. The ledge, the materials of which are systematically arranged; pupil must be reminded that the line a cdb in Fig. 113 is the arranged, that is, into a system, arranged in a set order, picture plane or medium through which we see the wall, and and with a view to a certain purpose or result; and English upon which it is supposed to be traced (see Vol. I., page grammar consists of a continued set of rules derived from the 72, Def. 3, "Station Point”). We have previously observed practice of well-educated Englishmen, so arranged as to form that in consequence of the position of the eye being above the & complete whole, and communicate useful information to the reflection, and on a level with some portion of the object, it learner.

will repeatedly occur that the reflections of many parts of the William. Well, I understand that; but in our house every- solid cannot be seen, although the parts themselves are in sight, body says "they does,” and you told me yesterday that was and form, perhaps, the most important portions of the object. wrong.

Let us illustrate this by Fig. 115, which is a mass of masonry, Thomas. It is wrong; remember, I said that we are guided having two slopes, A and B. Having drawn the profile or by the practice of educated Englishmen, and educated English- section G, proceed as in the last case, being careful to draw lines, men say, " they do."

or visual rays, from every angle to s', and also to so. Where William. But what does the word grammar signify? I these rays cut each other respectively in w, t,a, lines from s? will thought a grammar was a book; you say it is a science. determine the lengths of the reflection. We must apply this to

Thomas. It is both. Grammar is a word of Greek origin. a front view, as in the former case. Draw the perpendicular It comes from a Greek word, ypaupa (gram'-ma), which denotes line E E? (the picture plane), and mark the points where the a letter, a letter of the alphabet. Hence grammar is the science visual rays cut the picture plane in a, b, c, etc. Repeat this line of letters-letters, that is, employed to express ideas. Listen: in Fig. 116, and copy from Fig. 115 the distances of the diviletters represent sounds, and form syllables and words; words sions upon it, and proceed with the horizontal lines from these represent sounds; and the sounds they represent stand for distances as in the last problem. Upon the line marked g, thoughts or ideas; while those thoughts or states of mind which represents the water's edge, make FG equal to the given represent things, objects in the inner world or in the outer length of the wall; d being the horizontal line, and the observer world. This statement will require thought. Do not trouble being supposed to stand opposite the centre of the wall, the point yourself too much about it now; you will understand it by-and- of sight will be at Ps. Now the lines F PS and G P s are horiby. But observe that grammar is the science by which you zonta? lines in perspective—that is, the perspective of the base learn to express your ideas correctly, that is, according to the 9h (Fig. 115): therefore, where the visual rays from the points nsages of the best anthors. And a book in which these usages in the base cut the picture plane in f (three lines close together) are set forth as rules is also called a grammar. Every language will give the points, k, l, m, whenco the perpendiculars of the has rules peculiar to itself. Hence we have “ French grammar," wall must be drawn, the lower slope in must be drawn “Greek grammar," as well as English grammar.”

between the lines e, s (see Fig. 115), and the perpendicular

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ko; the same with the upper slope. The reason why neither | for himself. The same may be satisfactorily proved with of these slopes are seen in the reflection is because the point regard to clouds. It is common, also, in their cases to see P coincides with g (Fig. 115) on the picture plane: therefore the brilliant reflections of light clouds on the water, when to the same line, FG, represents both extremities of the slope. If the eye there is nothing to account for them. These reflections slope B had had a greater elevation—that is, had it been at a are invariably caused by light clouds which are hidden from greater angle

view behind then the

other clonda, upper extre

the reflections mity would

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the only evi & line to sa,

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existence quently would

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And where is picture plane

the root of the EE' at a higher

mistake that point than g;

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ly made, that, of intersection

without excepwould have

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the water must reflection. And

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this, that which are not

many treat risible in the

the whole objects them

view, sky and selves. Figs.

all included, 117 and 118

as one single will satisfy the

plane, never mind upon Fig. 112.

thinking there this point.

are parts more The subject is a cottage on a bank with a large notice-board in remote than others, and consequently many are reflected which front of it. The profile view (Fig. 117) will explain the dis are shut out from the eye by intervening objects. tance of the board from the cottage, and this will account for Water not only receives reflections, but, conditionally, is the great difference between the details of the projection A and capable of receiving shadows. If the water is perfectly clear

, the reflection B in Fig. 118. If the pupil fail not to work no shadows occur, and the reflections are more or less vivid in out this problem

proportion as the also (of which,

water is more or being constructed

less impregnated by the same rules

with colouring as the former, we

matter, say clay, give no detailed PP

or as rivers geneexplanation, but

rally appear after prefer leaving it

heavy rains. Then as it is, for an

the strength of exercise), he will

the reflections and more readily un.

shadows alternate derstand it, and Fig. 118.

in proportion to the method of

the clearness o construction also;

opacity of the remembering that


When it the visual rays

is very thick and drawn from every

muddy, the she important point of

dows of objects the whole passing

are cast as forcibly through P P (the

upon the surface picture plane) de

as they are on 8 termine the points

road; and 20 it to be transferred

becomes clearer, to the correspond

the reflections be ing plane on the

come more brilleft in Fig. 118.

liant and the We remark that

shadows weaker: the notice board

the earthy par covers part of the

ticles mingled with roof in the pro

the water receive jection A, whilst

the shadow, it is clear of the

the water itself. roof in the reflection B. Also compare the chimneys in both | In perfectly clear water the light passes through the water cases with respect to their apparent position with the board. itself, as through a piece of glass, lighting up the bed of the In the reflection B the sills of the windows are on a line with river, so that we are able to distinguish readily the stones the base of the post, and the thresholds of the doors cannot weeds, fish, and whatever else may be at the bottom; then the be seen because they are hidden by the bank. There are shadow which falls upon the water sinks as it were, and is soon other differences, which the pupil will be able to discover at the bottom only.

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LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XXXI. France ? 12. I long to be there. 13. Does not your mother

tarry too long? 14. She is very long in coming. 15. Have SECTION LVII.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES.

you changed the forty-franc piece ? 16. I have not changed it 1. CHANGER (1, see § 49 (1)], used in the sense of to change, to yet. 17. Why have you not changed it? 18. Because your 'eave one thing for another, is followed by the preposition de : father has no change. 19. Have you the change for a guinea ? changer d'habit, de chapeau, etc., to put on another coat, hat, 20. No, Sir, I have only twelve shillings. etc. ; changer d'avis, to change one's mind; changer de maison, to move, to change houses ; changer de place, changer de pays,


NOUNS. changer de climat, to go to another place, country, climate ; changer de nom, to change one's name. The student will per

1. We have given, in Section IX., rules for forming the plural ceivo that the noun following changer is not preceded by a

of nouns, but, in accordance with our plan of not presenting too possessive adjective, like the noun of the English sentence. many difficulties at once, we have deferred until the present Voulez-vous changer d'habit?

section the rules for the formation of the plural of compound Will you change your coat ? Ce monsieur a changé de nom, That gentleman has changed his name.


2. When a noun is composed of two substantivea, or of a 2. Changer contre means to exchange for ; changer pour, to substantive and an adjective, both take the form of the plural : change for, to get change for.

un chef-lieu, des chefs-lieux, a chief place, chief places; un Voulez-vous changer votre chapeau Will you exchange your hat for gentilhomme, des gentilshommes, a nobleman, noblemen ($ 9 contre le mien ?

mine ?

(1) (3)]. Changez ce billet pour de l'argent Change that noto for silver.

3. When, however, two nouns are connected by a preposition, 3. Tarder means to tarry, to be long in coming. Tarder used the first only becomes plural: un chef-d'ouvre, des chefsunipersonally, and preceded by an indirect object, means to long, d'œuvre, a master-piece, master-pieces (S 9 (2)]. to wish for.

4. In words composed of a noun and a verb, preposition or Votre scur tarde bien à venir, Your sister is very long coming.

adverb, the noun only becomes plural: passe-port, passe-ports, Il me tarde de la voir, I long to see her.

passport, passports [$ 9 (6)].

5. Words composed of two verbs, or of a verb, and adverb, RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

and a preposition, are invariable: un passe-partout, des passoN'avez-vous pas changé d'apparte- Have you not taken another apart. partout, master-key, inaster-keys [§ 9 (8)]. ment? ment?

6. We have seen [Sect. III. 4] that the name of the material Nous avons changé de maisons. We have changed horses.

always follows the name of the object, and that both are united Votre frère a changé de conduite. Your brother has changed his con- by the preposition de. The name of the profession or occupa.

duct. Contre quoi avez-vous changé votre For what have you exchanged your

tion also follows the noun representing the individual, and the cheval?

horse ?

same preposition de connects the two : un maître d'armes, a J'ai besoin de monnaie, pouvoz. I want change, can you change me

fencing-master ; un maître de dessin, a drawing-master; un vous me changer cette pièce de this twenty-franc piece ?

marchand de farine, a dealer in flour (S 76 (12), § 81 (4)]. vingt francs ?

7. The name of a vehicle, boat, mill, etc., always precedes tho Ce garçon a beaucoup terdé. That boy tarried very much.

noun describing the power by which it is impelled, or the parIl nous tardait d'arriver. We longed to arrive.

pose to which it is adapted; the name of an apartment, that of leur tardait de revoir leurs amis. They longed to see their friends the use to which it is appropriated. The connocting preposition

again. 11 mo tarde de revoir la France.

is d : un moulin à vapeur, a steam mill; un bateau à vapeur, a I long to see France again,

steamboat ; un moulin à eau, a water-mill; la salle à manger, VOCABULARY.

the dining-room ($ 76 (13), § 81 (5)].
Air, m., air.
Gris, -e, grey.
Passé, -e, past, last.

Avis, m., mind, mean- Guinée, f., guinea. Pays, in., country.
Jeune, young.
Rentr-er, 1, to come in

Lille et Arras sont les chefs-lieux Lisle and Arras are the chief places Blanc, -che, white.

Maitre, m.,
master. again.

des départements du Nord et du of the departments of the North Chang-er, 1, to change, Manteau, m., cloak. Schelling, m., shilling.


and of the Pas-de-Calais. to alter. Monnaie, f., change, Vie, f., life, conduct.

Les chemins de fer et les bateaux Railroads and steamboats are very Combat, m., combat. Mouillé, -e, wet. Visage, m., counte.

à vapeur sont très nombreux en numerous in America. Conduite, f., conduct. Parceque, because.

nance, face.


Cette maison contient un salon, That house contains a drawing-room, EXERCISE 109.

une salle à manger, une cuisine, a dining-room, a kitchen, and seve1. Cet homme n'a-t-il pas changé de vie ? 2. Il a changé Les moulins à vent sont plus com- Windmills are

et plusieurs chambres à coucher. ral bedrooms. de conduite. 3. Cette grande maison n'a-t-elle pas changé de

muns en France que les moulins France than water or steam-mills. maitre? 4. Elle a changé de maître, le Capitaine G. vient de

à eau ou

vapeur. l'acheter. 5. Vous êtes mouillé, pourquoi ne changez-vous

VOCABULARY. pas de manteau ? 6. Parceque je n'en ai pas d'autre. 7. Votre cousine ne change-t-elle pas souvent d'avis ? 8. Elle en change Armes, f. pl., fencing. Dessin, m., drawing. Ordinaire, usual. bien souvent. 9. Pendant le combat, ce jeune soldat n'a-t-il Båt-ir; 2. to build,

Engag-er, 1, to engage.

Roue, f., wheel.

Faire bât-ir, 2, to have Vapeur,f.vapour, steam pas changé de visage? 10. Il n'a point changé de visage. 11. Cabriolet, m., gig. buill.

Voile, f., sail. Ce malade ne devrait-il pas changer d'air ? 12. Le médecin Chat-huant, m., owl. Se munir, 2 ref., to pro- | Voiture, f., carriage. lui recommande de changer de pays. 13. Où est votre cheval Chauve-souris, f., bat. vide ono's self with

Voyag-er, 1, to travel. gris ? 14. Je ne l'ai plus, je l'ai changé contre un blanc. 15.

EXERCISE 111. Avec qui l'avez-vous changé ? 16. Je l'ai changé avec le jeune homme qui demeurait ici le mois passé. 17. Le marchand 1. Faut-il avoir un passe-port pour voyager en France ? 2. peut-il me changer cette pièce de quarante francs ? 18. Il ne Il faut on avoir un. 3. Les Anglais se munissent-ils de passesaurait (cannot) vons la changer, il n'a pas de monnaie. 19. ports pour voyager en Angleterre ? 4. On n'a pas besoin do Avez-vous la monnaie d'une guinée (change for a guinea) ?

passe-port en Angleterre. 5. Aimez-vous à voyager sur les

chemins de fer ? 6. J'aime mieux voyager sur les chemins do EXERCISE 110.

fer que sur les chemins ordinaires. 7. Avez-vous apporté rog 1. Why do you not change your coat? 2. For a very good passe-partout ? 8. Je n'ai point de passe-partout, je n'ai que reason (raison, f.), becanse I have no other. 3. Has your father des clefs ordinaires. 9. Votre frère est-il venu dans un bateau changed houses? 4. No, Sir, but we intend to do so (de le faire) à vapeur ? 10. Il est venu dans un bateau à voiles. 11. Avezto-morrow. 5. Has that child altered his conduct? 6. He has vous une voiture à quatre chevaux ? 12. Non, Monsieur, nous altered his conduct, he is very good now (maintenant). 7. Was n'avons qu’un cabriolet à un cheval. 13. Votre frère a-t-il bâti not your brother afraid ; did not his countenance change? 8. un moulin à vapeur ? 14. Il a fait bâtir deux moulins, l'un à His countenance changed, but he was not afraid. 9. Have you vent et l'autre à eau ? 15. Votre compagnon a-t-il engagé un not changed rooms (chambre, f.)? 10. I have not changed maître d'armes ? 16. Non, Monsieur, il a déjà un maître de rooms, my room is very good. 11. Do you not long to be in dessin et un maître de danse. 17. Combien de chambres à


common in

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