Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

the affectionate with the intellectual and judicial faculties of

MECHANICS.-X. our nature. No character can claim to be complete without charity. It

THE PULLEY. is possible to let one side of our nature overtop the other, and In the machines we have so far considered, the essential parts thus human nature, when love is eliminated, becomes hard, were rigid. It was a beam, or a spoke, or a complete wheel, or stern, and severe. Some men may be gigantic in intelligence, and an axle we had to deal with ; and if a rope was used, it was dwarfish in affection, but they are monstrosities in human only with a view to connecting the power or resistance with nature. Only the equable development of all our powers can be these rigid parts. But it may have escaped your notice that, in commensurate with our possibilities, and therefore our respon using a rope for this purpose you had fallen on a veritable sibilities.

machine. Such is the case ; a rope is a machine-a most conA moral science which found no room for charity would venient machine—which possesses the peculiar property of not develop character very much after the Roman type-hard, stern, only transmitting a force from one point to another in its and unbending—such as might exist with unflinching bravery original di. and unyielding energy, but which effectually crushes the affec-rection, but tionate side of human nature. Moreover, it is necessary to guard also sending against the great mistake that charity means, in some sort, it, very little weakness of character, for there is no such inspiration to acts of impaired, self-surrender, self-denial, and self-sacrifice, as is to be found in round any the influence of this virtue. In proportion to its power is the number of diminution of that selfishness which so often merges into corners, into cowardice, and cripples the exercise of the higher virtues. To a correspond. be charitable is, for the most part, to have that consideration for ing number

W others which makes us set aside the comfort or discomfort, the of successive rest or unrest of our own lives. Charity is a virtue which needs new direc.

Fig. 67. careful culture; men are so apt to be disheartened by ingrati. tions. This tude and base treatment, that they tire in acts of beneficence, practical advantage everybody is familiar with ; nobody more and sometimes they catch that cynical tone of mind which helps than the British sailor, whose daily work consists in no small to make them not only indifferent to the wants of others, but degree in sending the muscular power of his arms round all misjudgers of the race. We should never form our opinions of manner of corners for the benefit of the good ship he navigates. the baseness of men from one or two specimens of wrong-doers The Pulley, the third of the mechanical powers, is the instru. we may meet with, or charity will receive no encouragement for ment by which this object is gained in practice. In its simplest its culture, and we ourselves shall lose the sweet sensation form it consists of a rope which passes round a small solid wheel which comes from its exercise. Let it be remembered that, if which is itself mounted in a block. In theory, neither wheel we were to argue from the score, not only of utility to others,

nor block are indispensable parts of the but utility to ourselves, we should commend charity, as it

machine; the single essential is the ministers largely to human happiness, to think well of, and to

rope, which is supposed to be perfectly act kindly towards, those around us.

flexible, and to turn round a mere point It often happens that, as nations increase in the luxuries of

without experiencing any resistance civilisation, they become more petrified by selfishness. There is

from rubbing against it, that is, from a tendency in the eager race to be rich, or to be successful, to

friction. forget the wants and claims of others, and to become isolated

The theory of the pulley, thus based from them : the fact that the poor are ever so charitable to

on the suppositions of perfect flexibility the poor comes from this, namely, that they are not absorbed

Fig. 63.

and absence of friction, may be underin successful ambitions for themselves.

stood from the upper part of Fig. 67. Charity towards others in matters of opinion is much needed; Let A, B, C, D be any number (say four) of rings, representing the tendency of every age has been to institute some sort of so many points, through which a rope passes, enabling a force, inquisition or other, by which free thought may feel its penalties. P, at one end to balance a resistance, w, at the other. The Mankind have been far too ready to put gyves and shackles on flexibility being perfect, and no friction between rope and ring, the limbs of those whose opinions they disliked and scorned; p is transmitted unimpaired, and we have therefore the power and in no sphere has the exercise of charity been less experienced equal to the resistance, whether the rings are all fixed in posiand more required than in the region of human judgment and tion, or some be movable. opinion.

But in practice, the suppositions made do not hold good, The exercise of charity towards others will prepare us for the neither is the rope perfectly flexible, nor the friction nothing. enjoyment of it in return. There is a knowledge of ourselves For the former reason each corner must be rounded off to relieve which induces humility, and which, while it makes us conscious the rope from the sharp bends at A, B, C, D; and, for the latter, of our marvellous mistakes and errors, makes us deeply sensitive these rounded corners are made into small wheels, as at E, F, G, P., to the experiences of a charitable consideration. Most assuredly which move round with the there is a punishment awaiting the uncharitable, as for the rope, and prevent the power Am most part moral science teaches us that such vice is its own being diminished by the fric.

va Nemesis, and that the stern and unforgiving in the end have tion that would result, were meted out to them the same measure that they have meted out the rope allowed to slide round to others.

them. Thus the theoretical The virtue of charity is no foe to wisdom. Charity itself pulley in the upper part of requires the exercise of judgment and forethought. Otherwise, Fig. 67 becomes the practical charity is in no sense charity, so far as its ontworking in acts one in the lower, where the of beneficence is concerned. Much as men may dislike the name rings are replaced by wheels ; of political economy, or political philosophy, it must be manifest and though some friction rethat, were the practical workings of charity presided over by mains, and default of flexiwisdom, as well as inspired by love, the blessedness of its bility to impair p in its transresults would be tenfold or twentyfold increased.

mission, we say practically, We have, however, kept in mind in this essay the fact that as we did before theoretically, charity is a matter which affects our judgments, and criticisms that still the power is equal to of others, quite as much as our actual beneficence; and no one the resistance. can claim to have mastered the first elements of moral science The relations of the power

Fig. 69. in any practical way, much less to have graduated in the high and resistance in the various attainments of character, until

, as a regulating faculty of the forms and combinations of pulley can now be easily determined. affectionate nature, Charity takes its place side by side with There is first the Single Pulley, which is of two kinds, fixed and Justice and Truth.

movable; and of these in various combinations, the more com

[graphic]
[ocr errors]

:

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

19.

to me.

Je ne connais pas celui qui me les a pris, mais jo sais qu'il 11. The butcher has the meat. 12. The miller has the meat, and I demeure ici. 5. Avez-vous demandé vos livres ? 6. Jo les ai have the coffee. 13. Have you the water and the salt?

14. Yes, demandés à mon cousin. 7. Vous les a-t-il rendus? 8. Il me Sir; we have the water, the salt, and the oats. 15. Have we the

teu ? les a payés. 9. Vous a-t-on volé beaucoup de fruit cette année ?

16. No, Sir; the girl has the tea, the vinegar, and the salt.

17. Have I the wine ? 10. On m'a volé des légumes, mais on ne m'a point volé de fruit.

18. No, Madam, you have only the vinegar and

the meat. 19. Have you the table ? 20. Yes, Madam, I have the 11. Avez-vous payé votre chapeau au paysan? 12. Je ne le lui table. ai pas payé, je l'ai payé au chapelier. 13. À qui avez-vous

EXERCISE 2 (Vol. I., page 3). demandé des renseignements ? 14. J'en ai demandé au voya

1. Avez-vous le blé ? gear. 15. Savez-vous qui vient de frapper à la porte ? 16.

2. Oui, Monsieur, j'ai le blé. 3. Qui a la

viande ? 4. Le boucher a la viande et le sel. 5. A-t-il l'avoine ? 6. C'est M. L., qui vous demande. 17. Qui avez-vous demandé ?

7. Avons-nous le blé? 8. Vous 18. J'ai demandé votre frère. 19. Votre frère a-t-il payé toutes Non, Madame, le cheval a l'avoine.

la

9. Qui a le sel ? 10. J'ai le sel et la viande, ses dettes ? 20. Il ne les a pas encore payées, parce qu'il n'a 11. Arons-nous le vinaigre, le thé, et le café ? 12. Non, Monsieur, le pas reçu ses revenus. 21. Lui avez-vous payé ce que vous lui frère a le vinaigre. 13. Qui & le cheval ? 14. Le boulanger a le avez acheté ? 22. Je le lui ai payé. 23. Ne leur avez-vous cheval. 15. Avons-nous le livre et la plume ? 16. Non, Madepas payé votre loyer ? 24. Je le leur ai payé. 25. Ils nous ont moiselle, la fille a la plume, et le meunier a le livre. 17. Avez-vous la payé notre maison.

table, Monsieur ? 18. Non, Monsieur, j'ai seulement le livre, EXERCISE 94.

Qui a la table ? 20. Nous avons la table, la plume, et le livre. 1. Have you paid your landlord ? 2. I have paid him my

EXERCISE 3 (Vol. I., page 3). rent. 3. Have you paid him for the windows which you have 1. Have you the gold watch ? 2. Yes, Madam, I have the gold broken? 4. I have paid him for them. 5. Has the hatter watch and the silk hat. 3. Sir, have you the tailor's book ? 4. No, paid for all his hats? 6. He has not paid for them, he has Sir, I have the physician's book. 5. Have they the baker's bread ? bought them on credit (à crédit). 7. Do you pay what you 6. They have the baker's bread and the miller's flour. 7. Have you owe every day? 8. I pay my butcher every week. 9. Have the silver pencil-case ? 8. Yes, Sir, we have the silver pencil-case. 9. yon paid him for his meat ? 10. I have paid him for it. 11. Have we the horse's oats ? 10. You have the horse's oats and hay. For whom did you inquire this morning 12. I inquired for 11: Who has the carpenter's cloth coat? 12. The shoemaker has the your brother. 13. Why did you not inquire for my father ? Have you the wooden table? 15. Yes, Sir, I have the carpenter's

tailor's silk hat. 13. The tailor has the shoemaker's leather shoe. 14. 14. I know that your father is in England. 15. Has the hatter

wooden table. 16. Have they the silver knife ? 17. They have the been paid for his hats ? 16. He has been paid for them. 17. silver knife. 18. The physician's brother has the silver watch. 19. Has your money been taken from you? 18. My hat has been The shoemaker's sister has the silk dress. 20. Has she the leather stolen from me. 19. Have you asked your brother for your shoe? 21. No, Madam, she has the satin shoe. 22. Havej we the money ? 20. I have asked him for it, but he cannot return it woollen stocking? 23. No, Sir, you have the tailor's silk stocking.

21. Has he no money? 22. He has just paid all his 24. Who has the cotton stocking ? 25. The physician has the cotton debts, and he has no money left (de reste). 23. Have you stocking. 26. The lady has the satin shoe of the baker's sister. asked your father for money? 24. I have not asked him for any, I know that he has none. 25. From what bookseller have you bought your books ? 26. I bought them from your book- ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.–V. seller. 27. Are you wrong to pay your debts ? 28. I am right

CHARITY. to pay them. 29. Who is inquiring for me ? 30. The physician is inquiring for you. 31. Who knocks ? 32. Your shoemaker | CHARACTER can never be said to be complete without the knocks.

presence of the element of charity. So many false ideas, how

ever, are current concerning the nature of charity, that it may KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. be well to preface this article by reminding the reader that

For the use of those who are studying our Lessons in charity is not the synonym for a mere mawkish sentimentality. French, we now give the first portion of a Key to the exercises To be charitable, according to some theorists, is to be indifferent contained in those lessons. We have deferred its commence

to the distinction between honour and dishonour, good and evil, ment until the present time designedly, that we might not and to treat even the most flagrant faults with palliative excuse subject our readers to the temptation of consulting the Key

and toleration. Charity, like each of the virtues, must exist in until after they had written the Exercises to which it relates, harmony with others, or it loses its claim to be considered a and made such progress as will enable them to detect and

virtue. A charity which could exist apart from truth, righteousamend any errors they may have made when beginning our

ness, and justice, would only serve to put a premium upon vico course of lessons. The only way to acquire a thorough know and crime. What then, it may be asked at the outset, is ledge of a living language is to practise one's self in the usg charity ? It is the wise exercise of the affectionate side of 'onr of it; and the best exercises will be of no service unless they nature; it is the letting love operate as a motive power in are written without any other assistance than is supplied by all our varied relationships, as citizens and members of a general grammatical information. When, however, the self-commonwealth in which each onght to consider the best teacher has thoroughly studied both lessons and exercises, it interests of the other. This can never be done by mere ex. is useful for him to be able to turn to a key, such 48 we are pediency, nor from a sense of utilitarian morality; it must be now going to give him, for the purpose of comparison and the the result of innate beneficence or kindness. Charity refers to final correction of any mistakes he may not be able to perceive our estimates, as well as our actions ; it considers the weakness himself.

incidental to its own nature, and is therefore lenient in its judgIt may be objected that we have given a Key to the exercises ment about others, not as blind to their faults, but as looking in each Lesson in Latin in the lesson that immediately follows to the frailties of our common humanity, and finding in the it. It must, however, be remembered that Latin is a highly errors of others counterparts of the shortcomings which exist inflected language, and one which the learner will never attempt in ourselves. Charity considers that there is a common weal, as to speak; while the grammatical construction of the French well as a private weal, and feels the claim of the outside world language is less complicated; and that it should be the chief upon its powers of help and sympathy: thus realising that with object of the learner to speak French ; and, for this purpose, all the distinctions which are evidently inherent in the system to drill himself thoroughly in the rules of which each lesson of things, such as rich and poor, high and low, there is yet a is composed. To induce him to rely as much as possible on brotherhood of humanity, in which the stronger are expected to his own resources, we have, therefore, deferred commencing help the weaker. Charity considers the terrible exigencies of 2. Key to the Exercises in Lessons in French until the present life into which many are born, and in looking at the lamentable

phases of character continually brought to light, it is ever on the EXERCISE 1 (Vol. I., page 3).

alert to educate the masses and to ameliorate the condition of 1. Who has the bread? 2. The baker has the bread.

their dwellings. Charity, moreover, is no spasmodic exercise of the flour? 4. Yes, Sir, he has the flour. 5. Have we the meat ?

generosity, no sudden surprise of human nature into an act of Yes, Sir, you have the meat and the bread. 7. The miller has the startling goodness, but it is the spirit of the life, that which four. 8. The baker has the flour and the wheat. 9. Have we the underlies all our judgments of and our actions towards others. book and the pen ? 10. Yes, Miss, you have the book and the pen. Charity, thus interpreted, is the co-existence and exercise of

time.

3. Has he

6.

1

TH

11

[ocr errors]

the affectionate with the intellectual and judicial faculties of

MECHANICS.-X. our nature. No character can claim to be complete without charity. It

THE PULLEY. is possible to let one side of our nature overtop the other, and In the machines we have so far considered, the essential parts thus human nature, when love is eliminated, becomes hard, were rigid. It was a beam, or a spoke, or a complete wheel, or stern, and severe. Some men may be gigantic in intelligence, and an axle we had to deal with ; and if a rope was used, it was dwarfish in affection, but they are monstrosities in human only with a view to connecting the power or resistance with nature. Only the equable development of all our powers can be these rigid parts. But it may have escaped your notice that, in commensurate with our possibilities, and therefore our respon using a rope for this purpose you had fallen on a veritable sibilities.

machine. Such is the case ; a rope is a machine-a most conA moral science which found no room for charity would venient machine—which possesses the peculiar property of not develop character very much after the Roman type—hard, stern, only transmitting a force from one point to another in its and unbending—such as might exist with unflinching bravery original di. and unyielding energy, but which effectually crushes the affec-rection, but tionate side of human nature. Moreover, it is necessary to guard also sending against the great mistake that charity means, in some sort, it, very little weakness of character, for there is no such inspiration to acts of impaired, self-surrender, self-denial, and self-sacrifice, as is to be found in round any

WA the influence of this virtue. In proportion to its power is the number of diminution of that selfishness which so often merges into corners, into cowardice, and cripples the exercise of the higher virtues. To a correspondbe charitable is, for the most part, to have that consideration for ing number others which makes us set aside the comfort or discomfort, the of successive rest or unrest of our own lives. Charity is a virtue which needs new direc.

Fig. 67. careful culture; men are so apt to be disheartened by ingrati. tions. This tude and base treatment, that they tire in acts of beneficence, practical advantage everybody is familiar with ; nobody more and sometimes they catch that cynical tone of mind which helps than the British sailor, whose daily work consists in no small to make them not only indifferent to the wants of others, but degree in sending the muscular power of his arms round all misjudgers of the race. We should never form our opinions of manner of corners for the benefit of the good ship he navigates. the baseness of men from one or two specimens of wrong-doers The Pulley, the third of the mechanical powers, is the instruwe may meet with, or charity will receive no encouragement for ment by which this object is gained in practice. In its simplest its culture, and we ourselves shall lose the sweet sensation form it consists of a rope which passes round a small solid wheel which comes from its exercise. Let it be remembered that, if which is itself mounted in a block. In theory, neither wheel we were to argue from the score, not only of utility to others,

nor block are indispensable parts of the but utility to ourselves, we should commend charity, as it

machine; the single essential is the ministers largely to human happiness, to think well of, and to

rope, which is supposed to be perfectly act kindly towards, those around us.

flexible, and to turn round a mere point It often happens that, as nations increase in the luxuries of

without experiencing any resistance civilisation, they become more petrified by selfishness. There is

from rubbing against it, that is, from a tendency in the eager race to be rich, or to be successful, to

friction. forget the wants and claims of others, and to become isolated

PO The theory of the pulley, thus based from them : the fact that the poor are ever so charitable to

on the suppositions of perfect flexibility the poor comes from this, namely, that they are not absorbed

and absence of friction, may be underin successful ambitions for themselves.

Fig. 68.

stood from the upper part of Fig. 67. Charity towards others in matters of opinion is much needed; Let A, B, C, D be any number (say four) of rings, representing the tendency of every age has been to institute some sort of so many points, through which a rope passes, enabling a force, inquisition or other, by which free thought may feel its penalties. P, at one end to balance a resistance, w, at the other. The Mankind have been far too ready to put gyves and shackles on flexibility being perfect, and no friction between rope and ring, the limbs of those whose opinions they disliked and scorned ; P is transmitted unimpaired, and we have therefore the power and in no sphere has the exercise of charity been less experienced equal to the resistance, whether the rings are all fixed in posiand more required than in the region of human judgment and tion, or some be movable. opinion.

But in practice, the suppositions made do not hold good, The exercise of charity towards others will prepare us for the neither is the rope perfectly flexible, nor the friction nothing. enjoyment of it in return. There is a knowledge of ourselves For the former reason each corner must be rounded off to relieve which induces humility, and which, while it makes us conscious the rope from the sharp bends at A, B, C, D; and, for the latter, of our marvellous mistakes and errors, makes us deeply sensitive these rounded corners are made into small wheels, as at E, F, G, E, to the experiences of a charitable consideration. Most assuredly which move round with the there is a punishment awaiting the uncharitable, as for the rope, and prevent the power As most part moral science teaches us that such vice is its own being diminished by the fricNemesis, and that the stern and unforgiving in the end have tion that would result, were meted out to them the same measure that they have meted out the rope allowed to slide round to others.

them. Thus the theoretical The virtue of charity is no foe to wisdom. Charity itself pulley in the upper part of requires the exercise of judgment and forethought. Otherwise, Fig. 67 becomes the practical charity is in no sense charity, so far as its ontworking in acts one in the lower, where the of beneficence is concerned. Much as men may dislike the name rings are replaced by wheels ; of political economy, or political philosophy, it must be manifest and though some friction rethat, were the practical workings of charity presided over by mains, and default of flexi. wisdom, as well as inspired by love, the blessedness of its bility to impair p in its transresults would be tenfold or twentyfold increased.

mission, we say practically, We have, however, kept in mind in this essay the fact that as we did before theoretically, charity is a matter which affects our judgments, and criticisms that still the power is equal to of others, quite as much as our actual beneficence; and no one the resistance. can claim to have mastered the first elements of moral science The relations of the power

Fig. 69. in any practical way, much less to have graduated in the high and resistance in the various attainments of character, until, as a regulating faculty of the forms and combinations of pulley can now be easily determined. affectionate nature, Charity takes its place side by side with There is first the Single Pulley, which is of two kinds, fixed and Justice and Truth.

movable; and of these in various combinations, the more com

[graphic]

W

sunu

sunu

soror

manu

mann

Woman

[ocr errors]

nasa

naso

nase

masa

men

mena

San Moon Water Day

ada

that stalk-I mean in the Sanscrit, the Celtic, and the stone, or rather of rocks, so rude and so immense that Pausanias, Teutonic.

in speaking of the walls of Tiryns, near Nauplia, in Greece, Of these three--namely, the Sanscrit, the Celtic, and the built thirty-six centuries ago, describes them thus :-" These Teutonic—the first may be considered as the most ancient walls are constructed of unhewn stones, and are all of such tongue; the second stands next in age, and the third is the dimensions that a yoke of oxen could not shake the smallest of youngest.

them. The interstices are filled up with smaller stones, which Yon have been led to regard monosyllables as to a large ex- serve to unite the larger ones." These walls present the same tent of Saxon origin. But many words, commonly considered appearance now which they did in the days of Homer and of Saron, are rather Indo-European, being found in Sanscrit, in Pausanias. They are about 25 feet thick, and about 43 feet in Greek, and in Latin, or in one of these besides the modern English. height. Two temples, close to each other, in the island of Gozo, Such words as know, lick, break, yoke, sit, are the common near Malta, are analogous in their construction to the walls of property of the Sanscrit, the Latin, the Greek, the German, and Tiryns. They are built of immense blocks of stone, forming a the English.

sort of artificial hill, in which are placed the naves and arches Had I space to exhibit the proofs of the relationship of these of the temples; but some of the rocks bear traces of the mason's languages, I should dwell on the similarity which prevails in tools. the modifications of number, person, case, tense, etc., which It has been proved, by careful examination, that these edifices they severally undergo; but I can, in addition, do nothing more were dedicated to the gods of Asia. To conclude: the walls of than set down in different tongues the variations of a few words Tarragona, on the east coast of Spain, are constructed, like the of universal prevalence, which indicate a common origin. preceding, of immense rocks in their natural state. The appli

cation of instruments to building, at a later period, caused the English, Sanscrit Greek, Latin. Teutonic, Celtic.

edifices of the Pelasgians to assume another form. The stones Father

pitri (pader) pater pater vater athair taken from quarries were cut into irregular polygons, and placed Mother matri meter mater mutter mathair

one upon another in such a manner as to make the different Son

faces of the geometrical figures which they employed coincide, Danghter duhitri thugater

dauhtar dear Brother

the salient angles filling up the re-entrant angles formed by two bhrati phrator frater brothar brathair swarsi

swistar

adjoining stones in a manner precisely similar to that used in

siur homo

the present day for building walls of Kentish ragstone or Devonvamani

femina

femen

shire limestone. This was the ordinary manner of building akshi okko oculus augo

under this system of construction. It is met with from Lake

Van, on the frontiers of Armenia, to the west of Italy, Sardinia, Tooth danta

odont dent thuntu dend and the Balearic Isles; and it is found in temples and in tombs, heli

helio
sol
sauil haul

in public and private buildings, and in innumerable military mengi

mios

constructions. At last, a third method presents itself in the udat unda vato dour dyu

walls of these early buildingsnamely, that in which the dio diu dag

dia Sen mira mari marei muir

stones are fashioned in the square form; and the buildings Light loch (to see) leuko luc

licht Ihwg themselves, assuming the same form, exhibit a greater degree of

civilisation, and the invention and application of more exact

instruments. The walls of the ancient Mycenæ were built in LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-III.

this manner.

The continued and progressive order of these Pelasgic conCYCLOPEAN OR PELASGIC ARCHITECTURE EARLY MONUMENTS.

structions is one of the most interesting facts in the history of AFTER the brief sketch of the origin of architecture in our the art of building-particularly when we refer them to an last lesson (Vol. I., page 369), we must notice in proper order antiquity which goes back to the heroic time of Greece. that system of construction, the monuments of which cover & Doubtless, the gradual improvement which is to be seen in the great part of the Old World. This system had its origin among walls constructed by this original people, does not reveal all the the Shemitic tribes, which at the commencement of civilisation revolutions of this art in early antiquity ; but it enables us to peopled the fairest part of the globe. This early system, noted perceive the progress of the greater part of the civilised world, a for the rudeness of its form, its stability without mortar, and progress which it must necessarily follow, because it is the the great size and irregularity of its materials, is attributed to nature of all human inventions to pass from early and rude the Pelasgians, a people originally from Upper Asia, who, attempts to successive periods of improvement and perfection. according to Herodotus, spread themselves over Phænicia and The Pelasgio monuments, sketched and studied at the present Asia Minor, and colonised Greece and Italy. Examples of day, extend over a zone which, comprising the breadth of this style of architecture, called Pelasgic, are found extending Western Asia, stretches over Greece and Central Italy; and facm the borders of Persia and Armenia to the western limits this is not the whole of the ancient world, as we have already of Asia. The term “Cyclopean" is also applied to this kind of said, in which early monuments composed of rocks in their architecture, because, in Greece, these buildings of huge rough natural state have been seen by ancients and moderns; but blocks of stone were fabled to be the work of the Cyclopes-a they have been discovered in all the northern countries, and race of giants with one eye in the middle of the forehead, who in Africa, from Egypt to the neighbourhood of Carthage; and laboured at the forges of Vulcan, the fire-god of the Greeks, and we have reason to believe that in these countries, to the primipatron of all who wrought in iron. Crossing the Mediterranean, tive constructions, a second period succeeded, more refined in its it spread over Greece, where the most remarkable monuments productions, and forming a step from the first attempts to the described by ancient anthors, from the age of Hesiod and more perfect examples, of which we behold the numerous ruins Homer, are traced, according to tradition, as far back as eighteen in India, in Central Asia, in the valley of the Nile, and in the centuries before our era. This was the style of construction oases of the desert. These monuments of transition, so to speak, used in the heroic times of ancient Greece; and at a later period have disappeared under early and actual civilisation, and have it was employed on certain important occasions.

even escaped the investigation of travellers. The migrations of the Pelasgi carried this system into Italy, and we meet with it at every step, particularly in the central

FIRST REGULAR CONSTRUCTIONS, PYRAMIDS, ETC. countries. Examples are also to be seen in nearly all the western The Pelasgi, proceeding from the Asiatic plateaus, or tableielands of the Mediterranean, in the Balearic Isles, and some lands, directed their steps towards the west; other Shemitie even on the coasts of France and Spain. In fine, by a remark-tribes marched towards the south and east, and peopled India, able coincidence, travellers who have drawn and described the Persia, Agsyria, and Arabia, as well as Ethiopia and Egypt. monuments of Palenqné and Papantla, cities of Mexico destroyed The art of these tribes, like that of the western branch, passed long ago, and grown over by forests, exhibit constructions through a rude and primitive state, as we have shown--through similar to those of the Pelasgi. The gigantic remains of the the BETH-EL style, or constructions in unhewn stones. It Pelasgic monuments, to this day gubjected to examination by cannot be supposed that these tribes were more privileged than travellers, bear traces of different modes of building. Those others, and were able, without previous attempts, to hew stones which seem to be the most ancient are composed of blocks of regularly, to mould and cement bricks, and to give to the union of these materials architectural forms, without going through is evident that these first regular constructions were thus gene that initiatory process which characterises the origin of all rally established ; and the greater part of the primitive world human inventions. Yet the plains of Chaldea soon exhibited adopted them, with the exception of those countries where great constructions which had a great influence over primitive art in political events interrupted the first movements of civilisation, the East, and formed the basis of a system which extended its and suspended the march of the arts ; with the exception also of branches even to the West. The want of stones in Mesopotamia those whose inhabitants, less endowed by nature, necessarily soon taught the inhabitants to mould bricks, and their most remained in the rear of civilisation, and only received a move ancient temple mentioned in the Bible, called the Tower of ment of this kind from their neighbours, or from an invasion of Babel, was an immense pyramid built of bricks piled on one some people more advanced in civilisation. The first builders another, and forming, according to report, eight storeys or rows, worthy of the name from their ability to mould bricks, and hew gradually receding from each other. At the top of this building stones to raise their gigantic monuments, were compelled to they sacrificed to Baal; at a later period the Chaldean kings follow the road in which they were placed. The want of expeplaced his statue there, when their artists had made some progress rience, the absence of instruments and machines, prevented in the art of sculpture. It is probable that this pyramidal-formed them from raising, at first, great edifices with vertical façades temple owed its origin to their remembrance of the practices of or fronts, such as they were enabled to construct at a later those Caucasian countries whence the Shemitic tribes derived period. To form large foundations, and to raise above them

[graphic][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

their origin. Herodotus gave a glimpse of the truth, when he materials with gradual and numerous recesses such as would said that the Scythians made their temples or altars with a prevent the fall of the upper parts of the building, was the great quantity of wood heaped in the form of a pyramid. How first law of construction and of statics to which they were ever the case may be, this very simple form, which appears to obliged to submit. This is so true that, after having made their have come naturally to the minds of those men who were the great steps in the art of building, and become able builders, first to raise large constructions, spread itself over all Asia; the Indians, the Chaldeans, the Ethiopians, and the Egyptians, the ancient pagodas of India are built in this form; the most still continued in the path of which the pyramid was the starting. ancient monuments of Lower Egypt and Ethiopia, where the point, by raising their edifices in such a manner as to give to Shemitic tribes settled in Africa, are all of them pyramids. In their façades a great inclination in order to obtain greater staAsia whole cities—Ecbatana, for example-presented numerous bility ; a wise system, which was adopted by the Etruscans concentric enclosures rising one above another in such a way as when they left Asia, where these principles were long established. to exhibit the pyramidal form. The celebrated Hanging Gar. They were also spread over a part of Italy, and traces of them dens of Babylon, formed of numerous terraces, ono above another, are found at Norchia. The same ideas exerted their influence had also the same configuration. In short, this must be con- over the early edifices of the Greeks, and they are found in a sidered as the progress of architecture, when we see that the modified form among the finest specimens of their later archi. most ancient religious edifices of the Mexicans are immense tecture. They are recognised, for instance, in the remains of pyramidal buildings, simple at first like those of Chaldea, and the Parthenon, or Temple of Minerva at Athens, where the of Lower and Upper Egypt; but at a later period ornamented inclination of the jambs of the doors and windows still exists. with sculpture like the pagodas of India. Ancient public Mexico also bears witness to this, as may be seen in our remarka buildings were also found in Mexico of a pyramidal form. It on the first regular constructions of that country.

« AnteriorContinuar »