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the affectionate with the intellectual and judicial faculties of

MECHANICS.—X. our nature. No character can claim to be complete without charity. It

THE PULLEY. is possible to let one side of our nature overtop the other, and In the machines we have so far considered, the essential parts thus human nature, when love is eliminated, becomes hard, were rigid. It was a beam, or a spoke, or a complete wheel, or stern, and severe. Some men may be gigantic in intelligence, and an axle we had to deal with ; and if a rope was nged, it was dwarfish in affection, but they are monstrosities in human only with a view to connecting the power or resistance with nature. Only the equable development of all our powers can be these rigid parts. But it may have escaped your notice that, in commensurate with our possibilities, and therefore our respon using a rope for this purpose you had fallen on a veritable sibilities.

machine. Such is the case ; a rope is a machine-a most con A moral science which found no room for charity would venient machine—which possesses the peculiar property of not develop character very much after the Roman type-hard, stern, only transmitting a force from one point to another in its and unbending—such as might exist with unflinching bravery original di. and unyielding energy, but which effectually crushes the affec- rection, but tionate side of human nature. Moreover, it is necessary to guard also sending against the great mistake that charity means, in some sort, it, very little weakness of character, for there is no such inspiration to acts of impaired, self-surrender, self-denial, and self-sacrifice, as is to be found in round any the influence of this virtue. In proportion to its power is the number of diminution of that selfishness which so often merges into corners, into cowardice, and cripples the exercise of the higher virtues. To a correspond. be charitable is, for the most part, to have that consideration for ing number others which makes us set aside the comfort or discomfort, the of successive rest or unrest of our own lives. Charity is a virtue which needs new direc.

Fig. 67. careful culture; men are so apt to be disheartened by ingrati. tions. This tude and base treatment, that they tire in acts of beneficence, practical advantage everybody is familiar with ; nobody more and sometimes they catch that cynical tone of mind which helps than the British sailor, whose daily work consists in no small to make them not only indifferent to the wants of others, but degree in sending the muscular power of his arms round all misjudgers of the race. We should never form our opinions of manner of corners for the benefit of the good ship he navigates. the baseness of men from one or two specimens of wrong-doers The Pulley, the third of the mechanical powers, is the instruwe may meet with, or charity will receive no encouragement for ment by which this object is gained in practice. In its simplest its culture, and we ourselves shall lose the sweet sensation form it consists of a rope which passes round a small solid wheel which comes from its exercise. Let it be remembered that, if which is itself mounted in a block. In theory, neither wheel we were to argue from the score, not only of utility to others,

nor block are indispensable parts of the bat utility to ourselves, we should commend charity, as it

machine ; the single essential is the ministers largely to human happiness, to think well of, and to

rope, which is supposed to be perfectly act kindly towards, those around us.

flexible, and to turn round a mere point It often happens that, as nations increase in the luxuries of

without experiencing any resistance civilisation, they become more petrified by selfishness. There is

from rubbing against it, that is, from a tendency in the eager race to be rich, or to be successful, to

friction. forget the wants and claims of others, and to become isolated

PO The theory of the pulley, thus based from them : the fact that the poor are ever so charitable to

on the suppositions perfect flexibility the poor comes from this, namely, that they are not absorbed

and absence of friction, may be underin successful ambitions for themselves.

Fig. 68.

stood from the upper part of Fig. 67. Charity towards others in matters of opinion is much needed; Let A, B, C, D be any number (say four) of rings, representing the tendency of every age has been to institute some sort of so many points, through which a rope passes, enabling a force, inquisition or other, by which free thought may feel its penalties. P, at one end to balance a resistance, w, at the other. The Mankind have been far too ready to put gyves and shackles on flexibility being perfect, and no friction between rope and ring, the limbs of those whose opinions they disliked and scorned ;P is transmitted unimpaired, and we have therefore the power and in no sphere has the exercise of charity been less experienced equal to the resistance, whether the rings are all fixed in posiand more required than in the region of human judgment and tion, or some be movable. opinion.

But in practice, the suppositions made do not hold good, The exercise of charity towards others will prepare as for the neither is the rope perfectly flexible, nor the friction nothing. enjoyment of it in return. There is a knowledge of ourselves For the former reason each corner must be rounded off to relieve which induces humility, and which, while it makes us conscious the rope from the sharp bends at A, B, C, D; and, for the latter, of our marvellous mistakes and errors, makes us deeply sensitive these rounded corners are made into small wheels, as at E, F, G, E, to the experiences of a charitable consideration. Most assuredly which move round with the there is a punishment awaiting the uncharitable, as for the rope, and prevent the power Amet most part moral science teaches us that such vice is its own being diminished by the fric. Nemesis, and that the stern and unforgiving in the end have tion that would result, were meted out to them the same measure that they have meted out the rope allowed to slide round to others.

them. Thus the theoretical The virtue of charity is no foe to wisdom. Charity itself pulley in the upper part of requires the exercise of judgment and forethought. Otherwise, Fig. 67 becomes the practical charity is in no sense charity, so far as its ontworking in acts one in the lower, where the of beneficence is concerned. Much as men may dislike the name rings are replaced by wheels; of political economy, or political philosophy, it must be manifest and though some friction rethat, were the practical workings of charity presided over by mains, and default of flexiwisdom, as well as inspired by love, the blessedness of its bility to impair p in its transresults would be tenfold or twentyfold increased.

mission, we say practically, We have, however, kept in mind in this essay the fact that as we did before theoretically, charity is a matter which affects our judgments, and criticisms that still the power is equal to of others, quite as much as our actual beneficence; and no one the resistance. can claim to have mastered the first elements of moral science The relations of the power

Fig. 69. in any practical way, much less to have graduated in the high and resistance in the various attainments of character, until, as a regulating faculty of the forms and combinations of pulley can now be easily determined. affectionate nature, Charity takes its place side by side with There is first the Single Pulley, which is of two kinds, fixed and Justice and Truth.

movable ; and of these in various combinations, the more com

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that stalk-I mean in the Sanscrit, the Celtic, and the stone, or rather of rocks, so rude and so immense that Pausanias, Tentonic.

in speaking of the walls of Tiryns, near Nauplia, in Greece, Of these three--namely, the Sanscrit, the Celtic, and the built thirty-six centuries ago, describes them thus :-" These Teatonio-the first may be considered as the most ancient walls are constructed of unhewn stones, and are all of such tongue; the second stands next in age, and the third is the dimensions that a yoke of oxen could not shake the smallest of youngest.

them. The interstices are filled up with smaller stones, which You have been led to regard monosyllables as to a large ex- serve to unite the larger ones." These walls present the same tent of Saxon origin. But many words, commonly considered appearance now which they did in the days of Homer and of Saron, are rather Indo-European, being found in Sanscrit, in Pausanias. They are about 25 feet thick, and about 43 feet in Greek, and in Latin, or in one of these besides the modern English. height. Two temples, close to each other, in the island of Gozo, Such words as know, lick, break, yoke, sit, are the common near Malta, are analogous in their construction to the walls of property of the Sanscrit, the Latin, the Greek, the German, and Tiryns. They are built of immense blocks of stone, forming a the English.

sort of artificial hill, in which are placed the naves and arches Had I space to exhibit the proofs of the relationship of these of the temples; but some of the rocks bear traces of the mason's languages, I should dwell on the similarity which prevails in tools. the modifications of number, person, case, tense, etc., which It has been proved, by careful examination, that these edifices they severally undergo; but I can, in addition, do nothing more were dedicated to the gods of Asia. To conclude: the walls of than get down in different tongues the variations of a few words Tarragona, on the east coast of Spain, are constructed, like the of universal prevalence, which indicate a common origin. preceding, of immense rocks in their natural state. The appli

cation of instruments to building, at a later period, caused the English. Sanscrit. Groek, Latin. Teutonic, Celtic.

edifices of the Pelasgians to assume another form. The stones Father pitri (pader) pater pater vater athair taken from quarries were cut into irregular polygons, and placed Mother matri meter mater mutter mathair

one upon another in such a manner as to make the different Son sunu

faces of the geometrical figures which they employed coincide, Daughter duhitri thugater

dauhtar

dear Brother

the salient angles filling up the re-entrant angles formed by two bhrati phrator frater brothar brathair Sister swarsi

swistar

adjoining stones in a manner precisely similar to that used in

siur homo

the present day for building walls of Kentish ragstone or Devonvamani

femins

femen shire limestone. This was the ordinary manner of building akshi okko oculus ango

under this system of construction. It is met with from Lake Nose

Van, on the frontiers of Armenia, to the west of Italy, Sardinia, danta

odont dent thuntu dend and the Balearic Isles ; and it is found in temples and in tombs, San

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in public and private buildings, and in innumerable military mensi

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constructions. At last, a third method presents itself in the uda

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walls of these early buildings-namely, that in which the

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stones are fashioned in the square form; and the buildings Light loch (to see) leuko luc

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themselves, assuming the same form, exhibit a greater degree of civilisation, and the invention and application of more exact

instruments. The walls of the ancient Mycenæ were built in LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.-III.

this manner. CYCLOPEAN OR PELASGIC ARCHITECTURE-EARLY MONUMENTS. strnctions is one of the most interesting facts in the history of

The continued and progressive order of these Pelasgio conAFTER the brief sketch of the origin of architecture in our the art of building--particularly when we refer them to an last lesson (Vol. I., page 369), we must notice in propor order antiquity which goes back to the heroic time of Greece. that system of construction, the monuments of which cover & Doubtless, the gradual improvement which is to be seen in the great part of the Old World. This system had its origin among walls constructed by this original people, does not reveal all the the Shemitic tribes, which at the commencement of civilisation revolutions of this art in early antiquity; but it enables us to peopled the fairest part of the globe. This early system, noted perceive the progress of the greater part of the civilised world, a for the rudeness of its form, its stability without mortar, and progress which it must necessarily follow, because it is the the great size and irregularity of its materials, is attributed to nature of all human inventions to pass from early and rude the Pelasgians, & people originally from Upper Asia, who, attempts to successive periods of improvement and perfection. according to Herodotus, spread themselves over Phoenicia and The Pelasgic monuments, sketched and studied at the present Asia Minor, and colonised Greece and Italy. Examples of day, extend over a zone which, comprising the breadth of this style of architecture, called Pelasgic, are found extending Western Asia, stretches over Greece and Central Italy; and from the borders of Persia and Armenia to the western limits this is not the whole of the ancient world, as we have already of Asia. The term “Cyclopean" is also applied to this kind of said, in which early monuments composed of rocks in their architecture, because, in Greece, these buildings of huge rough natural state have been seen by ancients and moderns; but blocks of stone were fabled to be the work of the Cyclopes-- they have been discovered in all the northern countries, and race of giants with one eye in the middle of the forehead, who in Africa, from Egypt to the neighbourhood of Carthage ; and laboured at the forges of Vulcan, the fire-god of the Greeks, and we have reason to believe that in these countries, to the primipatron of all who wrought in iron. Crossing the Mediterranean, tive constructions, a second period succeeded, more refined in its it spread over Greece, where the most remarkable monuments productions, and forming a step from the first attempts to the described by ancient anthors, from the age of Hesiod and more perfect examples, of which we behold the numerous ruins Homer, are traced, according to tradition, as far back as eighteen in India, in Central Asia, in the valley of the Nile, and in the centuries before our era. This was the style of construction oases of the desert. These monuments of transition, so to speak, used in the heroic times of ancient Greece; and at a later period have disappeared under early and actual civilisation, and have it was employed on certain important occasions.

even escaped the investigation of travellers. The migrations of the Pelasgi carried this system into Italy, and we meet with it at every step, particularly in the central

FIRST REGULAR CONSTRUCTIONS, PYRAMIDS, ETC. countries. Examples are also to be seen in nearly all the western The Pelasgi, proceeding from the Asiatic plateaus, or tableislands of the Mediterranean, in the Balearic Isles, and some lands, directed their steps towards the west; other Shemitie even on the coasts of France and Spain. In fine, by a remark- tribes marched towards the south and east, and peopled India, able coincidence, travellers who have drawn and described the Persia, Assyria, and Arabia, as well as Ethiopia and Egypt. monuments of Palenqné and Papantla, cities of Mexico destroyed The art of these tribes, like that of the western branch, passed long ago, and grown over by forests, exhibit constructions through a rude and primitive state, as we have shown-through similar to those of the Pelasgi. The gigantic remains of the the BETH-EL style, or constructions in unhewn stones. It Pelasgic monuments, to this day subjected

to examination by cannot

be supposed that these tribes were more privileged than travellers, bear traces of different modes of building. Those others, and were able, without previous attempts, to hew stones which seem to be the most ancient are composed of blocks of regularly, to mould and cement

bricks, and to give to the union

of these materials architectural forms, without going through is evident that these first regular constructions were thus gene that initiatory process which characterises the origin of all rally established; and the greater part of the primitive world human inventions. Yet the plains of Chaldea soon exhibited adopted them, with the exception of those countries where great oonstructions which had a great influence over primitive art in political events interrupted the first movements of civilisation, the East, and formed the basis of a system which extended its and suspended the march of the arts; with the exception also of branches even to the West. The want of stones in Mesopotamia those whose inhabitants, less endowed by nature, necessarily soon taught the inhabitants to mould bricks, and their most remained in the rear of civilisation, and only received a move ancient temple mentioned in the Bible, called the Tower of ment of this kind from their neighbours, or from an invasion of Babel, was an immense pyramid built of bricks piled on one some people more advanced in civilisation. The first builders another, and forming, according to report, eight storeys or rows, worthy of the name from their ability to mould bricks, and hew gradually receding from each other. At the top of this building stones to raise their gigantic monuments, were compelled to they sacrificed to Baal; at a later period the Chaldean kings follow the road in which they were placed. The want of expeplaced his statue there, when their artists had made some progress rience, the absence of instruments and machines, prevented in the art of sculpture. It is probable that this pyramidal-formed them from raising, at first, great edifices with vertical façades temple owed its origin to their remembrance of the practices of or fronts, such as they were enabled to construct at a later those Caucasian countries whence the Shemitic tribes derived period. To form large foundations, and to raise above them

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their origin. Herodotus gave a glimpse of the truth, when he materials with gradual and numerous recesses such as would said that the Scythians made their temples or altars with a prevent the fall of the upper parts of the building, was the great quantity of wood heaped in the form of a pyramid. How first law of construction and of statics to which they were ever the case may be, this very simple form, which appears to obliged to submit. This is so true that, after having made their have come naturally to the minds of those men who were the great steps in the art of building, and become able builders, first to raise large constructions, spread itself over all Asia ; the Indians, the Chaldeans, the Ethiopians, and the Egyptians, the ancient pagodas of India are built in this form; the most still continued in the path of which the pyramid was the starting. ancient monuments of Lower Egypt and Ethiopia, where the point, by raising their edifices in such a manner as to give to Shemitic tribes settled in Africa, are all of them pyramids. In their façades a great inclination in order to obtain greater staAsia whole cities—Ecbatana, for example-presented numerous bility; a wise system, which was adopted by the Etruscans concentric enclosures rising one above another in such a way as when they left Asia, where these principles were long established. to exhibit the pyramidal form. The celebrated Hanging Gar. They were also spread over a part of Italy, and traces of them dens of Babylon, formed of numerous terraces, one above another, are found at Norcbia. The same ideas exerted their influence had also the same configuration. In short, this must be con- over the early edifices of the Greeks, and they are found in a sidered as the progress of architecture, when we see that the modified form among the finest specimens of their later archi. most ancient religious edifices of the Mexicans are immense tecture. They are recognised, for instance, in the remains of pyramidal buildings, simple at first like those of Chaldea, and the Parthenon, or Temple of Minerva at Athens, where the of Lower and Upper Egypt; but at a later period ornamented inclination of the jambs of the doors and windows still exists. with sculpture like the pagodas of India. Ancient public Mexico also bears witness to this, as may be seen in our remarks buildings were also found in Mexico of a pyramidal form. It on the first regular constructions of that country.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-I.

of different animals, it is found that they are not totally dis

similar structures. The first thing which strikes the student is INTRODUCTION-TERMS EMPLOYED IN CLASSIFICATION.

that a very large number of animals are constructed upon the The simple instructions given by Linne to all succeeding natu- same ground-plan—they differ only in the details of their ralists were Observe and compare.” This Swedish naturalist, structure. Now, the details of structure are often most appawhom we call Linnæus, assiduously followed his own maxim, and rent on the exterior, while the essential plan lies deeper. The became one of the greatest masters of the description, and the anatomist (i.e., dissector) will often reveal a similarity between largest contributor to the science of the classification, of living two animals which the zoologist would not suspect. If we take things whom the world has known.

two animals so utterly dissimilar in size, outward form, and All the higher animals are free, locomotive, well-defined indi. habits as the bat and the pig, and dissect them, we shall find viduals. Each has within the circumscribed limits of its body, that in the main they are alike. Not only is there a bony axis whether that body be of moderate dimensions or extremely composed of many joints in the interior of the body of each, minute, every organ which is requisite to self-existence and which supports the animal, gives origin to the muscles, and reproduction. The actions which the body has to perform in protects the nervous matter, but with few and slight exceptions order to carry on that orderly system of constructive change we find bone for bone, muscle for muscle, nerve for nerve, in which is always associated with life, are very numerous. To comparing each point of the internal structure of the two ani. perform these actions, many complex organs are required; mals. Not only is the fore-limb of a dog built upon the same hence an animal is a very compact piece of machinery, no part plan as the arm of a man, but it is essentially more like it than of which can be dispensed with without crippling the whole. As it is to the hind-limb of the same animal. in a large factory every band, and wheel, and rod, from the The similarity of structure which is found throughout a very great piston to the little bobbin, has its separate office, the large number of animals is the first fact which strikes every adaptations to which have required thought and contrivance ; candid student of comparative anatomy. It is fortunate for the so there is no part of any animal which is not fitted to carry out study that this is the case. If every animal were built up on an some necessary function.

independent plan, no one could hope to gain a comprehensive The outward form of animals is often beautiful, and the study view of the structure of the animal kingdom ; nor would the of it instructive; but it is obvious that we cannot expect to study be so interesting, for the human mind delights in similiknow anything of the animal, considered as a machine, until we tudes and generalisations; moreover, on this likeness of structure have searched it throughout by cutting down to every internal all classification of animals depends. organ, and examining all the peculiarities of each. If we neglect In pursuing his study, the comparative anatomist finds that to do this, it is not only probable, but certain, that in the un. while a very large number of animals are constructed after the examined part we shall leave some secret of its life, some same pattern, this pattern does not run through the structure of admirable contrivance, some wonderful adaptation, unnoticed. all animals. He finds another multitude of animals which are This leads us to the conclusion that in order to acquire a know. built upon a plan common to them all, but this plan is quite ledge of living things we must use the knife. The microscope, different from that which characterises the first group. When the injecting syringe, and all the appliances of modern science, he has determined the number of these large groups, he finds may be used, but the knife or scalpel is indispensable, and the further that each species in one of these groups is not in the nse of it has given a name to the science. The word anatomy same degree like or unlike every other of the same group. If is derived from the Greek ava (an'-a), through, and toun (tom'-e), a, b, c, eto., represent a number of animals in a large group, he a cutting. In following the Linnæan direction to observe in finds that o is not as like to a as b is to a, so that he can this realm of Nature, it was natural that the only means of ob- arrange them in something like order, placing one next to that servation should give its name to the science which sprung out to which it is most like, so as to show that though be to a of the investigation. At first, however, the study was directed great extent unlike a, yet it is connected with it by the interupon one species only. If in more senses than one the proper mediate links. Our student also will find that each species is study of mankind is man, it was natural that at first the human not in the same degree like or unlike even its next door neighframe should have monopolised all the attention of scientific bour, as every other two next door neighbours are. In other dissectors. Hence the word anatomy was applied to the study words, there are gaps in the series, and very useful these gaps of the structure of the human species. As science advanced, are, because they enable us to split up the tens of thousands of other animals were examined in the same way, and the new species which belong to each group into natural sections. The study, as it always suggested a comparison with the results of great groups themselves are probably only caused by very wide the old, was called comparative anatomy.

gaps ; and these groups are subdivided by less marked gaps Comparative anatomy is a study of all the parts of all the into smaller groups, and so on. The reader must always remem different kinds of bodies which are found in the animal kingdom, ber that the vast schome of animated nature is far more complex 80 far as structure is concerned. Strictly speaking, it treats of than any of these poor illustrations express, or else he will be the dead animal alone. It describes the machine when the misled by that which was intended to explain it. Perhaps the motive power has ceased to act. Nevertheless, in examining best illustration of the relations of animals to one another is that the structure of a species it is quite impossible, and very unde- of the richly-branched head of a large tree. In summer, when sirable, to exclude the idea of the function which the several the leafy covering presents an even surface to the eye, the con. parts have to perform when animated with life. Thus the twin nection of the ultimate twigs is not apparent; but in winter we stadies of anatomy (or the structure of living beings) and of can see that a number of twigs spring from one little bough, a physiology are indissolubly connected, though distinct from one number of these boughs spring from a branch, and a number of another. The mechanist has to do with the several parts of the these branches may be traced down to where they diverge from engine while they are at rest, but every fitting is constructed the giant fork. with reference to motion. He cannot exclude the idea of motion It follows from this arrangement that a great many things while he is constructing his machine. He asks himself at every may be said about the structure of each animal in one group stage, Will it go ? will it do its work well? The works of God which will be true all in that group. A great many more cannot be constructed by man, and their simplest contrivances facts may be stated of the animals of a smaller group, and so can scarcely be imitated; but man can examine and analyse on. Now, these statements are the results of comparative them, and as he does so he will be continually asking himself, anatomy, and the only true grounds of classification. How does this structure act in the living animal ? and exclaim, The comparative anatomist has a most difficult task before as knowledge dawns upon him, How admirably is this organ him, and the collected wisdom of all comparative anatomists has constructed to do its work!

not saved them from many blunders; but every student of the The words comparative anatomy, however, suggest another science has this satisfaction : he knows that the classification truth—they suggest that living beings may be compared with which is being worked out is not an imaginary bat a real one. one another. Every animal might be mado a study by itself, as The classification which unites animals into groups within man has been. The fact that man's frame has been the subject groups, grounded on their likeness more or less to one another, of thousands of books, and the object of millions of investiga- indicates a real and natural relationship in those which are tions, and still affords unsolved problems, shows that the study placed together. Whether this classification indicates a mateof each species is almost anlimited. On comparing the bodies rial blood-relationship, or reveals the plan of the Almighty

SUB-KING-
DOM OR
BRAXCH.

CLASS.

ORDER

FAMILY.

COMMON GENUS. SPECIES

XANE.

Caridia

Helix

Snail

Creator, or both of these combined, no comparative anatomist right; and taking three familiar examples, we give the names of doubts that there is something absolute in nature which corre- the groups into which they fall, proceeding from the higher to sponds more or less closely to it, as we are more or less acute the lower grade. in our observations.

Of course, since we can say so many things which are true of a whole group of animals, but which cannot be said of any animal not belonging to that group, this greatly simplifies the whole study of comparative anatomy. Thus we can frame definitions Vertebrata Mammalia Pachydermata Solidungula Equus Caballus Horse

Decapoda

Crangon Vulgaris Shrimp of groups, but there is this difficulty in this treatment of the Mollusca Gasteropoda Pulmonifera Helicidæ

Aspersa Garden subject: we are not acquainted with all animals, and it not unfrequently happens that when we have made our definitions

A species is the lowest grade with which we shall have any. of two groups, apparently perfectly distinct, some strange creature from some outlandish country is brought home which thing to do, and may be defined to be that assemblage of ani. has some of the characters given in one definition and some that mals which are alike in every essential feature of structure, and are given in the other. Then the definitions have to be re-framed any two of which (male and female) are capable of reproducing

their own kind in perpetuity. 80 as to include the new species on one side or other of the line of demarcation, or a new group made for its accommodation. the genus followed by that of the species : thus science names

When we wish to name a species we use two names, that of To avoid this result, it is perhaps better to take some one

the horse Equus caballus. animal of a group which has all the essential features of its group well developed, and describe it as a type, laying stress on

A genus is an assemblago of species ; a family a number of the description of those peculiarities which are the most widely genera, and so on. Professor Agassiz has endeavoured to define possessed by the members of the group. As a matter of fact, it all the grades, but his definitions are so vague as to be almost will be found that an immense number of forms cluster closely worthless. We will not attempt to give definitions, because all around such a typical species, while those forms which lie are open to objections, as indeed that which we have given to between two such types will be few and rare. This plan of

define a species is. What is essential to the student is to describing types we shall endeavour to follow; but since the know that they rank one above the other, and are not used

indiscriminately. He will soon see how they are applied as he human mind longs for definitions because they are definite, we

gets to know more of the animal kingdom. can hardly escape sometimes giving them. The animal kingdom is the realm we have to explore. How not only the horse, but the ass, zebra, etc.; the family, Soli.

To carry out the example given :- The genus Equus includes is it bounded? The question involves us in the very difficulty dungula includes all animals which have a single consolidated to which we have just referred. The animal kingdom is cut off toe to each foot; the order Pachydermata includes not only the from the mineral kingdom by the fact that while a mineral horse family, but also the elephant family, the rhinoceros family

, remains unchanged unless acted on by external forces, an animal the hog family, etc.; the class Mammalia includes not only the is compelled to pass through a series of changes. But how shall Pachydermata, but the Carnivora, Rodentia, etc., i.e., all brutes ; we distinguish an animal from a vegetable ? The answer which would naturally suggest itself is : An animal moves and feels. and the sub-kingdom Vertebrata includes not only brutes, but Yes ; but what is meant by movement and feeling? Many birds, reptiles, and fish. animals are fixed, and grow up from the rocks beneath the

Other intermediate grades are often used, but those we have ocean as plants do, and some plants possess not only motion given are the best established. With this explanation our way but locomotion, We cannot interrogate the lowest animals as

is cleared for our next lesson on general classification. to whether they feel, and if we are guided by appearances, the sensitive mimosa feels. The fact is, we cannot define, for what.

LESSONS IN LATIN.-XIV. ever the definition, some troublesome species of plant or animal obtrudes itself to disturb our distinction. We can, however,

ADVERBS. affirm many things about plants and animals which are generally In English, adverbs are formed from adjectives by the addition true of the one kingdom and exclusive of the other. Thus, of ly, thus swift, swift-ly. Similar is the manner in which the animals cannot exist on mineral substances alone, but most Romans formed their adverbs. The ordinary terminations of plants both can and do do so. Animals generally have an the Latin adverbs are e and ter; ter sometimes stands as iter. internal cavity to lodge their food while it is being dissolved To form an adverb, find the stem and add the terminations. and absorbed; plants have no stomach. Most animals have a Adverbs formed from adjectives or participles of the second denervous system, that is, a material by which the whole organism clension end in e. Adverbs formed from adjectives or participles is connected into a sentient individual, and which conveys voli of the third declension, in ens and ans, end in ter. Adverbs tion through the frame; no plant has a nervous system. These formed from the other adjectives of the third declension, end contrasts between a typical animal and a typical plant must in iter. satisfy the reader. The lower groups in both kingdoms present You ought now to have no difficulty to know which are adjecspecies which it may be difficult to assign to their respective tives of the second, and which adjectives of the third declension. spheres ; but by keeping in mind the typical or ideal plant or But for your assistance I interpose a few remarks. Adjectives animal we shall usually be able to determine the position of follow the first, the second, and the third declension of nouns. every form which presents itself.

Adjectives which have the nominative singular in a, and genitive In the next lesson we shall give an outline of the classification singular in æ, follow the first declension. Adjectives which have of the animal kingdom, only giving its main features, and not the nominative singular in us or um, and genitive singular in : descending into the minor divisions, and then take a type of follow the second declension. Adjectives which have the nomieach class, and describe it so as to bring out its peculiar charac- native singular in is, etc., and genitive singular in is, follow

the teristics. The student will find it a great and material help, as third declension. There are no adjectives of the fourth or fifth he proceeds in his study of this subject, if he does not content declension. I add instances of himself merely with committing to memory the written description of various characteristics in the construction of animals, but refers to the particular animal selected as an illustration, Clare, clearly, brightly; from clarus, 2, clear. and so fixes the truth in his mind by the aid of actual ex- Liběre, freely;

liber, 2, free. perience. With a view to enable the reader thus to verify the Pulchre, beautifully ;

pulcher (pulchri), 2, beautiful. statements for himself, and to impress them intelligently on his Prudenter, prudently ;

prudens (prudent), 3, prudents memory, the types chosen will, so far as it is possible, be

Amanter, lovingly;

amans (amant), 3, loving. ordinary and familiar animals in each department.

Fortiter, bravely;

fortis (fort), 3, brave. It will prevent confusion in the mind of the reader not only of

Audaciter, daringly;

audax (audac), 3, daring. the following lessons, but of all books on this subject, if he Adverbs, liko adjectives, undergo comparison. Thos, clart, have a clear idea of the terms applied to the different grades of clearly, positive; clarius, more clearly, comparative; clarissime,

the groups in classification. We give the principal, names most clearly, superlatire. Properly the comparative adverb is employed in the order of their importance, reading from left to the neuter gender singular number of the comparative adjective:

ADVERBS FORMED FROM ADJECTIVES.

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