Imágenes de páginas



KLY intersect in the point Q. From the centre Q, with the dis- order, in such patterns as his taste and fancy may dictate, tance Q A, or Q B, describe the circle A N B, and along its circum- for models of tesselated pavement, marquetry, and parquetry. ference set off the arcs A M, M N, N o, each equal to A B, to deter- An illustration of our meaning will be found in Fig. 72, a design mine the angular paints M, N, o of the pentagon A M N O B, which which consists of perpendicular lines of pentagons, black and is completed by joining the straight lines AM, MN, NO, O B. white in alternation, the lozenges or rhombuses (see Definition 30,

The student who is acquainted with the method of drawing Vol. I., page 53) being divided by transverse perpendicular and the equilateral triangle, square, and regular pentagon, will readily horizontal lines into right-angled triangles, which are also black

see that the construction of figures, and white in alternation as they are
the number of whose sides are mul- contiguous to a white or black pen-
tiples of 3, 4, and 5, depends merely on tagon respectively. The designs
the repeated bisection of arcs of made by the learner, for pavement,

circles or angles, as may be seen by may be done in pieces of red, black,
M an inspection of Figs. 69, 70, and 66. and white paper, or in paper coloured

In Fig. 69, ABC is an equilateral to imitate various kinds of marble,
triangle, or trigon, inscribed in the pasted together on cardboard. The
circle ABC. By bisecting the arcs patterns for marquetry, which con-
A B, BC, CA, in the points D, E, F, and sists of various kinds of ornamental
joining A D, D B, BE, EC, C F, and Fa, wood cut in small pieces and veneered

Fig. 72.
Fig. 69.

we get the hexagon ADBEC F, the on a flat surface of deal or some com

number of whose sides is 3 x 2, mon timber, to form the top of a table or the panel of a cabinet; or 6. If the arcs A D, D B, B E, E C, C F, and F A, were again and those for parquetry, or blocks of wood about an inch in thickbisected in the points G, H, K, L, M, N, we should get a dodecagon, ness, put together in symmetrical patterns to form floors, may or twelve-sided figure, the number of whose sides is 3 * 2 * 2 be cut out in paper stained in imitation of various kinds of = 12; by joining the extremities of the arcs A G, G D, etc., or wood. It may be said that coloured paper in imitation of wood drawing chords subtending these arcs, and by another bisection may be purchased of any one who sells materials for bookbind. of the twelve arcs, into which the circle is divided by the angu- jag, while paper in imitation of marble may be procured at the lar points of the dodecagon, we should get a twenty-four-sided same place for fine work, and from the paper-hanger for making figure. The same results would be obtained by bisecting in suc- designs on a large scale. We have called the attention of the cession the angles at the point o, the centre of the circle, and reader to the method named above of making geometrical de drawing chords, as before, to the arcs obtained by the successive signs in coloured paper, to show him how readily a knowledge bisections of the angles at the centre, and the consequent bi- of geometry may be applied to art purposes. sections of the arcs on which they stand.

For filling up any space with small compartments all of the If the arcs A B, BC, C A, or the angles A O B, BOC, COA, were same size and form, the hexagon is the most convenient, because trisected, instead of being divided into two cqual parts, and its shape assimilates more closely than either the equilateral trichords were drawn subtending the arcs thus subdivided, we angle or the square to that of the circle, the strongest form for should have a nonagon or enneagon, a polygon the number of the arrangement of material to bear pressure, as in the case of whose sides is equal to 3 x 3, or 9, and by bisecting the nonagon the barrel drain or circular sewer. Less material, too, would be we should obtain an eighteen-sided figure, the number of whose used in forming a number of hexagonal compartments than in sides is equal to 3x3x2, or 18.

filling the same space with compartments in the form of equi. Similarly in Fig. 70, in which the square ABCD is inscribed lateral triangles or squares having the same depth and area of in the circle ABCD, an octagon, A E B FCG DH, is obtained base as the hexagon. A remarkable instance in nature of the by bisecting the arcs A B, BC, C D, DA,

use of the hexagon for making the most of space for stowage, in the points E, F, G, H, and joining the

with the least possible quantity of material, is found in the honey. straight lines A E, E B, etc., the octagon

comb, of which the cells are hexagonal in form, terminating at being a figure the number of whose sides

the bottom in a roof or floor, consisting of three parallelois 4 x 2, or 8. A further bisection of

grams, the opposite angles of which are about 110° and 70° the aros A E, E B, etc., would give us a B

respectively. figure the number of whose sides is

The construction of a hexagon is easy enough, whether it be 4x2 x 2, or 16; and so on.

required to inscribe it in a given circle, or to construct it on a In the same way, an inspection of Fig.

given straight line, because the radius of the circumscribing 66, in Problem XLVII., page 149, shows

circle is always equal to the side of the hexagon that it sur that if we bisect the aros A B, BC, CD,

rounds. Thus, if we have to inscribe a hexagon in the circle DE, E F, in the points R, 8, T, P, Q, and join

Fig. 70.

ACE (Fig. 73), it is manifest that all we have to do is to open the their extremities, we get a decagon, or regular polygon, the compasses to the extent of A G, the radius of the circle A CE number of whose sides is 5 x 2, or 10; while if the arcs A B, BC, and divide the circumference into six equal parts by apply. etc., were trisected, we should obtain a quindecagon, or regular ing the opening of the compasses round the circumference

, polygon, the number of whose sides is 5 * 3, or 15. The learner and marking the points A, B, C, D, E, F, in succession. The can readily calculate for himself the results of further subdivi. hexagon is then completed by joining A B, B C, C D, D E, E F, sions of the arcs of the circle in the cases of the pentagon, de- F A, the chords of the six equal parts cagon, and quindecagon.

into which the circumference has
The reader may have noticed already, that of all figures having been divided.
equal sides and equal angles there are only three kinds that PROBLEM LI.—To construct a hexa-
can be fitted together so as to cover a flat surface without gon on a given straight line. Let A B

any interstices or openings be- (Fig. 73) be the given straight line F
tween the pieces used. These on which it is required to construct
are the equilateral triangle, the a hexagon. From A and B as cen-
square, and the hexagon. This tres, with the distances A B and BA
number of regular figures that respectively, draw two arcs intersect-
will cover a flat surface with ing each other in G. The point G is
out the addition of any other the centre of a circle circumscribing

Fig. 75.
figures, regular or irregular, may the required hexagon. From the cen-
Fis. 71.

be further reduced to two when tre g with the distance G A describe the circle A CE; then from

we remember that the hexagon A and B as centres, with the radius A B and B A respectively, itself is composed of six equilateral triangles, as may be seen draw arcs cutting the circumference of the circle A cs in tho from Fig. 71, in which the thick lines show

how any number of points f and c; and from these points as centres, with the same equilateral triangles regularly disposed in rows may be grouped radius, draw arcs cutting the circumference in the points and into hexagons, The learner will find it a useful practice D. Join

A B, BC, C D, D E, E F, FA; A B C D E F is the hexagon to make drawings of the various regular polygons arranged in required, for it is constructed on the given straight line A B.







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world. The architect who traced the plan of this temple was

Ctesiphon, who flourished about 552 B.C., and it was partly THE GREEK ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE.

executed under his direction and that of his son Metagenes ; The temple of Apollo Panionius, in Ionia, was built according but it was completed by other architects, who worked upon it to the Doric style (Fig. I.); but the Ionians, dissatisfied with after these for the space of more than two centuries. Vitruvius the simplicity of this order, invented another of a more delicate says that the form of this temple was dipterick (two-winged), character, and called it the Ionic order, after the name of their that is, surrounded with two rows of columns in the form of a country. They made the height of the column in this order double portico. It was 426 feet long, and 216 broad. In this greater in proportion to its diameter than in the Doric order. temple there were 127 columns of marble each sixty feet high, The form of the capital was totally different, having large volutes given by as many kings! Thirty-six of these columns were at its corners, of which the spiral is often very finely sculp- carved by the most excellent artists of their times. Scopas, tured; the entablature was changed in its parts and proportions; one of the most celebrated sculptors of Greece, executed one and a base was added to the bottom of the column, in harmony which was the finest ornament of this magnificent structure. with its capital (see Fig. II.). Of the origin of this order of All Asia had contributed with incredible ardour to the erection architecture we have no distinct account. Vitruvius states, and decoration of this temple. that as the Doric order was considered strong and masculine, Vitruvius informs us that Demetrius, whom he calls the like the form of Hercules, the Ionians modelled their new servant of Diana, and Paconius, the Ephesian, finished this

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order according to the elegance and delicacy of the female temple, which was of the Ionic order. History records the figure, and that the volutes were taken from the curls of the remarkable fact that this temple was burned to the ground on hair on each side of the face. It is not easy to conceive how the day that Alexander the Great was born.

This same the proportions of a Greek order of architecture could be Alexander, it is said, offered to rebuild it at his own expense, borrowed from that of the human figure, to which it has so provided that the Ephesians would consent that he should have little natural resemblance; and it has been ingeniously re- the sole honour of it, and that no name should be added to marked that it is more natural to trace the form of the volute his in the inscription to be put upon it. The Ephesians, not in the Ionic order to the curling of the bark of a rude upright approving this condition, concealed their refusal of his offer by post, crushed by a superincumbent weight greater than it could saying, “that it was not consistent for one god to erect a bear. In this order, continued subjects began to appear on the monument to another.” This temple was rebuilt with still frieze, which in the Doric were considered the exception to the greater magnificence than at first. The truth of this may bo rule. The cornice of the entablature was also enriched with gathered from the words of the sacred historian, in reporting Exquisite mouldings, and decorated with sculptured ornaments. the speech of Demetrius the silversmith, who made silver

The edifices constructed after the Ionic order were numerous shrines of Diana, to the workmen of like occupation : “Sirs, ye and magnificent, such as the temples of Bacchus, at Teos; know that by this craft we have our wealth. Moreover, ye Apollo, at Miletus; Minerva, at Priene and Tegea ; and of see and hear, that not alone at Ephesus, but almost through. Diana, at Magnesia and Ephesus. This order was also em out all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded and turned away much ployed in the construction of the Erectheum, or the temples of people, saying that they be no gods which are made with Minerva Polias and Pandrosus, in the Acropolis at Athens; hands : so that not only this our craft is in danger to be set at of the Delphic Apollo and of Æsculapias, in the same city ; nought; but also that the temple of the great goddess Diana and in that of Juno, in Attica. The temple of Diana, at should be despised, and her magnificence should be destroyed, Ephesus, was justly deemed one of the seven wonders of the whom all Asia and the world worshippeth.” Such was the glory




that attended the worship of “the image that fell down from extent in every part of their empire; hence it is in edifices Jupiter," and such was the terror of the Ephesians that their constructed under their influence that the most perfect speci. temple would be destroyed a second time, that, in the words mens are found. It was only in the construction of temples of the sacred historian, “when they heard these sayings they that the turbulent states of Greece could unite ; and in conwere full of wrath, and cried out, saying, Great is Diana of the sequence of this union, they constructed edifices of great magEphesians ;” and having assaulted Paul, and created a violent nitude and splendour. Many of this description were built uproar, the mob continued to utter the same cry, without and maintained at the expense of confederate states, and even intermission, for the “space of two hours," in the chief city of all Greece — such were the temples at Delphi, Delos, of Asia. (Acts xix. 23—28.)

Ephesus, Olympia, Eryx, etc.--and these temples had terri. The temple of Diana, at Magnesia, was built under the torial revenues, besides being enriched by private donations. direction of Hermogenes. He made its general dimensions The Greeks appear to have made the greatest progress in the the same as for a double range of columns; but, in order to arts, and to have constructed the most admirable of their afford more space to the porticoes, he omitted the inner range. cdifices, during the period from the age of Solon and Pytha. Thus a clear space was left between the onter range and the goras to the era of Alexander the Great. Their architecture body of the building; and thus he established the style called prevailed in the countries where they extended their influence the pseudo-dipterick. Vitruvius speaks with great veneration along the coast of Asia. Alexander and his successors introof this architect. The temple of Minerva Ulea, at Tegea, de. duced it into Egypt, and probably in the cities he built on his signed and erected under the direction of Scopas, was of route to India. To the westward it extended to Sicily, Italy, singular construction. The peristyle of the temple was of the and the south of France. After the brilliant period to which Ionic order; the interior was divided into three aisles by two we have alluded, the manners of the Greeks became Asiatic ; rows of Doric columns, and over these were placed others of their sublime spirit of independence was subdued ; and the Corinthian order. The sculpture upon the two pediments although they continued for ages to be the instructors of their was executed by the artist himself.

Roman conquerors, their glory in the arts declined, and with The simplicity and severity of the Doric order having now it the purity and elegance of the Greek architecture. been abandoned, the artists of Greece Proper, not to be behind the inventors of the Ionic order, by an effort of genius, gave birth to a third order, which surpassed the Ionic in delicacy of

LESSONS IN GREEK.-VII. proportion and richness of decoration. This order was named the Corinthian. The merit of its invention is generally ascribed INSTEAD of os and ov, some nouns and adjectives have the terto Callimachus, a celebrated sculptor of Athens, who is supposed minations ws (m. and f.) and wv (n.); the w is retained through to have reached the zenith of his fame about 540 B.C. He all the cases; the vocative is the same as the nominative. is said to have taken the idea of this order from observing the Though this form occurs in Ionic writers, as Herodotus, yet it leaves of the acanthus growing round a basket which had been bears the name of placed, with some favourite trinkets, upon the grave of a young Corinthian lady; the stalks which rose among the leaves

Singular. having been formed into slender volutes by a square tile which

The people. The rope. The chamber.

Merciju. covered the basket. In the Corinthian order the column is Nom. ο λεως. και καλως. το ανωγεων.

ο, η ίλεως, το ίλεων. more elegant, and the capital longer and more ornamented than Gen.


λεω. in the Ionic, spreading in the form of a basket, and com- Dat.

λεω. καλώ. ανωγεώ.

idea. mingling the richest and lightest vegetation with the decora- Acc. λεων. καλων. ανωγεων.

λεων. tions of preceding orders. The top of the capital, instead of Voc. λεως.

avwyewy. inews. λεων. being square, assumes the curvilinear form, having angular

Plural. projections supported by elegant volutes. The mouldings possess more beautiful ornaments than those of the Ionic or the


λεω. kalu. avwyew. οί, αι ίλεω. τα λεω. Doric. The frieze is usually ornamented with scrolls of foliage;

Gen. λεων. καλών.



Dat. in the cornice, the corona is supported by modillions, which

λεως. καλώς. avwyegos.

ineqs. represent the extremities of the beams of the roof, and are

Acc. λεως. καλως. avwyew. λεως. λεω. usually carved into a scroll (see Fig. III, a.). These elegant im

Voc. λεφ. καλω. avwyew. ineus.

λεω. provements introduced into their orders rendered the Greeks

Dual. the real masters of architecture; because, previous to their N.A.V. λεω. καλω.


λεω. invention, the Egyptians and the Asiatic nations in general | G.D. λεων. καλών. ανωγεων.

ιλεών. followed no precise rule in their constructions; but as soon as the orders were founded on rational proportions, of an exact

Some words of both the masculine and feminine gender often and invariable nature, they were imitated in the edifices of drop the v of the accusative case, as d Aayws, the hare ; qov every other nation.

Xayw ; Aows, Mount Athos, tov Aow; éws, the dawn, always

has While awarding every credit to the ingenuity of the Greeks, την

fw. however, it must not be forgotten that in the columns of

VOCABULARY. several temples in Upper Egypt, whose shafts represent bundles Aymows-w,free from | Eveopevw, I lie in | Miwws, -, d, Minos of reeds or lotuses bound together in several places by fillets, old age, deathless wait, capture. the capitals are formed by several rows of delicate leaves. In

(a, not; ympws, Emaivos,-ov, d, praise. News, -6, 8, a temple. the ruins of Ellora, in India, the capitals of the columns are

old age).

Evxouai, I pray (with NAELOTOS, -, -OV, also composed of similar ornaments ; and the Persians, at Aeros, -ov, d, dat.).

most, very many their great festivals, were accustomed to introduce ornaments eagle.

"Ηρα, ας, ή, Hera Πτερον, -ου, το, και of flowers at the tops of the pillars in their public apartments. Aixualwtos, .ov, d, (called by the feather, wing. From tradition, report, or personal observation, Callimachus a prisoner.

Latins, Juno). 'Padros, -a, -07, easy. might be made acquainted with those examples, and might be Avôpelos, -ov, Onpevw, I hunt,catch. Lauros, -ov, d, a Seled to the composition of the Corinthian capital, the chief manly, brave.

Θηρευτης, -ου, ο, 8 mian. ornament of the Greek school. The Corinthian order, although Avoponews,

huntsman. distinguished for its richness and even luxuriousness of deco- Androgeus (a pro- KTIÇw, I found, build. worship ration in all its details, is essentially the most simple in its

per name).

Maußavw, I take. general character, and easiest in execution. The finest Anayw, I lead away. Mevenews, -w, d, Me

cock. examples of this order were to be seen at Athens, in the monu- Barvw, I walk, go. nelaus (a proper 'Tios, -ov, d, a 802. ment of Lysicrates, the Tower of the Winds, the Stoa or

name). public piazzas, and the Arch of Adrian, at Athens; the Pantheon of Agrippa, and the three columns of the Campo Vaccino,


1. Τοις νεφ κτιζονται. partiallye employed in Greece before the time of the Roman Baiveir. 3. D. KOMEY TOUS Layws. - - 4. Au poyeus no 8 Mayer vos. conguest ; but the Romans themselves employed it to a great 5. of Maya empevorta imo twy ompeurwr. 6. Evxou te id ex


(a proper name).


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LeBonai, I venerate,

Taws, w, d, a pes

'Notep, even as.

2. Ου ραδιον εστιν επι καλων

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7. Οι αετοι τους λαγως ενεδρευουσιν. 8. Σεβεσθε τους ίλεως | But when a word ends in τ, the τ is either discarded or changed
θεους. 9. Οι ανδρειοι αγορων επαινον λαμβανουσιν. 10. Ευχου | into s; as :-
τον Θεον ίλεων εχειν.
11. Οι θεοι τοις αγαθοις ίλεως εισιν. 12.


Αι ήδοναι απαγoυσι τον πλειστον λεων ώσπερ αιχμαλωτον. 13.


πεπερι, pepper ; Οι Σαμιοι Ήρα καλους ταως τρεφουσιν. 14. Τα τα καλα πτερα

σωμα, body;

τερας, a prodigy;


The accusative has v in masculines and feminines ending in 1. You build temples to the gods. 2. Temples are built to

is, us, aus, and ous, the stems of which severally terminate in , the gods. 3. I build a temple to God. 4. They walk on ropes. v, av, and ov, as :5. We hunt hares. 6. Hares are hunted. 7. The Samians


Acc. worship beautiful peacocks. 8. They worship the merciful God.

πολι, 9. God is merciful (gracious) to good men. 10. Huntsmen


πολις, a city; hunt hares. 11. Menelaus obtains deathless praise.

βοτρυ, βοτρυς, a bunch of grapes; βοτρυν. ναυ,

ναυς, η ship;

βους, an ox;

βουν. Ανοητος, -ον, sense-| Γαμετη, ης, ή, & Θηριον, -ου, το,

If the stem ends in a consonant, a instead of v is found in the less. lawful wife.

wild beast.

occusative, as φλεβ, φλεψ, φλεβα, a vein ; κορακ, κοραξ, κορακ-α, Απαγορευω, I name. Δειλος, -η, -ον, timid, Ιερος, -α, -ον, (gen.),

& raven; λαμπαδ, λαμπας, λαμπαδ-α, a torch. Αρεσκω, I please. cowardly.

sacred, holy.

The vocative is the samo as the nominative or as the stem. Βαβυλωνια, ας, ή, Εκφερω, I bring out, Πλοος (πλούς), -ου, δ, The genders of the third declension are best learnt by practice. Babylon. produce. a voyage.

The third declension may be distinguished from the first and Βασιλειος, -a,

-ον, Ελενη, -ης, ή, Helen. Ποιητης,-ου, o, apoet. | the second by the fact that it adds a syllable to the nominative, kingly, royal; τα Επι (dat.), on ac- Ροδοδακτυλος, -ov, while in them all the cases have the same number of syllables. βασιλεια, the count of.


Nouns which have the same number of syllables in all the cases kingly buildings, Επικινδυνος, -ον, dan. Στηλη, -ης, ή, και

are termed parisyllabic (in Latin par, equal), and nouns which e., the palace. gerous.


lengthen the genitive and the cases derived from it, are termed EXERCISE 17.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

imparisyllabic (Latin im (in), not). Hence the first and second 1. Οι ταφ 'Ηρας Ιεροι ησαν. 2. Θαυμαζομεν Μενελεων επι τη

declensions are called parisyllabic, and the third is called impari.


4. αρετή. 3. Οι ποιηται την Έω ροδοδακτυλον απαγορευουσιν.

In order to facilitate the acquisition of a knowledge of the γαμετη

nonns of the third declension, and to afford you thorough prac6. Η Βαβυλωνια εκφερει πολλους ταως. 7. Εν τοις των θεων νεώς πολλαι στηλαι εισιν.

tice in them, I shall divide those nouns into several classes : 8. Οι λαγω δειλα θηρια εισιν.

9. 'ο περι τον Αθω πλόυς ην κινδυνος. 10. Τα βασιλεια καλα ανωγεω 1. NOUNS WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A CONSONANT ; έχει.

and of these I give in the first placeEXERCISE 18.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

a. Nouns of which the Nominative gives the pure Stem. 1. Menelaus is admired on account of his bravery. 2. We The case-endings are appended to the nominative. admire the rosy-fingered dawn. 3. Many peacocks are produced

Singular. in Babylon. 4. In the temple of Hera is a beautiful peacock,

The Song of 5. Huntsmen catch peacocks. 6. Peacocks are caught by

Meadow, Xenophon.


Victory. huntsmen. 7. Good citizens avoid the senseless people.

ο παιαν.

και λειμων. ο Ξενοφων. το νεκταρ. THE THIRD DECLENSION.

Gen. παιάν-0s. λειμων-ος. Ξενοφωντ-ος. νεκταρ-05. The forms of the third declension in Greek are various, and Dat.

παιαν-ι. λειμων-1. Ξενοφωντ-1. νεκταρ-ι.

παιάν-α. can be learnt only by attentive practice. Some aid may, how. Acc.

λειμων-α. Ξενοφωντ-α. νεκταρ.

Voc. παιαν. ever, be given by means of classification.

λειμων. Ξενοφων.

νεκταρ. The variations occur mostly in the singular number, and in

Plural. the nominative and genitive cases.

The forms of the nominative Nom. παιάν-Ες. λειμων-€5. Ξενοφωντ-ες. νεκταρ-α. singular, which are numerous, will appear as we proceed, and Gen, παιάν-ων. λειμων-ων. Ξενοφωντ-ων. νεκταρ-ων. may therefore be omitted from this table of


παιά-σι. λειμω-σι. Ξενοφω-σι. νεκταρ-σι. THE CASE-ENDINGS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

Acc. παιάν-ας. λειμων-ας. Ξενοφωντ-ας. νεκταρ-α.

Voo. παιαν-€ς. λειμων-€5. Ξενοφωντ-€ς. νεκταρ-α.



Ν. Α.Υ. παιάν-€. λειμων. Ξενοφωντ-€. νεκταρ-.

σι (ν)


G.D. παιαν-οιν. λειμων-οιν. Ξενοφωντ-οιν. νεκταρ-οιν. Acc.

The datives plural in full would be παιανσι, λειμωνστ, ΞενοVoc.

φωντσι, but the νis dropped before σι for the sake of euphony. Neuter nouns have the nominative, the accusative, and the Απολλων, Apollo; Ποσειδων, Poseidon (in Latin, Neptunus), vocative alike. The student who is acquainted with Latin will are declined thus :-Απολλων, Απολλων-ος, Απολλων-ι, Απολ. readily see how much this Greek third declension corresponds |λων-α, also Απολλω-α and Απολλω, thus making the accusative with the Latin third declension.

singular in Απολλω; 80 Ποσειδω. The terminations given above are affixed to the stem. The Απολλων, Ποσειδων, and σωτηρ, 8 deliverer, Saviour, have the stem is, in some words, the same as the nominative; thus, | short vowel in the vocative, as ω Απολλον, ω Ποσειδων, ω σωτερ. λειμων, λειμων-ος, & meadow, where the ending os is simply The neuters of this subdivision end in ρ (αρ, ορ, ωρ, υρ) και το added to λειμων. Ιn masculine and feminine nouns, however, | πύρ, fire, has του πύρος. the stem often appears in the nominative in an altered form.

VoCABULARY. When the stem is so altered, you must find it before you affix Airw, I sing.

Γιγνωσκω, I know.

Θαλλω, Ιbloom, fouthe case-endings to it. In order to find the stem, remove the | Αναγιγνωσκω, Iknow Ελλην, o, a Greclr.

rish. genitive termination from the noun ; what remains is the stem;

again, recognise, | Ηδεως, pleasantly, Θηρ, -ος, o, a wild e.g.. κορακος (of a crow), the os is the sign of the genitive, which


with pleasure. beast being removed, leaves κορακ as the stem ; and κορακ is, for the | Βιβλιον, -ου, το, α) Θαλια, ας, ή, a rich | Κιθαρα, sake of euphony, lengthened in the nominative into kopars, that book (Eng., Bible). feast.

harp. is, kopas; for the laws of sound in Greek endure at the end of a word only these consonants, namely, v, P, o (€, ); the other

* This arrangement is taken from the “Elementargrammatik der consonants are either changed or thrown away. Hence the r in Griechischen Sprache,” von Dr. Raphael Kahner, 13th edit., Hannover, the stem of Xenophon is dropped, as Ξενοφωντ-ος, Ξενοφωντ, | 1852; to which most popular work, as well as to Dr. Kuhner's Latin Zevwqwr. Neuter nouns present the stem in the nominative. Manuals, the writer is much indebted.


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Κρατηρ, -ος, ο, ο Σπουδαιος, -α, -ον, Χειρ, -os, Ý, the diagrams, of which Fig. 11 shows the world in eastern and goblet, bowl.

earnest, or excel- hand; dat. Xepoi, western hemispheres on the meridians of 160° W. long. and 20° NSW, I wash.


dat. dual, xepowv.

E. long. ; while Fig. 12 shows the world on the plane of the MAELOTO, -wv, ó, very Teptw, I delight, tep- Xopos, -ov, d, a cho equator in northern and southern hemispheres; and Fig. 13 the many. Tomat (with dat.), ral dance.

world on the.plane of the horizon of London in hemispheresΠυρ, -ος, τo, fire. I am delighted. Yny, -os, &, a wasp. the one containing the greatest quantity of land, and the other

the greatest quantity of water that can be obtained in single EXERCISE 19.-GREEK-ENGLISH,

hemispheres by any similar bisection of the globe in any plane of 1. Φευγε τους θηρας. 2. Χειρ χειρα νιζει. 3. Απεχου του

a great circle. The land in the northern hemisphere is con ψηνος. 4. Οι λειμωνες θαλλουσιν. 5. Oi otpatiwta. qdovol sidered to occupy rather more than two-fifths of the whole hemi. παιάνα. 6. Εν πυρι χρυσον και αργυρον γιγνωσκομεν. 7. noilor sphere, and the land in the southern hemisphere about one-eighth παρα κράτηρι γιγνονται φιλοι πλειστοι δε εχθροι. 8. Oi avbpw noi of the whole hemisphere. The land preponderates in the northτερπονται κιθαρα και θαλια και, χοροις και παιάσιν. 9. Oi 'Exindes eastern quarter of the globe, and the water in the south-western τον Απολλω και τον Ποσειδω σεβονται. 10. Οι σπουδαιοι μαθηται quarter. Scarcely any land has yet been discovered in the South τα Ξενοφωντος βιβλια ηδεως αναγιγνωσκουσιν.

frigid zone, and the limits of the land in the north frigid zone EXERCIEE 20.- ENGLISH-GREEK.

have not hitherto been correctly ascertained. By far the greater 1. Avoid wild beasts. 2. They avoid a wild beast. 3. Wash portion of the land lies within the north temperate zone; the the (thy) hands. 4. Keep ye from wasps. 5. A soldier is de greater part of the remainder lies within the torrid zone ; stil lighted with the cry of victory. 6. The cry of victory delights less within the south temperate zone; and the least within the soldiers. 7. O earnest scholars, read the books of Xenophon.

north frigid zone. The greater part of the sea lies within the 8. The books of Xenophon are read by (oro, gen.) earnest torrid zone; the greater part of the remainder within the south scholars. 9. We delight in beautiful meadows (dat.). 10. The temperate zone; still less within the north temperate zono; and mcadows bloom. 11. Poots worship Apollo. 12. The poet

the least within the north frigid zone. worships Poseidon,

On looking at a globe or map of the world, the student will perceive that all the great and continuous tracts of land, com

monly called continents (from the Latin continens, holding KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK,-VI. together), become pointed as they stretch towards the south, by EXERCISE 11.–GREEK-ENGLISH.

which they are made to assume a pyramidal or triangular form 1. Pursue honourable deeds, O beloved youth. 2. Obey the words

at the extremity. The continents of North and South America of thy teacher. 3. Thou learnest excellent things from the excellent.

and of Africa are the most remarkable illustrations of this fact. 4. A faithful friend partakes of (your) good and (your) bad things In consequence of this tendency to taper towards the south, 60 (fortunes). 5. The gods (0601) care for men. 6. Men worshiy narrow is the connecting link or neck of land (commonly called (θεραπευουσιν) the gods. 7. Danger attends many works. 8. Good an isthmus, from the Greek 100uos, isth'-mos, a neck, or nartuti things are mixed with bad. 9. The bad man is hostile to (at enmity passage) between North America and South America, that little with) gods and men. 10. Men rejoice in good (men or things). 11.

more than forty miles of land separate Panama from Porto O God, grant good fortune (happiness) to our friends. 12. O slave,

Bello, on opposite sides of the Isthmus of Darien. The sonthern bear the wine to the young man. 13. Wine (ó ouvor) does not dissi. pate, but begets cares. 14. Glory follows a difficult achievement.

points of the other two continents are well known ; Cape Horn

must be considered as that of South America, notwithstanding EXERCISE 12.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

the Strait of Magellan; and the Cape of Good Hope that of 1. Οι αγαθοι το θεο πειθονται. 2. Ου πειθονται τω θεώ οι κακοι. 3. | Africa. Here it may be useful to remark that when a tapering Πειθισθε, ω καλοι νεανιαι, τη διδασκαλω. 4. Οι κακοι τους αγαθοις εχθροι | point of Iand projects into the sea, it is called a cape, from the

5. Των κακων απεχου. 6. Οι εσθλοι των παιδων επιμελoνται (φρον- Latin caput, a head, a igurative but very natural expression τιζουσι). 7. Μη το ψευστου λογω πιστευε, ω φιλε παι. 8. No dous dogous for the extremity of the land, which may be considered as the επεται κινδυνος. 9. Οι εσθλοι νεανιαι τους διδασκαλους θεραπευουσιν.

top or vertex of the triangular shape which it assumes when EXERCISE 13.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

jutting out from the continent to which it belongs. When the 1. Virtue, not time, is the measure of life. 2. Death liberates men

land thus projecting into the sea is elevated considerably above from labours and evils. 3. Wine rejoices the minds of men. 4. With

the sea-level, it is called a promontory, from the Latin pro, sa ten thousand tria's honourable things arise (are produced). 5. The front of ; and mons, a mountain—that is, mountain-land in front divinity conduots tho bad to judgment. 6. A faithful friend in a diffi. of the continent. The English term headland is often used for cult division (strife) is worth silver and gold. 7. There are many capes and promontories on a small scale, connected with the diseases among mon. 8. Counsel leads to good. 9. Silence brings land; so is also the term naze or ness, from the Saxon næse, of honour to a youth. 10. The door is shut by bars. 11. Art nourishes German nase, a nose, or projection from the face. With regard

12. O beloved disciples (scholars), strive after wisdom and to the term strait, which is applied to a narrow passage of the sea virtue. EXERCISE 14.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

between two continents, or between a continent and an island, or

between two islands, it is evidently derived from streht, the past 1. Ty Oavara ato Avoitai Twv kanw oi avpw7o6. 2. TW Beqo nodde novo participle of the Saxon verb streccan, to stretch, and bears the έπονται. 3. “Η του θεου σοφια προς ευδαιμονίαν τους εσθλους αγει. 4. Τοις same relation to the water that the term isthmus does to the του κρι του λογοις επου. 5. Οι του νεου λογοι εισι κακοι. 6. Η λυρα τας του land. θυμον μεριμνας λεει. 7. Νεν προσήκει η ησυχια. 8. Τους αγαθους τρεφει η In reference to the continents of Europe and Asia, there is 9. 'Ο μοχλος κλείει την θυραν.

also the general tendency to taper towards the south; in the

former continent, however, this tendency is greatly obstructed LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XX.

by the vicinity of the African continent, so that the Iberian

Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) does not so manifestly assume NATURAL DIVISIONS OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE. the triangular form. Still this tendency is partially developed The whole surface of the globe contains, as we have soen in the in various parts of the south of this continent; as in the corlast lesson (page 166), about 197,000,000 square miles. The formation of Italy and Greece, which taper, but very irregularly

, land is considered to contain about 52,000,000 square miles ; and towards the south, evidently in consequence of the feebler action consequently, the water or sea to contain about 145,000,000 of of the Mediterranean Sea, as compared with the full play of the square miles. This makes the proportion of the water to the land great Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In the latter continent, the nearly as 13 to 36, or, speaking in general terms, approximately tendency to taper toward the south has been divided in such a as 3 to 1. The proportion of the land to the whole surface of the as to present the three peninsulas of Arabia, India, and earth is about 4 to 15, or rather more than that of 1 to 4. Malacca, of which the two former are pretty regular in form; Thero is much more land in the northern hemisphere than in the but the latter, in combination with what is called the Eastera southern; and considerably more in the eastern hemisphere than Peninsula, is very irregular in this respect. in the western ; this may be seen at once by looking at a map of The term island is well known to signify a portion of land, the world; but it is more clearly seen by looking at a terrestrial whether large or small, which is completely surrounded by water. globe. An accurate idea of the relative proportions of land and This word is derived from the Danish öie, an eye, and is literally water on tho earth's surface may be gained from the annexed eye-land, or land so called because it is surrounded by water, så




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