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the eye in the face is encircled with the eyelids and the sur-| the north-east, and Polynesia in the south-west. Without rounding skin.

regarding artificial divisions, the land on the surface of the The term peninsula, from the Latin pone, almost, and insula, globe is naturally divided into three great sections, namely, originally signified land nearly surrounded by water ; that is, 1st. The Old World, in the eastern hemisphere, comprehending according to the etymology, almost an island : but it is now the vast, united, triple continent of Europe, Asia, and Africa, more frequently applied

which extends from Cape to the triangular-shaped


Severo, or North - east portions of land which

Cape, the most northerly taper in any direction,

point of Siberia, in the and jut out from the great

Arctic Ocean, to the Cape continents, as in the three

of Good Hope in the cases above mentioned in

South Atlantic Ocean, a Asia. The great Euro

distance of 8,400 miles ; pean peninsulas have also

and from Cape Verd, the been mentioned; namely,

most westerly headland Greece, Italy, and Spain

of Africa, in the North and Portugal combined ;

Atlantic Ocean, across to these may be added

the Isthmus of Suez to Pacitoc the large peninsula of

the east coast of China Occa Sweden and Norway, and

on the Pacific Ocean, a the smaller peninsula of

distance of about 9,000 Jutland or Denmark, the

miles. 2nd. The New latter of which is an ex

Fig. 11.

World, in the western ception to the general

hemisphere, comprehend. rule, as it points northward. The continents of South America | ing the great, united, double continent of North and South and Africa are justly entitled to the name of peninsulas; the America, with the neighbouring islands, extending from still former being attached to North America by the Isthmus of undefined limits in the Arctic Ocean to Cape Horn, a distance Panama or Darien, and the latter to Asia by the Isthmus of of about 9,000 miles; and from the western shores of the Suez. From the consideration of the series of islands which lies Atlantic Ocean to the eastern shores of the Pacific Ocean, between the peninsula of

a distance varying in Malacca and the small

breadth from 40 to 3,500 continent of Australia,

miles. 3rd. Oceania, there is reason to believe

comprehending the conthat the latter was in

tinent of Australia and former ages connected

the groups of islands in with Asia, as South

the East Indian ArchiAmerica now is with

pelago or Malaysia, Aus. North America; Austra

tralasia, Micronesia, and lia, and the island of

le Polynesia, the principal Tasmania, to the south

of which are the Sunda of it (and no doubt ori.

Isles, the Philippines, ginally forming a part of

Borneo, Papua or New it), then most probably

Guinea, Tasmania, New constituting the apex of

Zealand, and the various the great triangular.

clusters of isles scattered shaped peninsula (taper

far and wide over the ing to the south, accord

Fig. 12,

Pacific. ing to the general law)

The Old World, 80 in which this vast southern continent once terminated. It is called because its history is known for a period of nearly further worthy of remark, in speaking of the great continents 6,000 years, is composed of the three great sections denominated which become pointed as they approach the south, that their continents, namely, Europe in the north-west, Asia in the projections most generally terminate abruptly in lofty mountain north-east, and Africa in the south-west, taking Jerusalem as chains, which there dip beneath the waters of the ocean. the central point. Europe is separated from Asia by a boun. In regard to the divi.

dary composed of sions of the land on the

mountain chain called surface of the globe, we

16 Satische THE HORIZON
Pacific Ocean

the Qural or Ural Moun. find that by the older geo

tains; the river Oural or graphical writers it was Rattpairs

Ural; the Caspian Sea; divided into four great

Mount Caucagus, a range parts, called quarters

of mountains stretching of the world; namely,

from the Caspian Sea to Europe, Asia, Africa, and Sport

the Black Sea; and a America. This division,

chain of inland seas, the however, is very incor.

Sea of Azov, the Black rect, inasmuch as it leaves

Sea, the Sea of Marmora, out the continent of Aus

and the Archipelago, the tralia, the great island

north-eastern arm of the of Borneo, etc., and vast

Mediterranean. These groups of smaller islands South

four bodies of water are scattered through the

connected by the Strait

Fig. 13. ocean, and valuable for

of Kertch or Yenikale, their population and pro

the Bosphorus, and the dace. A more common and more accurate division is that of | Dardanelles. Asia is separated from Africa by the Arabian Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Oceania, Gulf and the Isthmus of Suez. Europe is separated from Africa six great portions, of which the first five are continental, by the Mediterranean Sea. and the sixth continental and insular. Oceania is further sub- The New World, so called because its history is known only divided by geographers into four parts, namely, Malaysia in for a period of rather more than 350 years, is composed of two the north-west, Australasia in the south-west. Micronesia in great sections denominated continents, namely, North America



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and South America, which are connected with each other by the For instance, suppose it to be required to find the value of Isthmus of Darien or Panama (pronounced pan-n-mar'). Between 375 cwt. 3 qrs. 21 lbs. at £4 14s. 6d. per cwt. these continents, on the eastern side, north of the equator and First find the value of 375 cwt. at £4 14s. 6d. per cwt. by within the torrid zone, are situated the West Indies, a range of the previous method. This will be done as follows:-islands stretching in a curved line from the Gulf of Florida to the mouth of the Orinoco. South of Asia, and east of the 375 cwt, would cost at £1 per cwt.

375 00 Arabian Sea, consisting partly of the continent and partly of the islands south of it, are situated the East Indies, lying almost

1500 00 10s. which is of £1

187 100 wholly within the torrid zone, and comprehending the penin

of £1

75 00 sulas of India and Further India, Hindostan within and India

of 45.

76 beyond the Ganges, with the island of Ceylon and the group of islands denominated the East Indian Archipelago, the Asiatic

£1771 17 6 Archipelago, or Malaysia. Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes, Again, by the previous workingthe principal of these islands, are situated directly under

1 cwt. would cost

£4 14 6 the equator. The relative position of the greater part of the places men. 375 cwt. would cost

1771 17 6 tioned in this lesson may be ascertained from an inspection of

1 of 1 cwt., or

2 73 the figures in the preceding page, or the Map of the World in

of 2 qrs., or

1 3 71 page 144. Our readers will find it useful, when studying our

14 lbs.
1 of 1 qr.,

0 11 97 Lessons in Geography, to make a map of the world on a large

7 lbs.
of 14 lbs., or

0 5 10 scale according to the directions given in the last lesson, and to mark in the position and name of each place, as soon as it

Therefore 375 cwt. 3 qrs. 21 lbs. would cost . £1776 6 1 occurs for the first time.

The fraction being of a farthing. If, however, the fractional part of the farthing were put in terms of a fraction of a penny,

the result would be written £1776 6s. 1 d. LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XXIX.

11. Sometimes, by inspection, we can see that one or both PRACTICE.

of the compound quantities which are expressed in different

denominations can be simply expressed as a fraction of one of 8. Definition. - Any fraction of a quantity the numerator of the denominations. This will much simplify the operation. which is unity, is called an aliquot part of that quantity.

EXAMPLE.—Find the value of 24 cwt. 1 qr. 9 lbs. 5oz, st Thus 4s. and 6s. 8d. are each aliquot parts of a pound, being £2 59. 6d. per cwt. rospectively į and 1 of it.

Here it is readily seen that 1 qr. 9 lbs. 5} oz. is of a cwt. In finding the value of any given compound quantity from Hence the question is reduced to finding the value of 241 cet the given value of any other given quantity of the same kind,

d. a convenient form of multiplication, called Practice, is often

24 cwt. would cost at £1 per cwt. 24 0 0 employed. It depends, as will be seen, upon the principles of fractions and the judicious choice of aliquot parts.


48 9. EXAMPLE 1.-Find the value of 3589 cwts. at £1 11s. 6 d.

58. which is of £1

15 of 5s.

19 0 This might be effected in various ways. We might, for instance, reduce the money to farthings, multiply by 3589, and

At £2 5s. 6d.

54 12 then reduce the result to pounds, shillings, and pence; or we

i cwt. would cost

0 15 might reduce the money to the fraction of a pound, and then,

£55 2 dos multiplying by 3589, reduce the resulting fraction to pounds, shillings, and pence. But we may also evidently obtain a correct 12. If both commodity and price are easily expressible by result if we divide the whole sum into portions, multiply each fractions, it will generally be found most convenient to treat of these portions separately by 3589, and then add the results the question as in the following together. This we are able to do, simply by the aid of aliquot

EXAMPLE.Find the value of 15 cmt. 2 qrs. 7 lbs. at £1 63. 8d. parts, as follows :3589 cwts, at £1 per cwt. will cost

15 owt. 2 qrs. 7 lbs. = 15 +} + in= 151. owt.

£3589 0 0 Since 108. is £}, 3589 cwts. at 108. each will cost of

£1 6s, 8d. = £13. £3589, or

Hence the required valne will be 15,3 * 11 pounds,

1794 10 0 Since 1s. is 'o of 108., 3589 cwts, at 1s, each will

자 cost is of the same number at 10s. each, or to of


* = £20: = £20 15s. £1794 103., which is

179 0 Since 6d. is of 18., 3589 cwts, at 6d. each will costs of

13. In employing the method of practice, a good deal must be the same number at 1s. each, or of £179 9s., or 89 14 6

left to the student's judgment as to dividing the compour Since d; is y's of 6d., 3589 cwts, at d. each will cost

quantity into soparate portions, so that the aliquot parts stad of the same number at 6d. each, or is of

be the most convenient. €89 14s. 60., which is

7 9 63 Since 1. is of 14., 3589 cwts. at: d. each will cost i

Tables of aliquot parts of £1, of a hundredweight, an att

etc., are drawn up for the convenience of persons much engaged of the same number at d. each, or ; of £7 98. 6 d.,

in calculations; but the learner had better trust to his menet which is

3 14 91 and knowledge of fractions in solving any question of the kupi Hence 3589 at £1 + 3589 at 10s. + 3589 at 1s. + 3589

with which he may be concerned. at 6d. + 3589 at d. + 3589 at td. will cost . £5663 17 93

EXERCISE 48.--EXAMPLES IN PRACTICE. The above is the explanation of the process, which may be Find the cost of arranged as follows:


€ d.
1. 1625 yards at

8! 3589 cwts. would cost at £1 per cwt. 3589

2. 1429 yards at

2 9 10s. which is of £1

1794 10

3. 749 yards at 1s. of 10s. 179 0 4. 1689 yards at

4 10. per yari 6d. of lg. S9 14 5. 2476 yards at

0 18
i's of 6d.

7 9 6
6. 313 cwt. at

of ;.

3 14
7. 9999 tong at

7 17 6
8. 5926 articles at

0 11 8
£5663 17 93
9. 1000 articles at


euch. 10. 2010 articles at

6 8 10% 10. If the quantity whose value is to be found, and also the

11. 89 articles at

5 price given, be each oxpressed in various denominations, then a

12. 535 articles at

10 somewhat different method must be adopted.

13. 112 cwt. 1 qr. 17 lbs. at 8 11 +

0 2

per cwt.

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2 11
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14. 271 cwt, 1 qr, 14 Iba, at


truest sonse, we often see moral courage connected with material 13. 98 cwt. 3 qrs. 16 ils, at


enrichment and outward honour. 16. 219 cwt, 3 qrs. 11 lbs, at


Moreover, let it be remembered that it requires far moro 17. 732 lbs. 5 oz. 13 dwts. at


moral courage rightly to use the gifts bestowed upon us, than 18. 814 lbs. 9 oz. 16 dwts. at

to ignore them altogether. It is easier to deny ourselves all 19. 912 yds. 2 qrs, 3 na, at

8 20. 136 yds, 3 qrs. 1 na. at

per yard.

indulgences, and by stoical process of endurance to learn to do 21. 897 a. 3 r. 32

per acre.

without them, than to regulato our life aright whilst we move 22. 87 qrs. 4 bush. 2 pks. at

per quarter.

amid its blessings, and moderately enjoy its outward good. 23. 996 grs. 7 bush. 1 pk. at

per quarter.

Moral courage is, for the most part, no sudden attainment.

To some natures it is doubtless far easier of practice than KEY TO EXERCISE 47, LESSON XXVIII. (Vol. II., page 142).

others. Where, for instance, there are strong passions and a

weak will, it is manifest that the power of strong desire being 1. 168.; 178.

7. 2 m. 2 fur, 211 yds. 19. y'a. 70. 2 ft. 63 in. ; 3 d. 20. }.

co-existent with weak power of resistance, the battle of right 2. 58. 100.; 5}d.;

21. muotoo

and duty will be very severe and trying indeed. But in all 36. 6. 8. £4 16s.; 28. 0fd. 22. ::.

cases an energetic sense of moral courage is the reward of per3.6 oz. 13$ drms. ; if.

severing endeavour. Just as in the military campaign, courago 12 dwts. 12 grains; 9. Is. 6d.

grows by frequent encounters with the foe, and the standing

firm amid the belching fires of iron hail. Thus the veteran 4, 12 cwt. 56 lbs.; 2 11. £2.

is steady, where the young recruit is almost unnerved. The ft. 4 in.; 2 yds. 12. kl.

continuous conflict with those temptations which beset the 13. 12s. 9d. 28. 2688 minutes.

higher nature, not only brings experience, but nerves the heart 5. 4 fur. 97 yds. 2 ft. 14. 159, 10d.

29. 1o.

and renders victory easier in times to come. Moral courage may, 4in.; 2 qts. lj pts.; l 15. lls. 033d.

30. 18. 13 gals. 16. ; *; 23.. 31. £9 12s.

indeed, become the habit of our life, and like all habits, good or 6. 46 m. 40 sec.; 22; 17. 3:9; abo; 338. 32. 335160 square feet. bad, become a second nature. There can be but little doubt sec.; 17' 81". 18. Tit. 33, 61 yds. 2 ft. 4 in. that there is a secret respect for moral courage in the heart of

men, even where they differ with regard to the necessity for the

course pursued by those who are perhaps defying public opinion ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-VIII.

and incurring odium and danger. The majority may not believe

the course pursued to be either wise or necessary, but they admire COURAGE.

the virtue which the circumstances develop, and they honour EVERY noble and beautiful life will be found to have in it the the man even when they disagree with his actions or opinions. power of a brave courage. So seductive are the temptations to On the other hand, a want of moral courage in the pursuit of an inglorious ease on the one hand, and so bitter the jealousies the most commonly confessed good exposes the discovered coward of a begrudging envy on the other, that every path of earnest to contumely and disrespect. life-pursuit of duty will be found a difficult one. In such a course Moral courage should, therefore, be practised with steadfast. fear will faint and lose, courage will fight on and win-will battle ness, and any discovery of our own weakness should be punished heroically against the native love of ease in the heart, and over- as men punish refractory horses, by making them pass again the come the envies and jealousies of its fellows in the world. He objects which at first they shied. The feeling that we had not who is craven enough to fear criticism, or to dread detraction, moral courage enough to deny our own dominant desires, or to face need not expect to reach the goal of his ambition, for there is our opponents' ridicule, will, even when not made public, rankle nothing worth having which a faint heart ever won, or ever will in our own hearts, and we shall even, when we do not lose the win.

respect of others, cease to respect ourselves. Cowardice is Courage is essential to all the noble and virtuous ambitions always contemptible, never, however, so much as when it is not of life, because in the pursuit of these mankind often have to the result of a sudden temptation, when indeed we have become deny themselves temporary pleasures and material profits. habitués in non-resistance to what seems expedient and pleasant. Nothing tests character, or tries endurance, more than a per- Want of moral courage lies at the base of sensuality, self-indul. sistent course of conduct which pays allegiance to truth and gence, and many other forms of degradation. Had these inhonour, at the expense, perchance, of pleasure and repose. cipient desires been crushed by a brave hand, had the fibres

In thus treating of courage, it will at once be seen that never been permitted by permissive indulgence to thicken into moral courage is our theme. This, however, in no sense the cord which holds and binds, but been snapped at once, need be glorified, as it often is in moral theses, at the ex. then the higher nature would have triumphed over the lower. pense of physical courage ; for this, too, is an enviable blessing, The heroes of moral courage are not far to find, neither are they and may be weakened or strengthened by our own neglect or few, and we should both brace the nerves of our own character, endeavour. It must not be depreciated, because courage in the and also in turn inspire imitation, as well as admiration, in moral nature is of a higher and nobler kind. Moral courage is others, if we contemplated the career and character of those connected with human life in every sphere of temptation. Some noble men and women who fill the roll of departed heroes and times the bristling guns of inimical forces, such as contempt, heroines. The world wants brave men in every department of aversion, and derision, make us afraid; but the balls, though they duty, and all success worth the endeavour to attain, and likely may hurt, cannot destroy the brave, and they will in time reach to produce permanent satisfaction when it is attained, must be their end amid the rewards of honour. But the time-serving and sought and won under the inspiration of a lofty moral courage. the timorous will turn back, and will in the end be despised by those who at first opposed and ridi zuled them. They altogether lose both the honour of the race and the reward of the prize.

LESSONS IN DRAWING.-XIX. Moral courage is not alone the prerogative and appanago of

THE HUMAN FIGURE. some leading and time-honoured men, it may be the possession We now enter upon the study of the human figure, a subject of of the humblest. A beautiful statue is just as beautiful in a quite a different character to any which have gone before---one coal-cellar as in a drawing-room; and a bravely heroic life is that requires the closest attention, and all the energies of the just as glorious in itself, whether it be in a mechanic's work- draughtsman to accomplish. No one must entertain a slight room, or in some field of wider fame. Moral courage consists idea of the necessary amount of perseverance it demands. We in serving the right, and never succumbing to mere might. It have frequently heard it remarked that “ he who can draw the consists in unfinching resistance to the temptations of the figure well

, can draw anything else besides.” This may be true popular and the profitable, the easy or the expedient, if principle to a certain extent, but it does not follow, as a necessary conseis to be sacrificed, or the shrine of truth to be desecrated. quence, that they who are capable of drawing the form of man

It will be seen at once that moral courage does not require are always equally successful with landscape. The above asserthe sacrifice of pleasant things when they can be fairly won and tion in the abstract may be considered true with this additioninnocently enjoyed. Evil does not reside in material possessions - he who can draw the figuro well may very soon be able to themselves, or in human honours, but in the sacrifice of truth, draw anything else besides,” for in connection with free-hand which sometimes accompanies the attainment of them. In the drawing--and figure drawing is purely free-hand—there is no other subject in the whole range of art that so thoroughly de- sufficient information for all they may requiru. Our object is only pends upon the judgment, the eye, and the power of the hand. to open out a path for them to pursue, to point out other sources There are very few practical rules which can afford us any help, of information, and direct them in the way of applying the knowexcept the general rules of proportion, and some knowledge of l ledge thus gained : therefore any of our pupils who do not care to anatomy, which is indispensable ; be.

enter into the subject to the extent we yond these there is very little besides

propose may stop when they think fit; the all-important principle of •arrang.

but as to those who desire to make their ing the work: therefore, before we give

knowledge really useful for all prac. the rules relating to the proportions of

tical purposes—and there are many enthe human figure, or say anything upon

gaged in the mechanical arts who will its anatomical construction, we must

find it a great acquisition to be able again repeat some of our former obser.

to draw the figure well—we will en. vations respecting the necessity of

deavour not to disappoint them. When arrangement. Our pupils will remem

we consider how much this branch of ber how earnestly in the early lessons

art is required in decorating, stonewe advised them first to decide where

masonry, modelling, wood-engraving, the lines are to be drawn, and not to

and many other occupations, including attempt the finished drawing until the

all kinds of designing, we feel it incum. positions of the lines are satisfactorily

bent on us not to allow so useful an determined: the success or failure of

addition to their education to be passed their efforts will depend upon how far

over lightly, and oblige them to lay they follow or neglect this fundamen

our lessons aside, disappointed in not tal course of proceeding. We trust

finding the instruction they require. this once more repeated appeal to their

We will first give the relative propractical sense and judgment will suf.

portions of the whole form, as reprefice, being ourselves assured that if

sented in Fig. 119. The skeleton may they are really in earnest in their de

be properly considered the framework sires and endeavours to draw the

upon which the whole body is built, human figure well, they will show their

and by which it is strengthened and appreciation of this advice by fol

supported; the proportion and height, lowing it out to the letter; for both

the efficiency and freedom of the master and pupil must now remember

whole structure, depend principally they have entered upon a noble, and at

upon the right formation of the skelethe same time a difficult subject.

ton; this hard and solid framework We have just observed that it is in.

may be considered the timbers and dispensably necessary to be acquainted

beams of the superstructure, and the with the various proportions of the

muscles which cover it are the ropes human body, and to have some know

and pulleys for moving it; thus the ledge of anatomy. To these points we

framework is for strength, the muscles wish for a few moments to direct the

for action, and these determine the attention of our pupils, and to place

visible and varying outline of the body. before them some powerful reasons

Taking the head as a standardwhy this course is so necessary. It

that is, from the crown to the chinmust be borne in mind that the human

the whole length of the figure of a mad figure in its action is almost inde

may be considered as measuring seven pendent of any fixed laws; it is seen

and a half or eight heads; of a child, in every possible position, and under

the proportion will be according to its every form of expression; it is seen at

age; one of seven or eight years old rest, and in violent action; it is seen

may be allowed five and a half heads ; in its strength and in its weakness;

and an infant, nearly four. When the it is seen in old age and childhood, in

arms and hands are fully extended delicate womanly beauty and manly

horizontally from the body, and if the vigour. Then in addition to this there

distance between the tips of the fingers is the face, the index to the mind,

from the right hand across to the left subject to every variety of change

be measured, it will be found equal in resulting from inward emotions of joy

length to the whole body, so that a or sorrow, revealing the best and the

well-proportioned man can stand in a worst feelings of the heart-passion,

square frame and be able to touch the despair, love, hatred, malice, revenge

sides of the square respectively with - and though last, not least, the

his head, his feet, and the extremities various gradations of mental power,

of his fingers. The distance from the from the highest intellectuality to im.

top of the shoulder-that is, from the becility and madness. Surely here is

head of the humerus, a (the upper bone a field for study which in its extent

of the arm)—to the elbow, b, is the and grandeur has no rival. Now we

same as from the elbow b to the first wish our pupils thoroughly to under

knuckle of the hand, c; the same disstand that we are in earnest in what

tance occurs horizontally between the we are about to lay before them, and

outer parts of the shoulders from a to they must be in earnest also in their

d; from the top of the sternum (breastapplication. We are desirous to impart

bone), e, to the navel f, the same; from something more than a superficial know

the lower part of the breast-bone, g, to ledge of the human form; we wish to go

Fig. 119.

the pubis h (the bone across the lower thoroughly, as far as we can, into the

part of the body), the same; thence to subject, but at the same time it is not our intention to write a | the top of the patella i (or small bone on the knee, generally work upon anatomy in our drawing lessons ; instead of this, we called the knee-cap), the same ; and from the

lower part of will recommend our pupils to study carefully the lessons upon this the patella k to the instep m, the same. The knowledge of and kindred subjects which are to be found elsewhere in the these uniform lengths, so repeatedly occurring, is a very pages of the POPULAR EDUCATOR. In these they will find quite material help in drawing the figure, preventing many doubts

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and difficulties. In the same way that the skeleton establishes some instances they went even beyond this. We will not enter the proportion and construction of the body, so in liko manner into any argument as to whether this modification of the facial does the skull, by its peculiarities of character and diversity of angle indicated greater strength of mind and wisdom: it cerform, assist us to define and classify peoples, nations, and I tainly has not been found to represent the standard of excel. tribes, and also to decide upon

lence in man. As the facial their different intellectual capa

angle formed by these two lines bilities. All must have noticed

decreases, so we approach the how very diferent the size of

negro, and when it is farther the human cranium or brain.

diminished we descend to the case is, when compared with the

projecting jaws and smaller face, to that of the brute crea

brain of the brute creation. tion; and also that the head

(See Fig. 121, the facial angle itself, comparatively speaking,

of the cow.) These remarks undergoes very little change

are merely hints for the papil, from growth: likewise that the

showing him the course he brain almost reaches maturity

is to pursue in studying the at a very early period, and conse

human head. To go into a quently the head of the infant

classification of the skulls of is considerably larger in pro

various tribes and nations, and portion to its body than when

point out the remarkable dif. it has arrived at manhood; the

ferences between them, is not cause of this is to be attributed

our immediate object; to show to the brain only, in which there

there are these varieties, and is less development, in propor

to establish a standard as a tion, than there is in the growth

base of construction, is all that of the body. The face increases,

is necessary : we leave our but not to the same extent as

pupils to discover these differthe limbs and other parts. We

ences for themselves, and reremark in the infant head the

sume our more legitimate subsmallness of the bones of the

ject-the method of drawing nose, the shallow jaw, and the

them. Now before we

say elongated form of the head,

anything about the proportions having the brain-case large and Fig. 120.

of the head and face, we wish projecting considerably behind.

to make a few observations The roundness of the child's

upon the kind of drawing which face is to be attributed to

belongs to the human figure the incompleteness of the lower part, which, as the teeth grow, more than any other subject, and which will become more evident expands from a greater extension of the jaw; when in old age as we proceed. In drawing the human form, the term outline must the teeth have fallen out, and the face has contracted again, be used in a far wider sense than that in which it is generally it resembles in many respects that of the child, excepting for I considered when it relates to inanimate objects or ornaments. the falling in of the

Within the boundary lips and the wrinkling

line of any portion of of the skin. Thus as

the human form, be it the child grows the face

face or limb, there is becomes elongated, and

as great an amount the proportionate dif

of character and form ference between the

to be expressed as in length of the face and

the outward or marthe depth from the

ginal line itself, and forehead to the back of

we cannot consider any the head is less strik.

one to be proficient ing. The characteris

who has not the power tic difference in the

fully to represent it. human head between

The foreshortenings the Grecian standard,

and projections of the as usually seen in an.

body, and the unequal cient sculpture, and

surfaces upon

every that of the negro,exists

part, arising from musin the facial line. (See

cular action, as they Fig. 120.) Draw a line

press forward towards from the lower part of

the eye, require an the ear to the closing

amount of anatomical of the teeth in front,

knowledge which any and from thence draw

one who attempted to another to touch the

draw them, without outer projection of

possessing, would soon the forehead; this last

discover to be indis. line is called the facial

pensable. To confine line, and the two to.

our practice to the gether form the facial

mere outline of the angle--the angle at e.

human figure, would The more acute this Fig. 121.

give but a small idea angle is, the nearer it

of what is meant by approaches that of the

drawing it; children lower animals; the most desirable angle, as characteristic of the do no more than this. To represent an advancing limb, or an higher powers of intellect, judgment, capability, and we include uneven surface when placed directly before us, is quite another beauty also, is that of abont 80°. The Grecian sculptors, in affair to that of representing the surface or limb when it is representing their gods, reached 90°, the right angle, and in turned a quarter round, and is seen in profile. To acquire this

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