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life with unvaried liberality; and, perhaps, his character may receive READING AND ELOCUTION.-XX.
some illustration, if he be compared with his master, PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES (continued).
Integrity of understanding, and nicety of discérnment, were not II.-THE PURITANS,
allotted in a less proportion to Dry'den than to Pope. The rectitude [Marked for Inflections.]
of Dryden's mind was sufficiently shown by the dismission of his
poetical préjudices, and the rejection of unnatural thoughts and The Puritans were men whose minds had derived a peculiar character rugged numbers. But Dryden never desired to apply all the judgment from the daily contemplation of superior beings and etérnal interests.
that he had. He wrote, and professed to write, merely for the Not content with acknowledging, in general terms, an overruling Pró- people ; and when he pleased others, he contented himself. He spent vidence, they habitually ascribed every event to the will of the Great
no time in struggles to rouse latent powers; he never attempted to Being, for whose power nothing was too vást, for whose inspection make that better which was already good, nor often to ménd what he nothing was too minute. To know Him, to serve Him, to enjoy Him, must have known to be faulty. He wrote, as he tells us, with vers was with them the great end of existence. They rejected with con- little consideration : when occasion or necessity called upon him, he tempt the ceremonious homage which other sects substituted for the poured out what the present moment happened to supply', and, when pure worship of the soul. Instead of catching occasional glímpses of
once it had passed the press, ejected it from his mind; for when he the Deity through an obscuring véil, they aspired to gaze full on the
had no pecuniary interest, he had no further solicitude. intolerable brightness, and to commune with Him fáce to fàce.
Pope was not content to sátisfy; he desired to excel, and therefore Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. The
always endeavoured to do his bèst; he did not court the cándour, but difference between the greatest and méanest of mankind seemed to
dared the judgment of his reader, and, expecting no indulgence from vànish, when compared with the boundless interval which separated others, he showed none to himself. He examined lines and words the whole race from Him on whom their own eyes were constantly with minute and punctilious observation, and retouched every part fixed. They recognised no title to superiority but His fàvour; and, with indefatigable anligence, till he had left nothing to be forgiven. confident of that favour, they despised all the accomplishments and all
For this reason he kept his pieces very long in his hands, wbile be the dignities of the world. If they were unacquainted with the works
considered and reconsidered them. The only poems which can be of philosophers and poets, they were deeply read in the oracles of God. snpposed to have been written with such regard to the times as might If their names were not found in the registers of héralds, they felt
hasten their publication, were the two satires of Thirty-eight: of which assured that they were recorded in the Book of Life. If their steps Dodsley told me, that they were brought to him by the author, that were not accompanied by a splendid train of ménials, legions of minis. they might be fairly còpied. “Every line," said he, "was then tering àngels had charge over them. Their pálaces were houses not
written twice over ; I gave him a clean trànscript, which he sent some made with hànds; their diadems, crowns of glory which should never
time afterwards to me for the préss, with every line written twice Over fade away!
a second time." On the rich and the èloquent, on nobles and priests, they looked down
His declaration, that his care for his works ceased at their pabliwith contempt; for they esteemed themselves rich in a more precious cátion, was not strictly trùe. His parental attention never abandonei trènsure, and eloquent in a more sublíme language; nobles by the right
them; what he found amiss in the first edition, he silently corrected of an earlier creation, and priests by the imposition of a mightier in those that followed. He appears to have revised the Niad, and hànd. The very meanest of them was a being to whose fate a mys- freed it from some of its imperfections; and the Essay on Criticism tèrious and terrible importance belonged,-on whose slightest action received many improvements, after its first appearance. It will seldos the spirits of light and dárkness looked with anxious interest; who be found that he altered without adding clèarness, élegance, or rigour. had been destined, before heaven and earth were created, to enjoy a Pope had, perhaps, the judgment of Dry'den; but Dryden certainly felicity which should continue, when heaven and earth should have
wanted the diligence of Pope. passed away.
In acquired knowledge, the superiority must be allowed to Dry den, Events which shortsighted politicians ascribed to earthly causes,
whose education was more scholastic, and who, before he became an had been ordained on his account. For his sake, èmpires had risen, áuthor, had been allowed more time for stúdy, with better means of and Aburished, and decayed. For his sake, the Almighty had pro- information. His mind has a larger range, and he collects his images claimed his will by the pèn of the evangelist and the harp of the prò- and illustrations from a more extensive circumference of science. phet. He had been rescued by nó còmmon deliverer, from the grasp Dryden knew more of man in his general náture, and Pope in his local of nò cómmon fòe. He had been ransomed by the sweat of nó manners. The notions of Dryden were formed by comprehensiva vulgar ágony, by the blood of nò earthly sacrifice. It was for him speculation, and those of Pope by minute attention. There is more that the sùn had been darkened,* that the rocks had been rènt, that dignity in the knowledge of Dry'den, and more certainty in that of the dead had arisen, that áll nature had shuddered at the sufferings of Pope. her expiring Gòd.
Poetry was not the sole praise of either : for both excelled likewise Thus the Puritan was made up of two different mòn, the one all
in pròse : but Pope did not borrow his prose from his predecessoz. self-abåsement, penitence, gråtitude, pássion; the other proud, càlm, The style of Dryden is capricious and váried; that of Pope is cáutics inflexible, sagàcious. He próstrated himself in the dust before his
and uniform. Dryden obeys the motions of his own mind; Pope Máker; but he set his foot on the néck of the king. In his devotional constrains his mind to his own rules of composition. Dryden is some retirement, he prayed with convulsions, and gróans, and tears. He
times vehement and rápid; Pope is always smooth, úniform, and was half-maddened by glorious or térrible illusions. He heard the gentle. Dryden's page is a natural field, rising into inequalities, and ly'res of ángels, or the tèmpting whispers of fiends. He caught a gleam diversified by the varied exuberance of abundant vegetátion ; Pope's da of the beatific vision, or woke screaming from dreams of everlásting a velvet làwn, shaven by the scy'the and levelled by the ròller, fire. Like Váne, he thought himself entrusted with the scèptre of the
Of génius, that power which constitutes a poet; that quality with millennial year. Like Fleetwood, he cried in the bitterness of his
out which judgment is cold, and knowledge is inért; that energy soul, that God had híd his face from him. But when he took his séat
which collècts, combines, àmplifies, and animates; the superiority in the council, or girt on his sword for wår, these tempestuous work- must, with some hesitation, be allowed to Dry den. It is not to be ings of the soul had left nò percéptible trace behind them. People inferred, that of this poetical vigour Pope had only a little, became who saw nothing of the godly but their uncóuth visages, and heard Dryden had móro; for every other writer since Milton must give plsx nothing from them but their groans and their hymns, might laugh at
to Pòpe ; and even of Dry'den it must be said, that if he has brighter them. But those had little reason to laugh, who encountered them in páragraphs, he has not better poems. Dryden's performances were the hall of debate, or in the field of battle. The Puritans brought to civil and military affairs a coolness of always bàsty, either excited by some external occísion, or extorted by
domestic necessity; he composed without considerátion, and publisbet judgment, and an immutability of púrpose, which some writers have without correction. What his mind could supply at call, or gather in thought inconsistent with their religious zéal, but which were in fact
one excursion, was all that he sought, and all that he gave, The the nécessary effects of it. The intensity of their feelings on one dilatory caution of Pope enabled him to condénse his sentiments, t* subject made them trinquil on every other. One overpowering sèn múltiply his images, and to accumulate all that study might produr, timent had subjected to itself pity and hátred, ambition and fèar.
or chance might supply'. If the flights of Dryden, therefore, aut Dègth had lost its térrors, and pleasure its charms. They had their higher, Pope continues longer on the wing. If of Dryden's fire the smiles and their téars, their ráptures and their sòrrows, but not for the blaze is brighter, of Pope's the heat is more regular and coastaat things of this world. Enthúsiasm had made them stòics, had cleared Dry'den often surpásses expectation, and Pópe never falls below: their minds from every vulgar passion and préjudice, and raised them Dry den is read with frèquent astónishment, and Pope with perpetual above the influence of dánger and of corrůption.—Macaulay.
IV.-UNIVERSAL DECAY. [This piece is marked in application of the rules of Inflection.] [Marked for Rhetorical Pauses, Emphasis, and Inflections.]*
Pope professed to have learnt his poetry from Dry'den, whom, We receive such repeated intimations of decay l in the world through whenever an opportunity was presented, he praised through his whole
• The learner having been conducted through the application of the When an emphatic series causes, thus, a succession of falling rules for Pauses, Emphasis, and Inflections separately, will now be infections, the second one in each clause falls lower than the first. prepared to study and apply them in conjunction,
which we are passing :- decline / and change and loss, follow ' decline ! With regard to the English association not much is to be and change and loss || in such rapid succession, that we can almost said, because, while the human urchin is actively mischievous, catch the sound of universal wasting, and hear the work of desolation !
and often made to smart for it, passively, the other urchins going on busily around us. “ The mountain | falling ll cometh to
are very harmless except in passive self-defence. The other nought, and the rock | is removed out of his place. The waters / wear the stònes
, the things which grow out of the dust of the cart. || aro washed resemblance, though misleading anatomically, is very marked, on away, and the hope of man | is destroyed." Conscious ' of our own insta- account of the dense covering of sharp spines sticking out in all blity, we look about for something to rest on; but we look ' in vain. directions, matted and crossing one another like the spines The heavens ' and the earth I had a boginning, and they will have an of the thistle leaf; and also on account of the globular form,
The face of the world is changing, daily and hourly. Au I ani- which, though temporary in the land urchin, is permanent in the mated things || grow old and die. The rocks | crùmble, the trees | fall, echinus. the leares | fáde, and the grass I withers. The clouds | aro flying, and the The shell of a typical echinus, upon which the spines are set, vaters | are flowing ardy from us.
is a round box of very complex and beautiful structure. It The firmest works of min, too, are gradually giving way: the ivy | clings to the mouldering tower, the brier | hangs out from the shattered fitted together, that, even after the spines have been stripped off,
consists of plates of carbonate of lima so closely and accurately vindow, and the wall-flower | springs from the disjointed stònes. founders of these perishable works || have shared the same fáto long it requires minute examination to discover the lines of division ajd. If we look back to the days of our ancestors, to the mèn | as well between them. The box has the form of a mare or less deas the dwellings of former times, they become immediately associated pressed sphere, varying from the shape of a true globe to that in our imaginations, and only make the feeling of instability strònger and of a Turkish turban. At the two poles of the box are two holes : deeper than before. In the spacious domes, which once held our fathers, that which opens on the under side of the animal is the mouth, the serpent | hisses, and the wild bird | screams. The halls, which once while that which is found at the centre of the top side is the were crowded I with all that tàste | and science and labour | could pro- other end of the food canal. A further examination reveals cure, which resounded with melody, and were lighted up with beauty, are buried | by their own ruins, mocked by their own desolation. The voice that the shell is made up of five similar radial divisions, which of merriment, and of wailing, the steps of the bàsy' and the idle || have stretch from pole to pole, and may be thus described : -The ciased in the deserted courts, and the weods I choke the entrances, and the central zigzag line, running from mouth to anus, has on either long grass || rares upon the hearth-stone, The works of art, the forming side of it a row of small plates alternating with one another; and hànd, the tombs, the very dshes they contained, are all gone,
on the outer side of each of these rows of plates is a row of small While we thus walk among the ruins of the past, a sad feeling of holes. There are six of these holes in each plate. Externally insecurity | comes over us ; and that feeling' is by no means diminished
. I to these perforated plates are situated two other rows of larger when we arrive at hòme. If we turn to our friends, we can hardly plates, one on each side, and these are united at their external speak to them || before they bid us farewell. We see them for a few edges to the next radial division of the box by a zigzag line. móments, and in a few moments more their countenances are changed, The outer side of both the perforated plates and the plates and they are sent away. It matters not ' how néar' and dèar they are. The ties which bind us together || are never too close to be pårted, or
withont holes are covered with bosses, each of which has a more too strong to be broken. Tears I were never known to move the king of prominent rounded knob projecting from the top of it, which tèrrors ; neither is it enough that we are compelled to surrender one, knob has a pit in its centre. These knobs bear the spines. or twó, or many of those we love; for though the price is so great, we They are of various sizes, but so arranged as to form a beautibuy no favour with it, and our hold on those who remain | is as slight fully regular pattern; for each plate has at its centre a large as ever. The shadones || all I elude our grasp, and follow one another! boss, and, as the plates are regularly placed one above the down the valley. We gain no confidence, then, no feeling of security, by other, there are, on the whole shell, twenty rows of these turning to our contémporaries and kindred. We know that the forms tubercles running from top to bottom, set on lines which correwhich are breathing around us, are as shortlived ! and fleeting' as those were, which have been dúst' for centuries,
Yet, if the reader has The sensation of spond to the meridians of a globe. vinity, uncertainty, and rúin, is equally strong, whether we muse on
followed the description, he will see that these rows are not all what has long been pròstrate, or gaze on what is falling now, or will fall'
at equal distances from one another, for those on the smaller SO soon.
perforated plates are approximated, while those of the larger If everything I which comes under our notice || has endured for 50 plates are removed from one another; nor are the tubercles short a time, and in so short a time will be no more, we cannot say | of the several rows all at the same distance from each other. that we receive the least assitrance || by thinking on ourselves. When a Besides these tubercles, a great many others of very various few more friends have left, a few more hopes | deceived, and a few more sizes lie between the rows. The whole effect of the pattern is changes / mócked us, “we shall be brought to the grave, and shall remain in the tomb: the clods of the valley shall be suèt unto us, and that unity in variety, with which all the works of God abound,
very beautiful, and shows that symmetry without sameness, every man' shall follow us, as there are innumerable ' before us.” power I will have forsaken the stròngest, and the loftiest I will be laid Ww, and which the architect and the designer are so perpetually and every eye' will be closed, and every voice' húshed, and every heart 1
striving after, but to which they so seldom attain. will have ceased its beating. And when we have gone ourselves, even our
The ten perforated tracts which, being arranged in pairs, form mnèmories will not stay behind us lóng. A few of the near and dear | five double bands or courses, converge towards the mouth and will bear our likeness' in their bosoms, till they' tog' have arrived at
The regularity of these tracts, converging at both ends the end of their journey, and entered the dark dwelling of unconsciousness. and leaving between them a solid tract, has suggested a fanciful In the thoughts of others || we shall live only till the last sound of analogy. They were thought to resemble the gravel walks of the bell, which informs them of our departure, has ceased to vibrato in their cars. A stòno, perhaps, may tell some wanderer where we lie, when and so were called ambulacra; ambulacrum being a post-classical
our gardens, with their borders or avenues of trees on each side, we came here, and when we went away; but even that will soon refuse to bear us rècord;" timo's effacing fingers" | will be busy on its surface, Latin word, meaning a garden walk. At the point where the two and | at length ' will roar it smooth; and then the stone itself I will converging perforated tracts unite, is a single six-sided solid plate, sink, or crůmble, and the wanderer of another age I will pass, without a which has at its side nearest the ambulacra a hole from which single call' upon his sy'mpathy, over our unheeded grdves.- Greenwood. the ambulacral holes seem to diverge. The five perforated hexa
gonal plates which thus stand at the end of the ambulacral
avenues, are separated from one another and from the top openCOMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-VI.
ing by five other irregularly eight-sided plates which surround
the small movable scales which cover in the anus. As far as ECHINODERMATA (HEDGEHOG-SKINNED ANIMALS.)
our previous description has gone, the reader will perceive that FROM the earliest times, before Aristotle wrote of animals, the all the parts are perfectly radial. The five segments are abso.' great similarity in outward appearance between the hedgehog, lutely alike; but one of the eight-sided plates has, between the when rolled up in self-defence, and the sea-egg, or echinus, has large pore and the anus, a space which is full of a great been so recognised as to cause them to be called by the same multitude of holes, and in this respect it differs from all the name, In Greek, echinus (exivos) means both the one and the other five plates of the series, and is called the madreporic other. In English, we have expanded this superficial association plate. At the other pole of the body there is a large opening to include the young of our own species when they have arrived covered by a leathery membrane, in the centre of which is the at that age when they are always in mischief, and when, ac mouth. Placing the animal with its mouth downwards, which cording to the notions of a past generation, they were always to is the position it usually occupies, and looking at from above, be cuffed, because, if they did not deserve it at the time of let us enumerate the perforations which we have described, the infliction, they soon would do so.
beginning from the centre at top, and proceeding outward and
downward, so that all confusion may be avoided. We have the while the ridges between the grooves, stretching further in. following different series :
ward than the furrows, form saw-like edges, so that after the 1. The central round opening, which is covered by small food, mixed with hard particles, has passed the tips of the movable calcareous pieces, called the apical hole.
teeth, it can be ground down to a fine pulp by these triturating 2. On one side of this are the minute crowded holes of the edges and surfaces. madreporic plate.
The food canal does not run in a straight line from mouth to 3. In the five plates which surround the apical hole are the anus, but, after proceeding a short way as a contracted throat, five holes, each of which occupies the external angle of its plate; opens sideways into a wider canal, which, after winding once these are called the generative pores.
round the inside of the shell, is bent on itself, and winds round 4. In the five plates which are intermediate to and outside back again, and then delivers at the apical hole. This winding these the ocular holes are seen.
enables the food to undergo a more thorough digestion, while the 5. Stretching away in five double tracts are the ambulacral nutritive parts of the food are dissolved, and either pass into holes.
the blood vessels, which are found in the walls of the intestines, 6. The large opening below for the mouth and its membrane. or into the surrounding cavity. It must not be supposed that
We are now in a position to indicate the relation of the soft this long alimentary canal is loose in the box, only attached by its parts of the animal to this protective box. All the above- two extremities. If so, it would be liable to become entangled. named perforations have their uses ; and a study of these will It is attached by a membrane which lines the inner surface of teach us almost the whole anatomy of the animal.
the shell, and then passes off from this round the alimentary The alimentary canal connects the two largest holes which lie tube, so as to hold it in a loop, or rather fold. This arrange. in the vertical axis of the body. The entrance, or mouth, is in ment is very general, not only in these, but in the higher the centre of the wide orifice in the under side, which is covered animals. in by a leathery membrane, with the exception of where the The holes in the five larger plates surrounding the anal opening pointed teeth project. The curious beak, composed of five are those through which the eggs are extruded (in the case of the sharp teeth, forms a very effective instrument wherewith the female) into the sea-water, so to renew the round of life. They animal can scrape away the soft, calcareous rocks in which so furnish the exits for five separate organs sitnated just below many worms and sea-animalcules bore and hide themselves, them. The holes in the alternate plates are called ocular It is supposed that the animal swallows chalk and animals holes, because, through them, a nerve passes to an organ, saptogether, and lives on the nutritive, organic substances, while posed to be an eye. The ambulacral holes and the madreporic the chalk, etc., are passed out again, just as in the case of the holes need a further explanation, which will lead to a description earth-worm, great quantities of soft vegetable mould are swal. of the locomotive organs of the animal. The locomotive organs lowed for the sake of the nutriment it contains in the shape of of the echinus are of two kinds--the soft for pulling, and the particles of leaves, etc. The protruded part of the beak, how hard for pushing. The hard-pushing organs are the spines
. ever, gives no idea of the very complex machinery by which These are, no doubt, defensive organs, but they also unite with these teeth are worked from within. If the leathery membrane this function that of locomotion. The spines are, as we have be cut round close to the shell and pulled out, it brings with said, set upon the knobs of the outside of the shell. They are, it, or allows to be abstracted, a large and complicated hard however, movable upon these, so that they can be turned in all framework in the form of a five-sided pyramid, with its base up- directions. To effect this movement without destroying the ward, and its apex formed by the teeth. This pyramid consists of solidity of their attachment, there is a curious contrivance. At five jaws, each of which is a frame which sustains the tooth, and the centre of the concave base of the spine, there is (at least has attached to the muscles which move this tooth in all re- in the purple-tipped sea-urchin) a pit corresponding to the pit in quired directions. The jaw being hollow allows the tooth to enter the centre of the tubercle on which it is set. A ligament at its upper broader side, and to pass down in a groove which be- runs from one pit to the other, and so prevents the spine from comes closely applied to the tooth on all sides at the lower end, slipping off its support, while from the edges of the base of and so holds it in a kind of socket, in which, however, it can the spine muscular fibres run to the membrane which clothes the move downward, as the tooth is worn away below, and is sup- shell. It will be seen from this that the shell is not naked, but plied from above. The tooth consists of a curved and flattened covered with irritable and live membrane, which membrane bar, ending in a point, and having on its inner side a flange passes down between each plate, and, no doubt, subserves the to strengthen it, which flange stands out at right angles to the function of secreting fresh matter round the edges of these flattened inner surface of the tooth. The tip of the tooth is plates as the animal grows. How far the spines may aid the of enamel-like hardness, but as you trace it up through the jaw, animal in progression may be a matter of question; but those it becomes softer and softer, until it is found to be quite who have observed its motion believe they are concerned in without hard deposit at the part where it protrudes above the it. By far the most efficient organs of locomotion are the jaw. This shows that there is a process of continual renewal, little tubular feet ending in discs, which are protruded through the tooth being laid down as a gelatinous substance in which the ambulacral holes. These feet act like suckers, when apmore and more hard, earthy salts are deposited as it is pushed plied to the rock on which the animal moves. The coatings of forward, until it consists almost wholly of these, and is fitted to circular and longitudinal muscles which enclose the hollow tubes cope with the hard material to the rasping of which the animal are sufficient to move the animal when a multitude of these discs applies it.
have been extended and attached; but the question arises, how Round the base of the pyramid runs a pentangular muscle, are they protruded ? This is done by carious contrivance. which binds the jaws together. From the outer side of the base Each little tube, after traversing the shell and arriving at the of each jaw run muscles to the shell at the sides of the orifice interior, expands into a muscular bag. Both bag and tube comof the mouth. These, when contracted, protrude the teeth alltain liquid. All the little bags, set on each line of ambotogether from the mouth. Other muscles unite the sides of the lacra, communicate with a vessel, which stretches from mouth jaws to one another, and these, when contracted, bring the to anus, and these ten vessels all communicate with a ring round teeth together. A series of long pieces attached to the centre the mouth, which ring has, opening into it, some larger bladders of the base of the pyramid, gives attachment to muscles, which, to contain a reservoir of water, and it also communicates with running to the shell, have the function of approximating the tips the madreporic holes by a tube, which is filled with fine sand. of the teeth. In order to retract the whole apparatus when The method of protruding the tubular feet is supposed to be acting together, or to pull away each separate tooth from the the following: sea-water is filtered through the madreporic rest when acting separately, a number of muscles (two for each plate and sand canal to the ring round the month. tooth) run from the lower end of the jaw to some calcareous animal is in a lively state and inclined for locomotion, tho loops or arches, which, standing on the sides of the oral hole, bladders force the water into the rows of little bags, and these rise up within the shell,
being muscular, can, by contracting, force out any or all of the The jaws, however, are not solely devoted to the sustaining sucking feet at pleasure. When, on the other hand, the animal and wielding of the teeth, but are themselves employed to wishes to retract all its feet, the bags, distended by receiving triturate the food, for on the sides of each jaw which are op- all the water which was in the
tubes when extended, would be posed
to the sides of the next jaws on either hand, are found in an awkward state of tension, unless the fluid were allowed to parallel grooves which transform the surfaces into fine files, pass back into the ring and bladders.
There is, besides this ambulacral or water-vascular system, a the stone-lilies. These animals were very numerous in geologic blood system, with both heart and vessels. Also, the liquid con- times, and the hard joints of their long stalks afforded no small tained in the box external to the food canal is supposed to be puzzle to geologists. The problem was solved by the discovery 'organised. These points of structure need further study. both of the whole fossil hard parts of the animal united, and
It will be seen that almost all tho parts of the echinus are also of some existing representatives of the order in tropical radially disposed, yet the individuals are separate and locomotive. regions. The Crinoids, as they are called, grow like plants in We have, therefore, the radial structure, which is best suited to the seas of the tropics. A stem of gelatinous matter encloses the a fixed condition, and a vegetative habit, united with habits closely-applied hard joints, and bears on its summit a cap, such as characterise the higher animals, for the echinus does walled in by more hard pieces, around whose edges long arms not float or move hap-hazard, as the free-swimming hydrozoon | are developed. Their shape is too complicated for description
I, DIAGRAM SHOWING THE PLATES AND HOLES ON THE UPPER SIDE OF AN ECHxUS SHELL. II. AMBULACRAL PLATES ENLARGED. III. ECHINUS
DIVIDED IN THE EQUATORIAL REGION TO SHOW ALIMENTARY CANAL. IV. SPINE, WITH SECTION OF ITS TUBERCLE. V. JAWS AND TEETH WHICH, UNITED, ARE CALLED THE “LANTERN OF ARISTOTLE. VI. SIDE VIEW OF A SINGLE Jaw. VII. Its TOOTH. VIII. INSIDE OY
THE PURPLE-TIPPED SEA-URCHIN, SHOWING THE CALCAREOUS LOOPS (a). Refs. to Nos. in Figs. (I.) 1, anal hole ; 2, madreporic plate; 3, genital plates with their pores ; 4, ocular plates and pores; 5, ambulacral tracts
and holes ; 6, interambulacral or imperforate plates. (III.) 1, base of jaws; 2, gullet; 3, commencement of stomach ; 4, anus. (IV.) 1, pit ligament; 2, annular muscle.
does, but evidently searches for food, and has a definite object | here, but it suffices to say that the cup corresponds to the box in locomotion. We might, therefore, expect that in this class of the echinus. It is satisfactory to find that an animal, found we should find different grades, leading from a fixed condition, in our seas, and long considered to be a free brittle star, com. with its radial symmetry, up to the more perfect method of loco mences life like a stone-lily, and absolutely falls off its stem at motion which accompanies an elongated form and a two-sided a certain stage to commence a new locomotive life. arrangement.
The star-fish represents the next higher grade, and although We might expect that a radiated animal was a fixed, flower. its general form is so different from that of the echinus, it is not like animal fallen off from its stalk. This we found to be the difficult to show how the one may be derived from the other. If case with the Medusæ, and we could trace the transformation in we suppose the echinus to be quartered, as we quarter an orange, the life-history of the animal. In the class Echinodermata, we by dividing it along the zigzag lines between the larger plates, may also find it is so, only we have to look not simply to the and then each division opened, bent down, and flattened out, life-history of one animal, but to trace up the development of while the intermediate membrane is supposed to be indefinitely the different groups throughout the class. The connecting links elastic, so as to stretch and cover in the upper part of the between the Coelenterata and the Echinodermata are found in animal, we should have a star-fish. All the ambulacra would be on the under side of the animal. The so-called eyes would be proper books, than to huddle them all together in a Waste-Book. at the ends of the rays, the madreporic plate being the only This idea, however, did not come into the mind of any individual element left near its original position. This arrangement is in the form of an entire system. Like all other inventions, it exactly that found in the star-fish, or asterias.
came slowly and by degrees. The first thought, no doubt, was The asterias, however, presents many points of dissimilarity that it would be well to keep a separate book for all money from the echinus, especially in relation to its alimentary canal. transactions, and to call it the Cash-Book ; and this book was Canal it is not in the proper sense, for it has only one opening, long kept in business, apart from the Waste-Book, before any through which the food is both received and ejected. Ten organs other important change took place. Next came the idea that -two lying in each ray-empty themselves into the sides of the Bills which passed through several hands, and were a species of stomach, but whether these are only radial extensions of the property different from Cash, ought to be entered, with all the stomach, or represent a liver, is a matter of speculation. The necessary particulars belonging to them, in a separate book most singular thing is, that the star-fish, although so nearly called the Bill-Book. allied to the echinus, presents not a trace of the singularly com- The Cash and Bill transactions being thus separated from all plicated apparatus of jaws and teeth, which we have described, the other transactions, there remained all those which related as found in the latter animal. We have described the sea- to the purchase and sale of Goods, gains and losses in trade, urchin, because it is the typical animal of the class, and there- etc.; and these were naturally entered still in the Waste-Book. fore occupies a central position in this arrangement of orders. But this book had now changed its character, and had become Above the echini come the sea-cucumbers, which resemble the highly important as a daily record of those transactions on echini in having avenues of tubular feet to walk with, but differ which all the others depended ; for were there no purchases and from them in having soft elongated muscular integuments, by sales of goods, it is plain that there would be no transactions in the contractions of which they move. Sometimes the avenues Cash and Bills. In consequence of this change the Waste-Book of suckers in these animals are all brought together to one side, was now called the Day-Book or Journal, and looked upon as on which the creature crawls. We have thus an approach to the principal book in keeping Merchants' Accounts. When a the two-sided arrangement found in the snail. These animals Merchant's business became extensive and complicated, it was have a curious system for effecting the function of respiration. necessary to have even other books besides the Day-Book, for This is not done by exposing the juices of the body to the the purpose of keeping a clear and satisfactory account of his influence of the oxygen of the water by protrusions of their property, of the manner in which it changed hands, and of the membranes externally, but the water is forced into two organs quantity and value of that which he had on hand as well as of which run up into the body, and which are so branched as to be that which he had parted with. Hence arose the propriety, as called the respiratory trees. The water is forced into the well as the necessity of keeping, in some houses, a Stock or branches of these trees by means of a muscular bulb at the end Warehouse-Book, an Invoice-Book, a Sales-Book, an Accountof the alimentary canal, into which the sea-water is received Current-Book, and even a Petty-Expense or Petty-Cash Book. from behind by a wide opening, and then injected into the Such is an enumeration of the Books generally kept in a organs. This arrangement is the aquatic representative of the Merchant's Counting-house. But it is plain that the books of tracheal system in insects. In a yet higher order the tubular tradesmen or general dealers will differ from these more or less, feet entirely disappear, and the body is constructed at intervals according to the nature of the different trades or branches of so as to form rings, and this, combined with the worm-like business in which they are respectively engaged. To ennmerata motion of the animal, suggests that it is a connecting link these, and to explain their nature, would be a task as needless between the echinoderms and the annelids.
as it would be endless ; for, if the student is made once to We have no space left to dwell upon the nervous system of understand the general principles of Bookkeeping, he will be these animals, or on the curious development of many of them able with ease to apply these principles to all the possible forma from larval forms quite unlike in shape from the mature animals, and varieties in which business transactions may occur. For and which forms, contrary to what we might have expected, this purpose, therefore, one set of such transactions is as good present a perfect two-sided symmetry.
as another, provided the best system of keeping the books be The orders into which the class is divided, and which we have laid down and explained ; and after explaining the nature and cursorily described, are thus named :
form of the most important books, this shall be our duty. 1. Crinoides stone-lilies. 4. Echinidae = sea-urchins.
In the Cash-Book, then, as its name denotes, the Bookkeeper 2. Ophiuride = brittle-stars. 5. Holothuridæ = sea-cucumbers. places the Daily entries of all the receipts and payments of 3. Asteriadæ = star-fish. 6. Sipunculidæ.
Cash, on any account whatever connected with the business of the party whose books he keeps; these receipts and payments
are entered in the exact and successive order of the dates whan LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.-IV. they take place, and in general only one line of explanation
relating to the transaction is allowed in the page of the Book. EXPLANATION OF THE WASTE BOOK, CASH BOOK, BILL BOOK, Every two opposite pages are ruled alike, with Date columns DAY BOOK, ETC.—FORMS OF DRAFTS, PROMISSORY NOTES, and Single or Double Money columns, according to the plan ca
which the Book is to be kept. The left-hand page is always In the old Italian system of Bookkeeping there was a book marked Dr., and is called the Dr. side of the Cash-Book ; the generally kept, called a Waste-Book, and in this book was right-hand page is always marked Cr., and is called the Cynica entered a memorandum or record of every transaction which of the Cash-Book. The title Cash Account is placed at the top occurred in business, let its nature be what it might, whether of the opposite pages, Cash being on the Dr. side, and Account buying or selling goods, paying or receiving money, drawing or on the Cr. side. This shows that the two sides form but one accepting bills, etc. From this Waste-Book all the entries were account, and plainly states what that account is. All the taken and arranged in proper Dr. and Cr. form in the Day-Book receipts of Cash (that is, all the money received) are entered an or Journal, which then was the very book which its name the Dr. side of the Cash-Book, with the word To before the denotes; and from this book they were again taken and posted name of the Creditor, intimating that Cash, the thing recuvau, in the Ledger. As the Waste-Book contained the first entries of is made Debtor to the person from whom it is received, that business transactions, in an irregular form, and without any person, of course, becoming the Creditor. All the payments' other order than that of actual occurrence, it was considered Cash (that is, all the money paid away) are entered on the it
. useless after these entries were transferred to the Journal ; it side of the Cash-Book, with the word By before the name of the might, therefore, be looked upon as Waste Paper ; whence its Debtor, showing that Cash, the thing parted with, is prikladan
But no man is infallible in Bookkeeping, any more than Creditor by the person who receives it, that person, of course, in the other affairs of human life; and in case of mistakes or becoming the Debtor. disputes, frequent reference to the original record of the trans- When Bills are cashed, that is, when money is received for actions would be required; then indeed, the Waste-Book would Bills drawn or paid for Bills accepted, the entries of them be of very considerable value. Great and important was the receipts and payments must be entered in the Cash-Book, like change in Bookkeeping, when the happy thought struck the any others; and the Bills should also be carefully marked of in first man who invented the Subsidiary Books, that it would be the Bill-Book as received or paid. When Bills are dispunted better to classify and arrange the transactions at once in their that is, when money is received or paid for them before the tina
AND FOREIGN BILLS OF EXCHANGE.