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Over produces many combinations.
your report to a child, say a younger brother or sister; I menlook-over, over-look. flow-over, over-flow.
tion a child, because in speaking to a child you will speak readily reach-over, over-reach,
persuade-over, over persuade. and naturally. There is another advantage : in order to gain a run-over, over-run, ride-over, over-ride.
child's attention you must take a simple subject, and on simple You look-over your workmen and find faults that you cannot subjects you will not want words. Subjects such as I contemover-look. A bad tradesman reaches-over his counter and over- plate are constantly occurring wherever there are human beings. reaches his customers. Cisterns over-run, and drivers run-over. You may take as your theme some accident that has happened A river over-flows its banks, and the water flows-over the fields, in the house where you reside, in a neighbouring mino, on the You persuade an opponent over to your own party, and so over. high road; or you may describe a bird's nest; the peculiar form, persuade an associate that he relinquishes your company. If colour, and habits of the swallow, the dog tribe, the cat tribe, the you persuade a person over you cannot over-persuade him. In daisy, the wild rose, the honey-bee, etc. attempting to over-ride a competitor, take care you do not ride
Well, having described the object to a child, take your pen and over him. Tho boy having run over his companion in the race, write down as well as you can the very things you said, and easily over-ran him.
having carefully corrected them according to the best of your Other particles are of less frequent use, but not less curious ability, copy out the whole in your composition-book. are they. To back-stitch differs from to stitch-back. By reckoning
Many children would be far better as an auditory than one his income a man learns how much he has coming in. The out- child. And very desirable for your purpose is it that utility to goings of a family should be regulated by its income. If I with others should be immediately in your view. For these reasons I hold my opinions I may continue to hold with you.
He talks so
advise you to become a teacher in a Sunday-school, or if that is much of bearing with me that I can hardly forbear to reprove not possible or not convenient, then gather around you a number him. The poor man has been taken off as if he were the off of children and form a class. By preparing to teach them you scouring of the streets. That young girl was taken off at the will give your mind useful discipline, and in communicating to early age of seventeen, being overtaken by disease. One them what you know you will take effectual lessons in the diffi. general made an onslaught on the cavalry, while the other fell cult art of correctly expressing your thoughts. By teaching on the infantry.
others you will best teach yourself. To diligence there is
nothing impossible. Report to a child or two the following “ Immediately the mountains huge appear
Milton, " Thou hast made my curdled blood run back, my heart heave up, Here one year of my life was passed with little profit, and with a good my hair to rise in bristles.”— Dryden.
deal of suffering. There could not be a worse school in all respects.
Thomas Flower, the master, was a remarkable man, worthy of a better Alongside the cutter we coasted along the shore. Tho under- station in life, but utterly unfit for that in which he was placed. His takings of your father are under-paid. The understanding was
whole delight was in mathematics and astrono and he had con. that you stand under the spout. The undertaker receives funereal structed au orrery upon so large a scale that it filled a room.
What a arrangements under his care.
misery it must have been for such a man to teach a set of stupid boys,
And a misery he seemed " An under-plot may bear such a near relation to the principal design year after year, the rudiments of arithmetic !
to feel it. When he came to his desk, even there he was thinking of as to contribute towards the completion of it, and be concluded by the
the stars, and looked as if he were out of humour, not from ill-nature, same catastrophe."-Spectator.
but because his calculations were interrupted. But, for the most part, “ In under praising thy deserts
ho left the school to the care of his son Charley, a person who was Here find the first deficience of our tongue."-Dryden. always called by that familiar diminutive, and whose consequence you “ Under two conditions the poet engaged to compose the eulogy.”— may appreciate accordingly. Writing and arithmetic were all they Anon.
professed to teach; but twice in the week a Frenchman came from " For this assembling all the peers
Bristol to instruct in Latin the small number of boys who learnt it, of Whose counsels now must under-prop the throne."-Drayton,
whom I was one. That sort of ornamental penmanship, which I wow
fear has wholly gone out of use, was taught there. The father, as well He placed a line of props under the falling wall. An influx of
as Charley, excelled in it. They could adorn the heading of a rule in gold causes bank-notes to flow out of circulation. The inlets arithmetic in a ciphering-book, or the bottom of a page, not merely are more numerous than the out-lets, consequently you will be with common flourishing, but with an angel, a serpent, a fish, or a pen, compelled to let out the water by artificial means.
formed with an ease and freedom of hand which was to me a great
object of admiration; but, unluckily, I was too young to acquire the EXERCISES FOR PARSING.
I have seen, in the course of my life, two historical pieces proOur abodes out-last our bodies. Curtail your outlays if you wish duced in this manner; worthy of remembrance they are, as notable for ease of condition. He laughed out-right. Let thine eyes look specimens of whimsical dexterity. One was David killing Goliath ; it right on. You shall be driven out right forth, This way, right down was in a broker's shop at Bristol, and I would have bought it if I could to Paradise, descend. An over-much use of salt, besides that it have afforded, at that time, to expend some ten shillings upon it. occasions thirst and over-much drinking, has other ill effects. You They taught the beautiful Italian, or lady's hand, used in the age of have yourself your kindness over-paid. He gained a large fortune our pareuts; engrossing (which, I suppose, was devised to ensure disover the counter. Parents too often overpraise their children. Come tinctness and legibility); and some varieties of German text, worthy, o'er the brook, Bessy, to me. With an over-running flood God will for their square, massy, antique forms, to have figured in an antimake an utter er of the place. Were it not for the inces labours quarian's title-page. of this industrious animal, Egypt would be overrun with crocodiles. Milk while it boils, and wine while it works, run over the vessels they
EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION. are in. I shall not run over all the particulars that would show what
Historical Theme-The formation of the Hebrew Tabernacle. Per. pains are used to corrupt children. Should a man run over the whole
sonal Theme-What have been my thoughts during this day? Poetical circle of earthly pleasures, he would be forced to complain that plea. Theme-The stillness of the country. sure was not satisfaction. The zeal of bigotry runs out into all manner of absurdities. The zeal of many outruns their discretion. Form each of the following words into a simple sentence :COMPOSITION.
Girl ; boy; dove; California; amendment; Adam; England; dig.
turbance. As minds are differently formed and capacity varies with every successive individual, I am desirous of making another Describe a butterfly; a robin; a lark; a salmon; a mackerel ; suggestion or two, which may possibly smooth the way to original a sheep; a rabbit. composition for some whom the instructions previously given Supply suitable adjectives in the ensuing sentences :may have left in difficulty. I advise you, then, to accustom
Wise men love
counsels, yourself to report as correctly as you can, to a child, something fruit of autumn is delicious.
men must die. The
Small faults produce that has strack your attention, whether in what you have heard,
is hypocrisy ! what you have seen, or what you have read. I say report the substance by word of mouth. Endeavour to employ suitable Complete the following propositions :words, to pronounce them correctly, and to put them together
for having keen too exacting.
to respect the aged. grammatically. At first you will commit crrors ; but, in time,
for having soiled his book. perseverance will enable you to overcome all difficulties. Make
the prevention of evil.
the scholar's negligence.
The motion of any body may be either uniform or variable.
It is uniform when equal spaces are always passed over in equal DYNAMICS.
times, and its velocity is then measured by the number of feet DEFINITIONS-THE THREE LAWS OF MOTION.
actually passed over in a second. When this number is not We have now to pass on to the second and more difficult part constant, the motion is variable, and the velocity at any point of Mechanics; but as we have already acquired a knowledge of of time is measured by the space it would pass over in one some of the fundamental principles of the science, the difficulty second if it continued during the whole second to more at the will not be great, and by a little thought and application will same rate as at the given moment. A variable motion may be easily be overcome.
either accelerated or retarded, and if the gain or loss of velocity Hitherto we have had to deal with forces which acted on a in equal times be equal, it is said to be a uniformly accelerated body and produced equilibrium. If any of these forces be or retarded motion. now altered or modified in any way, so that one or more A railway train when first started affords an illustration of remain unbalanced, some motion will take place, and the nature accelerated motion. The power of the engine is more than of this motion will, of course, depend upon the forces. It is the sufficient to overcome friction and the resistance of the air, object of dynamics to inquire what these motions will be, and and therefore the speed increases; but the resistance increases what are the laws that govern them; and though at first they in a greater ratio, till, after a time, it exactly equals the power may appear comparatively unimportant, we shall find as we of the engine, and then equilibrium ensues, and the train conadvance that an acquaintance with them is of great practical tinues in a state of uniform motion. use for many purposes.
The actual measurement of the space passed over in a given The investigation of the action of the earth's attraction, of the time is often a difficult thing, especially as there are always motion of bodies projected with any given velocity, and of many counteracting forces which impede the motion in a greater or other common things, depends on the principles of dynamics, and less degree. There are, however, various ways in which this the laws we discover by examining these are found to apply on may be accomplished, some of which we shall see as we proceed. an infinitely more grand and glorious scale in nature, for by Now there are two modes in which we may regard force; their action all the stars and planets are kept in their orbits one is, by considering merely the velocity imparted without any and made to perform their varied revolutions. By these laws reference to the quantity of matter moved; force considered astronomers can not only explain and account for their varying thus is called accelerating force. The other mode is by taking distances and motions, but can foretell with the utmost accuracy into account the quantity of matter moved as well as the eclipses and other phenomena of the heavenly bodies. Calcula- velocity, and this is called moving force. These are not two tions like these require, indeed, a far deeper acquaintance with different kinds of force, but merely two ways of regarding the the higher branches of mathematics than we can acquire from same force. It is clear that a different amount of force is these lessons; but still the principles we shall investigate are required to impart the same speed to two bodies of different those on which all such calculations are based, and the subject weights. The impulse that would impart a very great velocity will, we hope, be pursued by many far beyond the point to to a pistol-bullet may scarcely be able to move a large cannonwhich we can advance here.
ball. The quantity of matter or mass of a body is thus an There is one important difference between statics and important element in measuring the force required to produce dynamics, and that is, that the latter is one of the inductive motion in it. Now we cannot determine exactly what the sciences, though perhaps the simplest of them. Some sciences, mass of a body is, as we do not know the ultimate particles like arithmetic and geometry, are called deductive, their of which it consists; but we can always measure it by the principles being deducible from abstract truths without re- weight of the body, for gravity may be considered to act ference to experiment, though that is sometimes resorted to equally on all particles, and therefore two substances on which as a corroborative evidence or a simpler mode of proving their it acts equally—that is, which have the same weight-may be truth. To this class statics belongs, for all its fundamental considered to contain the same quantity of matter. Hence, truths can be mathematically provod. Not so with dynamics, when we want to find the quantity of motion or momentum of many of the truths of which can only be ascertained by experi. any body—that is, the force which would be required to genement, and in order to ensure accuracy in these experiments they rate in it a motion equal to its own, or which it would evert must be repeated again and again, for slight errors are likely against any obstacle which obstructed it- we have to multiply to creep in, and it is only by taking the average of many its velocity by its weight. different experiments that we can arrive at accurate results. This is usually given as a definition: The momentum of any Many, however, of its principles can be ascertained by deduc- body is its mass multiplied by its velocity. If, for example, a tion, and it thus approaches much more nearly to the deductive body weighing 100 lbs. be moving with a velocity of 15 feet sciences than the other branches of natural philosophy, to which per second, its momentum is 1,500. we shall turn our attention shortly.
After thus much by way of definition, we pass on to the As previously stated, we have in dynamics to introduce a laws of motion ; but we shall have to return to momentum. fresh idea, that of time. In statics force was considered only The most important principles of motion were draw up bs as producing pressure, and therefore this element did not enter Newton in the shape of three general laws. These hare since into our calculations; but it is clear that, in treating of motion, been altered in their form, but assert nearly the same facts, the time occupied is an important thing to consider.
The first teaches that every body will continue in its state of It is needful at starting that we should have some mode of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by measuring the degree and intensity of motion, that is, the some external force or forces. This law merely asserts the velocity of any body, and, as we saw, two quantities are needed inertia of matter, that is, its inability of itself to alter or to determine this-the space passed over, and the time occupied modify in any way any motion which has been imparted to it in passing over it. We may know that a force applied to a We can easily understand that a body at rest will remain so body causes it to move over a certain space, but to form a unless some force be applied to it, as we see constant illustracorrect idea of the force, we must also know how long it takes tions of the fact. It is, indeed, one of the earliest truths which to travel this distance. When we speak of a speed of 12 miles we acquire from observation, bnt the other part of the lar an hour, we mean that if the motion continued uniform through seems more at variance with experience. In fact, almost every that space of time the body would have travelled 12 miles. It motion we observe seems at first sight to point out the inaocuracy does not, however, imply that the body actually passes over of the law; but it is only at first sight, and a little examination 12 miles, but merely that it mores with that degree of speed. will show its truth. Let a stone be rolled along the ground Great inconvenience often results from thus requiring two with great speed, it comes to rest in a very short time ; so, too, numbers to represent a velocity, and hence it is usual to ex. a boat when rapidly rowed along soon stops if the man conses press it by the number of feet passed over in one second. If to ply the oars. The true reason, however, why in these and a body moves a mile in 8 minutes, it passes over a furlong, or similar instances the motion ceases, is, that other forces 660 feet, in one minute, and therefore over 11 feet in one second, neutralise that which has been acquired. In the first case, and it is said to have a velocity of 11. When, therefore, we these forces are friction along the ground and the resistanco represent a velocity by a number, it is always to be understood of the air; in the second, the resistance of the water, for the boat as the number of feet passed over by the body in one second. as it advances must displace some of the water, and all the
momentum it had acquired is thus soon dispelled. If all such We now pass on to the third law of motion, which was stated counteracting causes could be removed, the body would move on by Newton as follows :-Reaction is always equal and contrary for ever. This cannot, of course, be proved directly by experi. to action, or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other ment, but we can easily assure ourselves of its truth, for, in are always equal and in opposite directions. When a carriago proportion as we remove these obstructions, the motion con. is drawn by horses, they are pulled back with the same force as tinues for a longer period. If, instead of rolling the stone along the carriage is drawn forward; so, if a boat in a stream be the ground, we send it on smooth pavement, the motion will pushed off from another, the quantity of motion produced in continue to a much greater distance; and if we try the experi- each is the same. If both be of the same weight they will move ment on a good surface of ice, it will move farther still, the with the same velocity; but if one be heavier, its motion will be simple reason being that the force of friction which before so much less than that of the other. We see, thus, that motion overcame its motion has been greatly removed. In a similar is never lost, it always produces motion in other things; but as way we can carefully construct a pendulum so as to swing with this is shared among all bodies in proportion to their mass, it as little friction as possible, and having started it from a given soon becomes so small as to be unnoticed. point in the arc, note how long it takes to settle to rest. Now Now if we consider the pressure on a body to be the action, remove it to the receiver of an air-pump, exhaust the air, and the quantity of motion produced is the reaction, and this law set it vibrating as before, it will be found that the motion will asserts that these are equal. But the quantity of motion is continue for a much greater length of time, the resistance of measured by the product of the mass and the velocity, that is, the air being in a great degree removed.
by the momentum generated. From experiments like these we can ascertain the truth of the The momentum produced is therefore proportional to the preslaw, and it is important to bear it in mind, since the neglect of sure. Hence the law is frequently stated thus :—When presit has often led to great mistakes.
sure produces motion in a body, the momentum generated is Force, then, is not required to maintain motion, but only to proportional to the pressure. Momentum, then, is the measure produce or alter it, either by increasing or diminishing its speed, of moving force, as velocity is of accelerating force. From this or by changing its direction.
we find a way of comparing these two. The latter is measured We now turn to the second law of motion, which may be by the velocity, irrespective of the mass, and as the pressure, stated as follows:—When any number of forces act on a which is the moving force, imparts the velocity to the body, it particle, each produces its full effect in producing or altering is equal to the mass multiplied by this velocity. That ismotion, exactly as it would if it acted singly on the body when moving force
x accelerating force. Hence, if we at rest.
divide the moving force by the mass, we obtain the accelorating Of this we have many simple proofs. Let a stone be dropped force. from the mast-head of a ship, it will fall exactly at the foot of From this we can calculate the dynamical unit of force, that the mast, just as if the vessel were perfectly at rest.
is, the force required to cause the unit of mass to move one foot If gravity alone acted upon it, it would reach the deck some per second, which force we stated in our second lesson to be distance in the rear of the mast, for in the interval which it has 7.85 grains. ocoupied in falling, the vessel has been moving onwards, and the The unit of mass is one cubic inch of distilled water, and this point from which the stone fell is, when the stone reaches the weighs nearly 253 grains. deck, vertically over a place some distance behind the mast; but Now the accelerating force of gravity which produces this another force was also acting on the stone, and that was the weight is 32:2, that being, as we shall shortly see, the velocity onward motion which, like the vessel, it had acquired. This a falling body acquires in one second. But tho velocity we want motion was exactly equal to that of the vessel, as both were is only 1 or is of this. Hence the unit of moving force is moving at the same rate; and each of these forces produces its full effect. The stone falls in exactly the same time as it would 253 gr. X $2.7 or 7-85 gr. take if the vessel were at rest; it moves througb the same The proof of the third law we must defer to the next lesson. horizontal space that it would if it were not falling; and at the end of the time occupied in falling is in the same place as if each force had acted singly during that length of time, the only
ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES IN LESSON XV. difference being that then it would have passed over two sides of 1. 60 x 10 x 70 = 42,000 units. a parallelogram, whereas now it has travelled down the diagonal.
22-40 x 20 x 400 2. The work done per minute is
or 298,666 units. Another good illustration of this is afforded by a boat cross
the stream to be flowing in the direc-
3. It would raise it from a depth of 663 feet.
4. About 47 Ibs. per hour. wants to cross to a point B some dis
5. About 51 days by means of a windlass, or 3 days by ascending a tance lower down; he does not, how- ladder and allowing his own weight to raise it. ever, steer directly for it, since, if he
did, the force of the stream would carry
him to some point much lower down,
LESSONS IN GREEK.-VIII. site him. If the current be so rapid that it would carry him THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued). down from c to b in the time it takes him to row from A to c, he The adjectives which follow the nouns of the Third Declension must steer directly across to c. There will be then two forces given in the last lesson, are-1, d, i amatøp, To atatop, fatheracting on the boat—his own force impelling it from a to c, and less, auntwp, auntop, motherless, the genitive ends in opos: 2, the force of the stream from c to B, and under the joint action o, in appnv, to appev, manly; gen. appevos: 3, adjectives in wv (m. of these two forces it will move from A to B in the same time and f.) and ov (n.), 'as ó ý eudaluwv, to evdaipov, happy; and the that it would take him to row to c. If, now, he wants to cross
comparatives in ων, ον, ιων, ιον. These comparatives, after again to d he must steer for some point higher up than A, for dropping the v, suffer contraction in the accusative singular, and as B A is longer than a c, the tide will have more time to act in the nominative, accusative, and vocative plural.
The voca. upon the boat and carry it down. More commonly, however, he tive is the same as the nominative neuter. rows from B towards c along the shore, where the current has less force, and then crosses as at first. But it is clear that in
Singular. either case each force produces its full effect.
Greater. In our lessons on statics we learnt the parallelogram of forces, d, ý
6, 7 and found that if two forces acting on a body be represented Nom. ευδαιμων, ευδαιμον. εχθίων, εχθίον. μειζων, μειζον. by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, the resultant will be Gen. ευδαιμονος.
μειζονος. represented by the diagonal. We may now extend this principle Dat. ευδαιμονι.
μειζονι. to velocities, thus:--If any two velocities impressed on a particle Acc. evdaluova, evdaluov. εχθίονα, εχθίον. μειζονα, μειζον. be represented by two sides of a parallelogram, the diagonal
(μειζω). will represent the resulting motion in direction and velocity. Voc. ευδαιμον.
and in the dative plural; also in the interposition of a before ο, η
or of the dative plural, in order to soften the sound. The Nau es διαφή, ει δε και να, τη θ.erts, εχθίονα. μειζονες, μειζονα, word ανηρ (stem ανερ), throws away the e in all the cases of the
(θίους), (εχθίω). (μειζους), (μειζω). | three numbers, except the vocative singular, and for the sake ta
of sound introduces a : as appears from this tabular view. εχθίοσι. μειζοσι.
Singular. Αιν' «δίκανναν, ενδιαμεοναεχθίονας. εχθίονα. μειζονας, μειζονα. Νom.
μητηρ. θυγατηρ. ανηρ. (εχθίους). (εχθίω). (μειζους), (μειζω). Gen.
πατρ-0ς. μητρ-05. θυγατρ-ος. ανδρ-ος. εάν της Νοε. Like the Nom. Like the Nom.
πατρ-ι. μητρι. θυγατρ-ι. ανδρ-ι. Dual.
θυγατερ-α. ανδρ-α. N A.V', ευδαιμονε.
μητερ. θυγατερ. ανερ.
Plural. 6. The Nominative has the short vowel of the stem lengthened, as Nom.
πατερ-€S. μητέρ-€5. θυγατερ-ες. ανδρ-ες. into and o into w.
πατερ-ων. μητερ-ων. θυγατερ-ων. ανδρ-ων. Dat.
πατρ-ά-σι. μητρ-ά-σι. θυγατρ-ά-σι. ανδρ-α-σι. Stems in vt drop the 7 in the nominative; as, lewy instead
πατέρ-ας. μητερ-ας. θυγατερ-ας. ανδρ-ας. of λεωντ. Singular.
πατερ-€5. μητερ-€5. θυγατερ-ες, ανδρ-€5. Shepherd. Divinity.
μητέρ-€. θυγατερ-€. ανδρ-€. Gen. ποιμεν-0ς. δαιμον-ος. λεοντ-OS. αιθερ-05. ρητορ-ος. G.D. πατέρ-οιν. μητερ-οιν. θυγατερ-οιν. ανδρ-οιν. Dat. ποιμεν-ι. δαιμον-1. λεοντ-ι. αιθερ-ι. ρητορ-ι.
The word aomnp, -epos, a star, which otherwise retains the e Aco. ποιμεν-α.
δαιμον-α. λεοντ-α. αιθερ-α. ρητορ-α. Voc. ποίμην.
of the stem, belongs to this class in consequence of having its δαιμον. λεον. αιθηρ. ρητορ.
dative plural in αστρασι.
Αθλον, -ου, τo, a prize Εχθαιρω, I hate.
Στεργω, I love. Dat. ποιμε-σι.
gained in the pub- Περσεφονη, ης, ή, Ρer- Χαιρω (dative), Iroδαιμο-σι. λεου-σι. αιθερ-σι. ρητορ-σι.
sephoné (per-sej- joice at, delight in Acc. ποιμεν-ας. δαιμον-ας. λεοντ-ας. αιθερ-ας. ρητορ-ας.
Δουλευω,I am O-ne), Proserpine. | Χαριζομαι, I show Voc. ποιμεν-ες. δαιμον-ες. λεοντες.
slave, I serve. Σοφος, -η, -ον, wise. favour, gratify. Dual.
EXERCISE 23.-GREEK-ENGLISH, Ν.Α. V. ποιμεν-€.
δαιμον-€. λεοντ-ε. αιθερ-€. ρητορ-€. G.D. ποιμεν-οιν. δαιμον-οιν. λεοντ-οιν. αιθερ-οιν. ρητορ-οιν.
1. Στεργετε τον πατερα και την μητερα. 2. Μη δουλευε τη
γαστρι. 3. Χαιρε, ω φιλε νεανια, τφ αγαθω πατρι και τη αγαθη Δαηρ, α husband's brother, makes in the vocativo δαερ; Αμφίων μητρι. 4. Μη συν κακή ανδρι βουλευου. 5. Δημητρι πολλοι και (ονος) makes ω Αμφίον; also Αγαμεμνων (ονος) vocative Αγαμεμνον, καλοι νεο ησαν. 6. Η αγαθη θυγατηρ ήδεως πειθεται τη φιλη
The following in ων (ονος) in some cases drop the ν and μητρι. 7. Οι αγαθοι ανδρες θαυμαζονται. 8. Πολλακις εξ αγαθον undergo contraction : η αηδων, the nightingale, genitivo αηδονος, πατρος γιγνεται κακος υιος. 9. Εκθαιρω τον κακον ανδρα. 10. contracted into αηδούς, dativo αηδοί; ή χελίδων, swallow, geni- Τοις αγαθοις ανδρασι λαμπρα δοξα έπεται. 11. Η Δημητρος tivo χελίδονος, dative χελιδοί.
θυγατηρ ην Περσεφονη. 12. Ω φιλη θυγατερ, στεργε την μητερα. VOCABULARY.
13. Η αρετη καλον αθλον εστιν ανδρι σοφω. 14. Οι αγαθοι υιοι Αγελη, -ης, ή, a lock, Εικω (dat.), yield; Ολβιος, -α, -ον, happy.
τους πατερας και τας μητερας στεργουσιν.
15. Οι Έλληνες herd.
της οδου, get out Σωφρων,-ον, gen.-ονος, | Δημητερα σεβονται. 16. Πειθεσθε, ω φιλοι νεανιαι, τοις πατρασι Αδικος, -ον, unjust of the way of. sound-minded. και ταις μητρασιν. 17. Χαριζου, ω φιλε πατερ, τη αγαθη θυγατρι. (α priv., and δικη, Ηγεμων, -ονος, ο, ο Υπερφρων, υπερφρον,
EXERCISE 24.–ENGLISH-GREEK. justice). leader, general. genitive-ovos, high
1. O young men, love your father and mother. 2. Good Ανευ (genitive), with- Θεραπευω, I honour. minded, too high, daughters obey their (the) father and mother. 3. The citizens out.
Κολαστης, -ου, ο, ο minded, proud worship Ceres. 4. Persephoné follows Ceres.-5. We admire Γερων, -οντος, o, an punisher,
the star. 6. Be not ye, 0 huntsmen, slaves to the belly. 7. old man.
Λιμην, -ενος, a har- Φρην, -ενος(pl.φρενες), A good mother loves a good daughter. 8. Ο mother and father, Δημος, -ου, δ, the bour.
the heart, soul.
love your children. 9. The man is hated. 10. Thoy hate the people (Lat., popu- Naww, I inhabit,dwell. Puhattw, I watch, man. 11. They obey wise men. 12. I follow Ceres. 13. Often lus). Οδος, -ου, ή, a way. guard, keep.
bad sons arise from a good father and mother. EXERCISE 21.-GREEK-ENGLISH.
Note that the Greek article has frequently the force of an 1. Τον γεροντα θεραπευε. 2. Σεβου τους δαιμονας. 3. o English possessive pronoun, when, from the nature of the senποιμενες αγελας φυλαττουσιν. 4. Τον κακον φευγε ως κακον | tence, no mistake as to the meaning can arise. Consequently, λιμενα. 5. Ανευ δαίμονος και ανθρωπος ουκ ολβιος εστιν. 6. 'o in such cases, when you translate into English, give the posθεος εν αιθερι ναιει. 7. Πολλακις χαλεπαι μεριμναι τειρoυσι τας
sessive pronoun for the Greek article, and when you translate των ανθρωπων φρενας. 8. Eπου, ω φιλε, αγαθοις ηγεμοσιν. 9. into Greek, give the article for the possessive pronoun. Εικε, ω νεανια, τοις γερουσι της οδου. 10. Πολλακις δημος ηγεμονα εχει αδικον νούν. 11. Ο θεος κολαστης εστι των αγαν υπερφρονων. KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-VII. 12. Εχε νούν σωφρονα. 13. Ω δαιμον, παρεχε τοις γερουσι καλην
EXERCISE 15,-GREEK-ENGLISH. ευτυχιαν. 14. Οι θηρευται τους λεοντας ενεδρευουσιν.
1. Temples are built to the gods. 2. It is not easy to walk on EXERCISE 22.-ENGLISH-GREEK.
ropes. 3. We hunt hares, 4. Androgeus was the son of Minos. 1. Good boys honour old men. 2. Old men are honoured by 5. Hares are hunted by huntsmen. 6. Pray to the merciful God. 7. good boys. 3. Sound-minded young men get out of the way of Eagles capture hares. 8. Reverence the merciful divinities. 9. The
brave receive denthless praise. 10. Pray that you may have (fied) old men. 4. Follow, O friends, a good leader. 5. We have
God merciful. 11. The gods are propitious to the good. 12. Pleasures good leaders. 6. The people often follow bad leaders. 7. God affords prosperity to the sound-minded. 8. Lions are hunted peacocks in honour of Juno.
lead away most people as captive. 13. The Samians support beautiful
14. The peacock has beautiful wings. by huntsmen. 9. We worship the divinity.
EXERCISE 16.-ENGLISH-GREEK. To the previous examples belong the following substantives
1. Τοις θεοις νεως κτιζεις. 2. Κτιζονται νεφ τοις θεοις. 3. Νεων των θα in ηρ-namely, ο πατηρ, the father ; ή μήτηρ, the nother ; ή κτιζω. 4. Επι καλών βαινουσι. 5. Τους λαγως θηρευομεν. 6. οι λαγων θηρευονται. θυγατηρ, the daughter; ή γαστηρ, the belly και η Δημητηρ, Demeter 7. Οι Σαμιοι καλους ταως σεβονται.
8. Τον ίλεων θεον σεβονται. 9. Ο θεος (Ceres in Latin); and d avnp, the man; differing, however, from News COTI Tous ayabois. 10. Οι θηρευτοι θηρευουσι τους λαγωτ. 11. Ο them in the omission of a in the genitive and dative singular | Μενελεως λαμβανει αγήρων επαινον.
On the western side of the Pacific Ocean are the seas of Japan 1. Peacocks were sacred to Hera (Juno). 2. We admire Menelaus and Okhetsk, and the Yellow Sea and China Sea; and on the for his valour. 3. The poets call the morning rosy-fingered. 4. Truth eastern side are the inlets called the Gulf of California and (raindeau) often does not satisfy the people. 5. Helen was the wife Queen Charlotte's Sound. of Menelaus. 6. Babylon produces many peacocks. 7. In the temples The ocean which rolls between Europe and America, and also of the gods are many pillars. 8. Hares are timid animals. 9. The between Africa and America, is usually divided into two parts voyage round (Mount) Athos was dangerous. 10. The palace has fine by the equator, the one being called the North Atlantic Ocean, chambers.
and the other the South Atlantic Ocean. The whole ocean EXERCISE 18.-ENGLISH-GREEK.
receives the name Allantic, from its washing the shores of that 1. Mevedews Baumačetak eni in apeth. 2. Oavjačojev in pododastudov part of Africa where the mountains of Allas were situated, which 3. Πολλοι ταω εν Βαβυλωνια τικτονται. 4. Εν τω της Ηρας νεα εστι
the poets feigned were employed to support the heavens. The Καλος ταως. 5. Οι θηρευται ταως ενεδρευουσι. 6. Οι ταφ ενεδρευονται υπο
Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the cast by Europe and Africa, and των θηρευτων. 7. Οι αγαθοι πολιται τον ανοητον λεων φευγονσι.
on the west by America ; that part of it between Europe and EXERCISE 19.-GREEK-ENGLISH.
America is called, from ancient times, the Western Ocean. The 1. Avoid wild beasts. 2. A hand washes a hapd. 3. Keep from Atlantic Ocean, taken between the limits of the Arctic Circle and
4. The meadows bloom. 5. The soldiers sing their war the latitudes of 35° S. on the one side, and 55° S. on the other, song. 6. We know (try) gold and silver in (by) fire.
7. Many become is only about half the size of the Pacific Ocean. The South friends at the goblet (over their cups), but most (a greater number
Atlantic Ocean contains few islands of any size, and no inlets of become) enemies. 8. Men are delighted with the harp and banqueting
consequence. The North Atlantic Ocean abounds in large and dances and songs of victory. 9. The Greeks worship Apollo and Poseidon (Neptune). 10. Industrious scholars read the works of islands, of which Great Britain and Ireland are the most noted; Xenophon with pleasure.
and in deep and numerous inland seas, whicii penetrate far into
the interior of both the Old and New Worlds, and which have EXERCISE 20.- ENGLISH-GREEK.
rendered the nations which possess its seaboard the most com1. Φευγε τους θηρας. 2. θηρα φευγουσι. 3. Τας χειρας νιζε. 4. Απεχεσθε mercial and enterprising people on the face of the globe. The των ψηνων. 5. Στρατιωτης τα παιανι τερπεται. 6. 'o Talav Tous Otpatiwas Mediterranean Sea and the Baltic Sea are bui arms of the North τερπει. 7. Ω σπουδαιοι μαθηται, τα του Ξενοφωντος βιβλια αναγιγνωσκετε. 8. Atlantic Ocean, on the east; and the Caribbean Sea, the Galf of Ta tov evopwvtos B2BA1a avagyuwokovTA. ÜRO TWw of ovda'wv MuOntww. 9. Mexico, Hudson Bay, and Davis Strait, arms of the same an Τερπομεθα τους καλοις λειμoσι. 10. Οι λειμωνες θαλλoυσι. 11. Οι ποιηται the west. On the eastern shores, few large rivers, except the τον Απολλω σεβονται. 12. Τον Ποσειδω σεβεται ο ποιητης.
Niger, discharge themselves into its waters; but on the western
shores it receives the great rivers La Plata, the Orinoco, the LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXI.
Marānon or Amazons, and the Mississippi, the largest water-ways
on the surface of the globe. NATURAL DIVISIONS OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE
The Indian Ocean rolls between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, (continued).
washing the eastern shores of Africa, the southern shores of Asia, With regard to the natural divisions of the water, the sea and the western shores of Australia ; whence its western, which surrounds the land is divided into three great sections, northern, and eastern boundaries are manifest; on the south it called oceans, exclusive of the comparatively small portions lying is bounded by the Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. This ocean within the polar circles, which are denominated the Arctic and contains many islands, the most important of which are MadaAntarctic Oceans. These three sections are :-1st. The Atlantic gascar and Ceylon; and several bays and gulfs, such as the Bay Ocean, extending from the Arctic Circle to the Antarctic Circle, a of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea or distance of 9,188 miles, and from the western coasts of the Old Arabian Gulf, etc. World to the eastern coasts of the New World, varying in The ocean (from the Greek okeavos, o-ke-a-nos, the great outbreadth from 1,818 miles, the distance between Sierra Leone ward sea surrounding the world) means collectively, all the water and Cape Roque, to 4,135 miles, the distance between the Cape which surrounds the earth; or, individually, any very large of Good Hope and Cape Horn. 2nd. The Pacific Ocean, also ex- expanse of water. tending from the Arctic Circle to the Antarctic Circle, and from the The term sea (from Saxon, sæ) is used in the same sense, both eastern coasts of the Old World to the western coasts of the New collectively and individually; but it is also applied to a smaller World, varying in breadth from sixty miles at Behring Straits, portion of water, and is often synonymous with the term gulf, to about 11,000 miles at the equator, and then tapering to 5,277 from the Italian golfo, which is a bay, or opening of the sea into miles, the distance between Cape Horn and Tasmania. 3rd. the land, either by a wide or a narrow opening. When the The Indian Ocean, extending from the Tropic of Cancer to the mouth of the opening into the land is wide, it is more usually Antarctic Circle, a distance of 6,214 miles, and from the eastern called a bay, from the French baie; and when narrow, a gulf. coasts of Africa to the western coasts of Australia, varying in When the sea penetrates far and wide into the land, the collection breadth from 3,491 miles at the equator, to 6,126 miles, the of water is then called an inland sea ; such are the Mediterranean distance between the Cape of Good Hope and Van Diemen's Sea and the Baltic Sea, the one in the south and the other in the Land.
north of Europe. The ocean which rolls between Asia and America, called the The Arctic Ocean is the sea that surrounds the north pole, or Pacific, from the smoothness of its waves, and sometimes the rather that lies within the Arctic Circle; its boundaries are not Great South Sea, from its vast extent, exceeds the whole surface exactly known, that is, it is not yet ascertained how much land of the dry land. It is usually divided into two parts by the lies within this zone, and, consequently, the extent of sea is eqnator, the portion which lies in the northern hemisphere being equally unascertained. Whether Greenland extends to or falls called the North Pacific Ocean, and that in the southern hemi. short of the north pole has not yet been discovered; and the sphere the South Pacific Ocean. It is bounded on the east by limits of North America have not quite been determined. This the western and north-western shores of America, and on the sea, besides the greater part of Greenland, contains Nova Zembla, test by the eastern coasts of Asia and Australia. Towards the the extreme north of Europe, the Liakhov Islands or New Siberia, eastern side, and in the torrid zone, the face of this ocean is and others, and some north of Baflin Bay. The White Sea is studded with innumerable groups of islands, all remarkably on the borders of the Arctic Ocean. The Antarctic Ocean, small. These consist generally of coral reefs, rising up like a though considered as boing likely to contain more land, is still wall from unfathomed depths, and emerging but a little way less known than the Arctic Ocean; and if both were equally free above the level of the sea. The most noted of these groups is of land, they would be of the same size within the Arctic and that called the Society Islands, the chief of which is Otaheite or Antarctic Circles. Tahiti (for an engraving of Otaheite see Vol. I., page 237); but Lakes are large or small portions of water wholly surrounded all of them are the works of insects, both minute and innu- by land; some of these are so large as to be called seas, such as merable, whose incessant labours are gradually forming new the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Aral, etc. groups at the bottom of the ocean. The situation of these A channel is a narrow passage between two seas, or two parts islands is such that, although lying between the tropics, the tem of the same sea; as, the English Channel, between the North perature of their atmosphere is so moderated by the surrounding Sea or German Ocean and the Atlantic. ocean that they enjoy the most delightful climate in the world. As appropriate illustrations to the present lesson on the