Imágenes de páginas

nation. At Bingham, in July, 1290, the conditions of the mar. What, then, is the fruit of an umbelliferous plant? We hear riage and of the international union were agreed upon; there frequently enough of carrot, parsley, celery, and carraway seeds, seemed to be opening a fair prospect of concord and prosperity but we do not hear of carrot, parsley, celery, and carraway fruits. for the whole island, when the Maid of Norway unexpectedly Nevertheless, all these are fruits, not seeds. The real seed is died, and the union of the nations was postponed for nearly embedded within the strueture of a surrounding mass, as we three centuries and a quarter.

found to be the case in the apple and pear. There the surWith Margaret's death the line of Alexander III., on which rounding mass is fleshy and easily separable ; here it is hard the Soottish crown had been settled, became extinct, and the and firmly adherent; therefore the so-called seeds of umbels crown was to be won by him who could show the closest con- liferous plants are fruits of the kind which botanists denominate nection with the Scotch royal family.

by the term achænium. All these fruits separate naturally when ripe, or admit of ready separation into two parts, and they are

all furrowed; moreover, the nature and direction of these furLESSONS IN BOTANY.—XIV. rows differ in each species ; of the order, consequently, they are SECTION XXV.-UMBELLIFERÆ, OR APIACEÆ: THE

an important means for enabling the botanist to distinguish

umbelliferous species. The two grand peculiarities, then, of the UMBELLIFEROUS, OR PARSLEY TRIBE.

umbelliferous tribe are, first, the presence of umbels; secondly, PERHAPS there does not exist a natural family of vegetables the inferior fruit_separable into two portions. Why did we more distinctly marked than this. Their general aspect alone, select a sprig of Fool's Parsley, as a specimen to illustrate the without going into anatomical minutiæ of structure, is almost tribe Umbelliferæ when so many more readily obtainable plants sufficient to distinguish them; never

existed ? For this reason: to show theless, we will indicate the botanical

in what respect Fool's Parsley, which characteristics of this great natural

is poisonous, may be distinguished order.

from the culinary parsley. Characteristics : Calyx adherent to

If the reader examines each terminal the ovary; petals, five, inserted upon

umbel of the Fool's Parsley, he will an epigynous disc; æstivation valvular,

recognise at the base of it three leafinvolute; stamens, five, alternate with

like things, which are bracts, and the petals; ovary, inferior, two-celled

which, when they are arranged as we uniovular; ovule, pendent, reflexed;

find them in umbelliferous plants, constyles, two; carpels separating at the

stitute each set an involucre. The base; seed, dicotyledonous ; leaves,

student will observe that in the Æthusa. alternate, simple, often divided, petio

Cynapium, or Fool's Parsley (Fig. 138) late, in an involucre. The word epi

these bracts all point outwards, by gynous, the only one in the preceding

which characteristic sign may the description of the characters of the

Fool's Parsley be distinguished noti Umbelliferæ that we have not met with

only from common parsley, but from before, means “growing on the summit

all wild umbelliferous plants. of the ovary,” from the Greek ETT

Whilst treating of these bracts, (ep-i), upon, and youn (gu'-ne), a

which in Umbellifero constitute the woman.

involucrum, the reader's attention may Such are the precise botanical cha

as well be directed to certain modificaracteristics by which the umbelliferæ,

tions of form which bracts are capable or umbrella-bearers, as we may call them,

of assuming. Thus, in the oak they are known; but, we repeat, their aspect

grow together and give rise to the is almost enough to distinguish them

acorn cup (Fig. 87, p. 341); in the from other plants; not but that a few

pine-apple they grow together, become plants of other orders bear umbels,

fleshy, and constitute the part we eat; and many seem to bear umbels with

in the fir-cone they constitute the out doing so; but, generally speaking,

scales; in Umbellifere, however, they the aspect of an umbelliferous plant is

assume the appearance of leaves, sufficient to characterise it.

which, indeed, is their general or Taking for our example a specimen

normal aspect. With regard to the of Fool's Parsley (Æthusa Cynapium,

physiological and chemical characteris. Fig. 138), we shall find the floral part 136. BLOSSOM, LEAVES, AND FRUIT OF THE SAPUCAYA tics of the Umbelliferæ, they may be to consist of a compound umbel; that


stated to depend on the presence either is to say, little umbels attached to the

of an odorous volatile oil, or a poisonous stems which constitute large ones (Vol. I., page 217, Fig. 66). I matter. Everybody is aware how agreeably odorous are the We shall find, both in the small and large umbels, that the so-called carraway seeds ; everybody is aware of the poisonous petioles, or flower-stalks, shoot forth from points exactly opposite nature of the hemlock; and the noxious character of the Fool's each other, otherwise the structure would not be an umbel. Take, Parsley has already passed under notice. Umbelliferous plants for example, the elder-tree. A general examination of its flower may, therefore, be designated in general terms as suspicious would lead cne to suppose that the elder was an umbelliferous plants, comprehending, however, a far greater number of in. plant; but, on examining it more attentively, the petioles do not noxious than noxious species ; the latter may be generally disbranch off at a point exactly opposite each other; hence the in- covered by their agreeable, the former by their disagreeable florescence of the elder-tree is not that of an umbel, but of a odour. vyme. Nevertheless, in the geraniums, and some other plants, In certain species of this natural order the innocent and the the inflorescence is really umbelliferous; hence the existence of noxious principles are combined. This is the case in the wild an umbel is not quite sufficient for the botanist to rely upon in celery, which in this condition is a rank plant, altogether unthe discrimination of a plant belonging to the natural order fitted for food. The change which ensues when celery is cultiUmbellifero. Let us, therefore, examine some of the remaining vated in gardens we are all aware of; but the reason of that characteristics enumerated at the beginning of this description change merits a few remarks. Garden celery, as the reader

If we examine the flower of a parsley plant, we shall discover knows, is carefully buried in the earth, not only its root, but that the calyx is almost absent. The petals, five in number, much of its stem being totally deprived of light. Under this spring from a narrow line or border. There are five stamens, treatment, the buried portion of the plant becomes etiolated or each arising from between two petals.

bleached; becomes, in point of fact, botanically considered, As in the apple, the ovary in an umbelliferous plant is inferior diseased; that is to say, the poisonous secretion of the plant is —that is to say, it appears below the calyx and corolla, inas- no longer elaborated, the odorous principle alone being formed. much as the latter springs from above it.

A consideration of the nature and effects of etiolation leads 115


tain sugar,



it. Thus the pre

to a correct appreciation of the functions which those parts of SECTION XXVI.-MYRTACEÆ, OR THE MYRTLE TRIBE. vegetables exposed to the air and sun, especially leaves, are Characteristics : Calyx, adherent; petals, in number equal to destined to perform, and points out the necessity of giving the divisions of the calyx, inserted on a disc around the throat vegetables abundant air and light, if we would have them bring of the latter ; æstivation imbricated, rarely absent; stamens, forth their natural productions. To stimulate those natural ordinarily indefinite; ovary, usually two to six-celled, pluriovular, productions is, in most cases, the main object of agriculture or containing many ovules; ovules, pendulous, reflexed or and horticulture ; occasionally, however, as in the example of I curved; style, simple; fruit, dry, or a berry; seed, dicotyledocelery, the ob

nous, exalbumi. ject kept in view is the reverse of

Such is the this.

long list of geneThe odorous

ral characters by principle in cer

which botanists tain Umbellifera

recognise a plant is of a resinous

of this great character; thus

natural order; assafætida is the

neverthelese, produce of an

myrtles, like umbelliferous

many other plant growing in

members of the Persia. Opopo

vegetable world, 138 nax and ammo

have a sort of niacum, both so

physiognomy of valnable in me

their own, more dicine, are also

easily recognised the produce of

than described. umbelliferous

Perhaps the plants.

fragrant odour Many of the

diffused by these

139 Umbelliferæ con

beautiful plants

is one of their like that of the


most prominent cane in every

characteristics. respect that

All the subBugar-loaves

stance of may be made of

myrtle is more

or less saturated sence of sugar 137


with this odor. may be recog

ous matter. Now nised by the

we find it as taste in the root

sumes its greate of the carrot and

est power in the the parsnip;


bark, now in also, in the root

the flower buds, of celery, al.

in the though less evi.

leaves; but it is dently. Indeed,


everywhere presugar may be

sent more or less. regarded as

Supposing the pretty general

reader to have concomitant of

before him a leaf the umbellifer

of the common structure;

myrtle, he need even in the juice

not be told that of the poisonous

the leaf is odohemlock it may

rous, especially be discovered by

when crushed chemical tests. 141

between the It would be a


Now, needless task to

in what does the

144 occupy space in

odour consist, pointing out the

and where does various uses of

it come from? umbelliferous 137. BLOSSOM OF PARSLEY, ENLARGED. 138. FOOL'S PARSLEY (ÆTHUSA CYNAPIUM). 139. DIDISCUS CÆRU. This, like the plants to man.


143. THE COMMON MYRTLE (MYRTUS of odorous princarraway, cori. COMMUNIS). 114. BLOSSOM AND LEAF OF THE CLOVE-TREE (CARTOPHYLLUS AROMATICUS). 145. FRUIT OF ciples furnished ander, and aniseTHE CLOVE-TREE,

to us by the seeds, flavour

vegetable kingour pastry and confectionery ; carrots and parsnips are amongst dom, is a volatile oil, and in the myrtle leaf it is secreted the most favoured articles of our food; even the noxious hem by specific organs, denominated glands. If a myrtle leaf be lock yields a valuable medicinal substance, conia; and the resin- held between a candle, or other source of light, and the eye, yielding umbel-bearers pour forth their treasures in great these little glandular bodies will be seen like so many specks profusion. By far the greater number of this family have white it is within these glands that the volatile oil remains encased. flowers; some, like the fennel, have yellow flowers, and a few Glands are not necessary for the

secretion of volatile oil, nor are have blue ones. Of the latter kind are most of the Eryngo they necessarily confined to leaves. They exist in large quangenus, and the beautiful Didiscus Cæruleus, of which we now tities in the skin of members of the orange tribe, and it is from give a representation (Fig. 139).

them that the inflammable volatile oil is emitted when a piece








naked eye.


of orange peel is squeezed between the fingers. Although the LESSONS IN GERMAN-XXIV.,
characteristic of agreeable odour is a very good common sign by
which we may be justified in expecting that a plant may, in cer.

SECTION XLV.-PECULIAR IDIOMS. tain cases, belong to the Myrtaceæ, nevertheless it is a very loose Sich erinnern corresponds, in signification, to the English verb sign when taken apart from others. We can only arrive at a “remember," as :-Gr erinnert sich meiner (§ 126), he remembers correct botanical comprehension of the Myrtacece by studying me (literally, he remembers himself of me). So erinnere mich some of the generic characters that have been mentioned in our jener schönen Zeit, I remember (remind myself of) that sweet time. preceding list.

In referring to a thing already learned, the verb behalten,“ to If the specimen of common myrtle under examination be a keep, to retain,” is generally used, as :-Ich kann die Wörter nicht sprig, not a single leaf, the student, before he lays it down, (im Gedächtniß) behalten, I cannot retain or remember (keep in should observe that the leaves are opposite, not alternate memory) the words. Er macht so viele Fehler, weil er die Regeln nicht (Fig. 143). Let us now examine the flower. The particular behält, he makes so many mistakes, because he does not retain species under consideration has a calyx of five divisions, and remember) the rules. there are also five petals, but in certain species these floral parts 1. The dative of a personal pronoun is frequently used instead are generally four. The stamens are numerous, as will be of a possessive pronoun, as :-Ich habe mir den Finger abgeschnitten, readily observed ; and the reader need not be told at this period I have cut off my finger (I have to me the finger cut off). Er of our labours that it is necessary to ascertain whether these gab es mir in die Bände, he gave it into my hands (he gave it to stamens grow from the calyx or the receptacle. They grow me in the hands). from the calyx, as will be readily distinguished. The ovary is 2. The phrases es fällt schwer or es halt schwer are nearly synonyinferior; it contains three little cells, and each cell contains mous, and signify “to be hard, to be difficult," as :-Diesem many ovules; and it shoots up a single style, which terminates armen Manne fällt es schwer, zu betteln, it is hard (it comes hard) for in a small stigma so very minute that it cannot be seen by the this poor man to beg. Es hielt schwer, ihn zu beruhigen, it was diffi

cult to calm him. Figs. 141 and 142 are representations of a vertical section of the

VOCABULARY. flower and ovary of a common myrtle, and a transverse section Ankunft, f. arrival. of the ovary with adherent calyx, or rather the fruit with ad. Aus“sehen, to appear.

Gi'genschaft, f. quality. | Hülfe, f. help, assist

Grin'nern (sich), to reherent calyx. If the reader examinos Fig. 142, he will observe Bevie'nen, to serve. member.

Spielen, to play. that the number of seed-cells in the species of myrtle under Begrei'fen, to compre- Erzähʼlungf. narrative Verbrechen, n. crime, consideration is three, or, to use the language of Botany, the hend.

Fau'lenzer, m. idler. Wi'tcrwärtigkeit, f, ad. ovary is trilocular, or three-celled. If the reader now refer to Berau'ben, to rob. Gebächt'nik, n. memory versity. the list of characteristics of this family, he will find the expres- Diebstahl, m. theft. Grüntlich, thoroughly, Zuwei'len, sometimes. sion, “ovary, usually two to six-celled,” which signifies that the Drüden, to press. fundamentally. number of cells may vary between two and six. By well considering the characteristics already discussed, the

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. student will be at no loss to recognise an individual of the myrtle Er erin'nert sich noch der alten He still remembers the old tribe, even without taking into consideration minute microscopic


sailor. peculiarities.

Napoʻleon hatte ein so gutes Ge. Napoleon had so good a meLet us now proceed to mention a few particulars in connection dächt'niß, daß er die Namen seiner mory that he could remember with the dimensions, natural habitation, and properties of this meisten Solda'ten behalten fonnte. (retain) the names of most of beautiful and useful botanical order.

his soldiers. The stem of the Myrtaceæ is generally woody, the leaves oppo- Er flüft'erte ihm etwas in's Ohr. He whispered something in his site or alternate, simple, entire, rarely stipulated; frequently, as we have seen, provided with secretive glandular appendages, Es hält schwer, einen Ei'gensinnigen It is difficult to convince an embedded in the parenchyma. The flowers are complete, regular, zu überzeu'gen.

obstinate (person). solitary, or irregularly agglomerated. The greater number of Es fällt den meisten Menschen schwer. It is difficult for most people myrtaceous plants have berries for their fruits; but some others, sich dem Schidsal geduldig zu un- to submit patiently to their the principal of them being Australian plants, have a dry hard terwer'fen.

destiny. fruit; these, too, have alternate leaves, which is not usual in the

EXERCISE 86. myrtle tribe. The great districts for myrtles are the intertro

1. Können Sie sich des Tages meiner Ankunft nicht mehr erinnern? 2. pical regions and Australia; only a few species existing in o ja, ich erinnere mich desselben noc sehr gut. 3. Es giebt viele Menschen, temperate climes. The spice sold as cloves is the produce of die sich lieber ihrer schlechten, als ihrer guten Thaten erinnern. 4. Es hielt one of the myrtle tribe, Caryophyllus Aromaticus (Fig. 144), of schwer

, ihn von ter Wahrheit dieser Erzählung zu überzeuger.

5. Es hält which cloves are the dry flower-buds. Allspice is the berry zuweilen schwer, etwas zu glauben, was wir nicht begreifen fönnen. 6. ** of another (Eugenia Pimenta). Guava jelly, so valued and fällt bem armen, aber fleißigen Manne schwer, die Hülfe fremder Leute in esteemed wherever it can be procured, is the conserve made of Anspruch nehmen zu müssen. 7. Die englische Sprache fällt mir schwerer, the mashed berries of a myrtle which grows in the West Indies. The pomegranate, too, a native of Northern Africa, but which

als die französische. 8. Bei seinem Gelde, seinen Verwandten und seinen now grows in the south of Europe, furnishes another example Kenntnissen fiel es ihm nicht schwer

, cine eben so gute

, als angenehme Stelle of a fruit-bearing myrtle.

zu finden.


9. Warum lernt Ihr Bruder so viel schneller, als Sie ? In reviewing, then, the chemical and physiological character. 11. Können Sie sich nicht mehe erinnern, wem Sie die Bücher und tas

Weil er ein besseres Gedächtniß hat, und die Wörter besser behalten fann. istics of the Myrtaceo, we learn that none of the tribe are poisonous. The greater number contain an abundance of Papier gegeben haben? 12. Ich kann mich beffen nicht mehr erinnern. fragrant oil. Some yield fruits which are delicious to eat; and 13. Der Faulenzer behält die Regeln nicht, weil er tiefelben nicht grüntlich all are imbued with a certain, but variable amount of astringent 15. Er brüdte ben armen Manne einen Thaler in die Hand. 16. Sa

14. Der Diebstahl ist ein Verbreden. matter, similar to that contained in oak bark, whence it has der Ferne erinnern wir uns gern der Freunde. 17. Junge Leute tragen been denominated tannic acid by the chemist.

In this country the myrtle requires protection during the zuweilen Brillen, um gelehrt auszusehen. winter months in all districts north of the Thames, but in the

EXERCISE 87. the south of England, and especially along the coast of the 1. Do you remember the day of the arrival of your friend? western counties, it flourishes against a wall, often growing to 2. Yes, I remember the day very well. 3. Most people remema great height, and covering a considerable space with masses ber the years of their youth with pleasure. 4. There are many of dark-green foliage.

who remember their follies with shame. 5. It is difficult to Many of the species of the myrtle tribe are very large trees. remember every rule of a language. 6. It is not so difficnlt to The Sapucaya tree, as it is called in Brazil (Lecythis Ollaria), is convince a learned as an unlearned man. 7. Is it difficult to one of the tallest trees amongst the very tall ones that grow in submit to the adversities of life? 8. Yes, it is very difficult; Brazilian forests. In Fig. 136 the reader will find a represen- but the thinking man conquers them. 9. Can you not retation of a branch of this species. How different from a branch member to whom you have lent my book? 10. No, I cannot of the common myrtle !

remember. 11. To lie is a sin,





SECTION XLVI.-VERBS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE. ber Straße läuft. 13. Wenn den Fürsten das Volf jammerte, fo würde er Some verbs in German govern the genitive ($ 125), while andere regieren... 14. Aber das Volt wird ihm hierfür noch lohnen, uns those in English of corresponding signification require the ob- bann seiner nicht schonen. 15. Es könnte wohl ter Maße lohnen, nach jective, as : Gerente meiner, remember me (or, think of me). I Californien zu reisen. 16. Ich wütte gern diese Kleiter schonen, wenn ich

antere hätte. 17. Ich wünsche feine andern Top zu sterben, al8 den Tod achte seinet niớt, I do not regard (notice) him. Er bedarf des Gelves,

vor Altersschwäche. he needs towane umper, me mentioned into the origine, the Perinke ili überftantenen Leiben, aber versija nicht die gehoffene

scut en an. Bei einer all seiner Schage, he robbed him of all his treasures. Das Haus bie Fürsten könnten, so sicponten sie weder ter Freiheit, noch Fonst eines entbehrt des Vaters, the house lacks (misses) the father (master). Rechtes ihrer Völker.

EXERCISE 89. Der Unglüdliche Harrt besserer Zeiten, the unfortunate (waits for) expects better times. Schonet mein (8 57. 1), spare me. Sie spotten 1. She nursed her father in his old age, and nursed me when meiner, Prinz, you mock me, prince! Vergesset meiner nicht, forget I had the nervous fever. 2. He mocked me, but observed not me not. Gr bediente Fich ter besten Mittel, he used (served himself how the people mocked him. 3. Has he accepted my present ? of) the best means.

4. No, he told me he needed not the present. 5. Do not Some verbs of the above class (§ 125) more commonly take mention his kindness. 6. The teacher dares not spare the the accusative, as :-Vergiß teine Bücher nicht, do not forget your negligence or falsehood of his scholars, but must reprimand books.

them severely when he observes it. 7. Forget not the warning VOCABULARY.

voice of your parents. 8. Remember the Sabbath-day. 9. al'teröschwache, f. de- Erwäb'nen, to men. Regiment, n. regi- everybody? 10. We waited with longing for the arrival of our

Who can believe a man who sneers at everything and scoffs at crepitude. tion.


friends. 11. When thou repentest of thy faults, then shall I Bedürósen, to need, Gefal'ligkeit, .f. com- Sehnsucit, f. longing.

remember thee with pleasure. want. kind. Schonen, to spare.

12. Conscientious people make plaisance, Befüm'mern, to grieve,

Spotten, to mock,

no vain speeches, nor make parade of qualifications which they

do not possess. trouble.

Harren, to hope, wait scoff at. Bercu'en, to repent, for.

Sterben, to die.

Appended to this and subsequent lessons the student will regret.

Hierfür, for this, for Strenge, severely, find a Key to the Exercises in German. Our reasons for not Bescheiden, modest. it.

Ueberste'hen, to over- beginning this key before are the same as those which we have Bitte, f. request, pe- Jammern, to distress, come, endure.

given for not commencing the Key to Exercises in Lessons in tition.

grieve, lament. Unentbehrlich, indis. French at an earlier period.
Califor‘nien, no Cali. Längst, long since pensable.

Unleib'lich, insuffer-

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. Choʻlera, f. cholera. Seit, n, pain, sorrow. able.

Exercises 1 and 2 are on Pronunciation, Exercise 3 is on Handwriting. Dann, then.

Lohnen, to reward. Un'wahrheit, f. falseDumm, stupid. Nachlässigkeit, f. neg. hood.

EXERCISE 4 (Vol. I., page 38). entlich, at length. ligence, remiss. Certvei'sen,' to repri.

1. Who has bread ? 2. The baker has bread. 3. Has the baker Entvehʻren, to be in


flour? 4. Yes, he has flour also. 5. What has the miller ? 6. The miller want of, dispense Rede, f. speech, Wahr'nehmen, to ob has flour and grain, 7. Who has meat ? 8. The butcher has meat. with. harangue.

9. Have you beer? 10. No, the brewer has beer. 11. Have you Erbar-men (sich), to Regie'ren, to govern, Zuleßt', at last. wine ? 12. No, I have coffee. 13. What has the girl ? 14. The girl have pity on. rule.

has ten. 15. Has the brewer grain ? 16. No, he has only beer and

wine. 17. What has the child ? 18. It has water. 19, Has it bread RÉSUMÉ 'OF EXAMPLES.

also ? 20. Yes, it has bread and meat also. Betürʻlen Sie noch ferner meiner Are you still further in need of

EXERCISE 5 (Vol. I., page 38). Dienste ?

my assistance ? Ja, mein Herr! ich brauche Geld, Yes, sir; I need some money,

1. Do you love the child or the man? 2. I love the child. 3. Have tenn ich entbeh're selbft (Sect. for I am in want even of the you the sugar ? 4. No, the child has the sugar. 5. Does the child LXII. 1) der noth'wendigsten

love the girl? 6. Yes, and the girl loves the child. 7. Who has the most necessary provisions.

glass ? 8. The child has the glass. 9. Has the brewer the wagon ? Sebensmittel.

10. No, the peasant has the wagon. 11. Who has the beer? 12. The Serjenige, der ein Bergnüégen nicht He that cannot dispense with a brewer has the beer and the wine. 13. Has the miller the flour or the

entbehören kann, zeigt, daß er nicht pleasure, shows that he does bread ? 14. He has the flour. 15. Has the baker the wine or the versteht', dassel'be zu genießen. not know how to enjoy it water ? 16. He has the water. 17. Do you love the peasant? 18. + (the same).

No, I love the teacher. 19. Have you meat or wine ? 20. I have the Ich würde seiner gar nicht erwähnen, I would not speak of him at all meat. 21. Have you the bread or the sugar ? 22. I have the bread. wenn er nicht mein Verwand'ter :

24. He has the book. if he were not my relative.

23. Has the father the book or the comb? wire,

EXERCISE 6 (Vol. I., page 61). Senie“ße des Lebens, aber mit Ehren! Enjoy (the) life, but with honour !

1. Are you the baker's friend? 2. No, I am the joiner's friend

4. He has the peasant's dog and Er wurde eines Verbrechend an'ge. He was accused of a crime that 3. What has the butcher's friend ?

horse. 5. Where is the flour ? 6. It is in the miller's bag. 7. Where Flagt, das er nicht began'gen hatte. he had not committed.

is the grain ? 8. It is in the peasant's basket. 9. Who loves the Bergei'sen Sie meiner nicht. Do not forget me.

teacher? 10. The scholar loves the teacher. 11. Are you sleepy ? Ich vergaß' meinen Bleistift ; geben I forgot my pencil; give me 12. No, I am thirsty. 13. Where is the brother's ball ? 14. The Sic mir einen Augenblid ten yours a moment.

child bas the brother's ball in the father's hat. 15. Where is the 3h'rigen.

teacher's horse ? 16. It is in the stable. 17. Does the joiner praise EXERCISE 88.

the carpenter ? 18. No, the carpenter's son praises the teacher's son.

19. Where is the joiner's chair? 20. It is in the teacher's room. 1. Wer alte Leute nicht achtet, ist nicht werth, selbst geachtet zu werden. 21. Does the carpenter love the teacher?, 22. Yes, he loves and 2. Wenn man auf jete Rede achten wollte, hätte man sich um viele Sachen praises the teacher. 23. The man is at the table, the book is on the zu betimmern. 3. Er entbehrte der nöthigen Mittel, um seine Pläne aus- table, and the dog is under the table. guführen. 4. Wer wird sich meiner annehmen, wenn ich verlassen bin? 5.

EXERCISE 7 (Vol. I., page 62).
Wenn er seine Fehler bereut, so will ich ihrer auch nicht mehr get enken. 6.
Ich würde noch viel mehr Sachen bedürfen, wenn ich nicht gewohnt wäre,

1. Who has this girl's paper ? 2. This child has it. 3. Whose tie Gegenstände zu entbehren, die (Sect. XXI. 3) vicle Leute für unent

book has this scholar? 4. He has the teacher's book, 5. From whom behrlich halten. 7. Der General erwähnte Ihres Sohnes, als cines der

have you this leather ? 6. I have it from the shoemaker. 7. For tapfersten Männer in seinen Regimentern. 8. Gewähre meine Bitte, D

whom is this apple ? 8. It is for the saddler's child. 9. Whose coat

has the tailor's son ? 10. He has this friend's coat. Here! und schüße mich vor meinen Feinden. 9. Gevenfe meiner Bitte. has this hatter's son money? 12. He has money from the father.

11. From whom 10. Nichts ist unleitlicher, als auf Jemanden lange zu warten, der zuleßt 13. Where is the peasant's wagon ? 14. The teacher's friend has it. gar nicht fommt. 11. Längst schon harrte ich Ihrer mit Schnsucht, als ich 15. Whose house and garden has the teacher ? 16. He has the Sic ennlich kommen jah. 12. Grbarme Dich tes Kindes, das verlassen auf mayor's house and garden. 17. From whom have you this hat ? 18. I have it from the hatter. 19. For whom is it? 20. It is for the name was Giotto or Angiolatto, an Italian painter, sculptor, tailor's son, 21. Have you gold, silver, or copper for the teacher ? architect, and engineer, born at Vespignano in 1276. As a boy 22. I have silver for him. 23. Whom does the child love ?

24. It he was employed as a shepherd, but Cimabue, who accidentally loves the teacher's brother.

discovered his innate talent for drawing, took him by the hand, EXERCISE 8 (VOL. I., page 62).

and made him a greater painter than himself. He had learnt

the rudiments of his art in the fields by sketching his sheep on 1. Where is the mate's brother? 2. He is with the captain in the ship. 3. Is the nobleman's son with him also ? 4. No, he is in the earth with the end of his shepherd's crook, or with a nail Germany. 5. Where is the father ? 6. He is with the captain in the

on any flat piece of stone that might come in his way. These custom-house. 7. Does the captain praise the nobleman's son ? small beginnings had great results in Giotto's case, for he went 8. Yes, and he praises the father also, 9. Does the nobleman love the on step by step until he became the greatest Italian painter of captain P 10. Yes, he loves and praises him very much. 11. Is this his time. When Benedict XI. was Pope of Rome, artists were man the captain's son? 12. No, he is the mate's son. 13, Is this

wanted to work at the decorations of the great cathedral dedi. sailor rich ? 14. No, he is poor and merry. 15. How old is this cated to St. Peter, and invitations were sent to the principal man? 16. He is not very old. 17. Is he sick ? hungry. 19. What does this girl give the child ? 20. She gives it painters of Italy to forward specimens of their skill for the

Giotto contented himself with drawing & only sugar.

21. What do you give the servant ? 22. I give him pope's inspection. money. 23. What does the servant give the horse ? 24. He gives it

circle on a piece of paper with a bit of charcoal, and handing it hay. 25. Does this child love the teacher ? 26. Yes, and the teacher

to Pope Benedict's messenger. It was in vain that the mes. praises the child. 27. Is the hunter still in the forest ? 28. Yes, and senger urged that his master required some design as a specithe nobleman's son is with him. 29. The huntsman goes to the men of Giotto's skill, for the painter refused to send anything forest to the father, and I go to the brother.

else. The circle so hastily drawn was found to be perfect when EXERCISE 9 (Vol. I., page 66).

tested with a pair of compasses, and so struck was the pope

and his advisers with this surprising proof of the artist's 1. Has a man or a child this friend's stick? 2. This man has an capacity as a draughtsman, that he was immediately summoned enemy's sword, and this child has a friend's stick. 3. What has the

to Rome to carry out the work that Benedict wished to conhunter ? 4. He has a dog and a gun. 5. Who has the peasant's tribute as his quota to the adornment of the finest cathedral plough? 6. The father of this child has the plough. 7. Has this klacksmith the merchant's money? 8. No, he has only iron from a

that has yet been built. merchant. 9. Have you the baker's wagon? 10. No, I have this

But to return from this digression. The circle, in geometrical wagon from a carriage-maker. 11. Have you this girl's ribbon ? terms, is a plane figure; that is, a figure drawn on a plane or 12. No, I have cloth from a draper. 13. Have you this friend's coat?

level surface, and bounded by a curved line called the circum14. No, I have this coat from a tailor. 15. Have you the teacher's ference or periphery. Let us explain these terms; for there is paper ? 16. No, I have this paper from a stationer, and a letter of nothing so well calculated to fix the meaning of a word and the recommendation from the teacher. 17. Is the horse & draught- peculiar property of the figure that it is intended to describe as animal? 18. Yes, and it is also a beast of burden. 19. Is the camel

to trace it to the primary source or root from which it is derived. a draught-animal also ? 20. No, it is only a beast of burden. 21, Whose law-book has the nobleman's son ? 22. He has the law-book of level. It is merely another form of the word plain, which we

The word plane is derived from the Latin planus, flat, smooth, the judge of the superior court.

apply to a level tract of country because it is flat and devoid of hills or any striking inequalities in its surface. A joiner or

cabinet-maker will now see at once the reason why the tool he LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.-XIV.

uses to give an even level surface to a piece of wood is called a

plane. The word circumference, which is applied to the line THE CIRCLE AND ITS PROPERTIES.

which is carried round about, or which bounds any figure, is HITHERTO, in our lessons in Geometry, the attention of the derived from the Latin words circum, round, and fero, I bear or student has been directed to the construction of rectilineal carry. The word periphery means precisely the same thing, figures, or figures contained by right or straight lines : we shall but it traces its source to the Greek instead of the Latin, being now enter on what may be termed the "geometry of the circle," derived from the Greek Tepi (per'-ry), around, and pepw (fer'-ro), or the method of drawing circles and parts of circles under I bear or carry. various conditions ; concluding our lessons on this subject Look at the annexed figure. The whole of the superficies or with instructions for drawing regular polygons by the aid surface of the paper that lies within the curved lino A C B E is of the circle, protractor, and scale of chords, as well as the called a circle. The curved line ACBE ellipse and other figures bounded by curves or consisting of itself is called the circumference or periphery curved lines.

of this circle. The point o is called its It may be useful to the student if we recapitulate briefly the centre, a word derived immediately from the names of various parts of the circle, and mention its chief Latin centrum, and more remotely from the properties as laid down in the Definitions (Vol. I., page 53), Greek Kevtpov (ken'-tron), a sharp point. before explaining one or two other points that will be necessary The position of this point has this peculiar for him to understand before he reads the problems that we are property : it is such that all straight lines about to bring under his notice.

drawn from it to the circumference are

Fig. 49. Firstly, let us ask, What is a circle? It is a form that meets equal to one another. Thus the straight lines 0 A, O B, C, the eye often enough as we go about our daily tasks. As we O E, drawn from the centre o to the points A, B, C, E, in the cir pass through the streets of town or city, or along the highways cumference, are equal to one another. These lines are called and byways of the country, it is brought before us in the wheels radii of the circle A C B E, from the Latin radius, & sunbeam or of every vehicle we meet. It is exhibited in the form of the ray of light, and hence applied to any line or any number of lines majority of our cooking utensils. If we turn our eyes to the that radiate in various directions from the same point, as rays face of the clock that stands on the mantel-shelf, or the watch of light seem to proceed from the sun or any luminous centre, that is carried in the waistcoat-pocket, it is there. Nay, more, as may be seen by looking at a candle or gas-light with halfit is found in every button that we wear on our attire, in the closed eyes, when the rays that seem to issue from it will become cups and glasses out of which we drink, and in the plates off distinctly visible. Any two radii that proceed from the centre which we eat our daily food. It is the most perfect, the most in opposite directions, and therefore lie in the same straight line, elegant, the most useful of all forms. Under the figure of a form together a straight line called a diameter of the circle

. In snake holding its tail in its mouth, the ancients adopted it as the above figure (Fig. 49), A B is a diameter of the circle ACB E. the emblem of eternity, which had no beginning, and which has Its name, derived from the Greek dia (di'-a), through, and no end. It is a figure which any one can describe by the aid of METPELV (met-rine), to measure, implies that it is a line that a pair of compasses with the greatest ease, but one which it measures the circle across its superficies and throngh its centre

. would be most difficult to draw without the assistance of this Having arrived at the meaning of the word diameter, we arrive useful instrument.

at the full significance of the term " diametrically opposita." There was' a man once, though, who could draw a perfect Thus, when we say that the opinions entertained by any two circle with a simple sweep of his unerring arm and hand, and men are diametrically opposite, we mean that they are as conmark its centre with the same rapidity and precision. His trary to each other

as it is possible to be as opposite, in fact, in


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