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depressing them. Since these plates are not attached to all 1. Selbst, when it precedes the subject or the object, is likothe segments, but are only appendages to some of them, while wise generally rendered by "even," as :-Selbst der Tod trennte Fie the intermediate ones are furnished with gills, which lie ander nicht, even death did not separate them. Selbst das Wiedersehen the felt, the reader will observe that there will be a chamber seiner Freunde vermochte nicht, ihn zu erheitern, even the meeting again between the felt-like roof and the proper dorsal wall of the of his friends was not able to cheer him. animal. In this chamber the delicate gills of the animal are protected from being bruised, and fresh filtered water is supplied

VOCABULARY. to them in the following manner. When the plates are slowly abhalten, to hinder. Dringen, to penetrate. | Dhr. n. ear. erected, or removed from the back, water flows through their Armuth, f. poverty. Gefühl'voll, sensitive, Preisen, to praise. porous substance, and when they are drawn rapidly down, the Aufnehmen, to take feeling.

Redlich, honestly. water is forced backward along the whole length of the back,

up, to contest. Gesang',, sing. Säen, to sow. laving the gill fringes, and passing out bebind.

Au'ßenseite, f. exterior.


Sieger, m. victor. The animals we have hitherto described are grouped together Aus'wählen, to select, Gewinn', m.gain, pro- Sogar', even. under the title Errantia, or wandering animals, because they choose out.


Tapf'erfeit, f. valour. are capable of locomotion; but other families occupy protective Bedin'gung, f. con- Hart, hard.

Ton, m.strain, melody tnbes, made of particles of sand glued together, or of compact dition, proviso, Hell, bright.

Treu, faithful. carbonate of lime. In accordance with this mode of life, all the


Jerermann, every one. Unfraut, n. weed, tare, feelers and all the respiratory organs have to be crowded together Beglei'tung, f. atten. Krachen, n. roar. Unterstüßʻung, f. Buparound the head, which alone projects from the tube. These dants, escort. Liftig, cunning.

port, assistance. tube-inhabiting worms furnish a striking instance of the method Beharʻren, to persevere Muthlo8,disheartened / Wachsen, to grow. in which Nature exhibits the plan of structure of animals, even when circumstances necessitate a fundamental modification of

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. that plan, for the rudiments of feet and gills are found all along An haltend Fall'ente Wassertropfen Perpetually falling water-drops, the body, even when that body is so enclosed that they can be of

höhlen mit der Zeit sogar einen in time hollow out even a no use. In such cases the rudiments are reduced to the smallest

Stein aus.

stone. possible dimensions, yet there they remain to indicate the so stywer auch die Prüfung für ihn Severe as the trial was for him, affinities of the animal.

war, so hat er sie doch bestan'den. he nevertheless stood it. The common earth-worm has no external gills, and instead Wenn auch die Welt un'tergeben Even if the world should be of close-set bundles of seta or bristles which act as oars, it has

sollte, so will ich dennoch auf den wrecked, I will still trust ou only eight thorn-like locomotive organs on the under side of

Herrn trauen.

(in) the Lord. each segment. These can be protruded or retracted, and the Wer er auch sein mag, und was er Whoever he may be, and whatanimal makes use of them as holders to prevent one part of

auch sein mag, ich fürchte mich ever he may be, I do not fear the body being dragged back while the other is drawn up to it

nicht vor ihm.

him. by muscular contraction.

So viel auch die Leute über ihn However much people spoke of The leech is the type of another large family. Its skin is

sprachen, so mußten sie doch alle (about) him, they were yet perfectly smooth ; and, being deprived of the means of pro

seine Hand'lungen bill'igen. obliged to approve his actions. gression enjoyed by its neighbours, it is compensated by having at each end of its body a sucking disk, with which it walks,

EXERCISE 118. In it the abdominal cavity is obliterated, for though the main tube of the stomach is small as compared to the tube of the

1. Sogar die Sieger priesen die Tapferfcit der Besiegten. 2. Der Gesang

3. Die Töne der Musik frangen body, and septa unite them as in other annelids, yet, as will be rührte sogar die Härtesten Gemüther.

4. Man kann sogar hier das fröhliche Laden seen in the engraving, this tube sends forth lateral pockets, sogar bis an unsere Ohren. which swell outward till they come in opposition to the skin to felbst nicht thun mag? 6. Man muß sich selbst achten. 7. Das Unframt

der Kinder hören. 5. Wie kann man von Andern verlangen, was man which they are united. The use of the leech is so widely recognised that the demand foll mich nicht abhalten, redlich zu handeln. 9. Wenn auch sie mich were

wächst von selbst, ohne daß man es fået und pflegt. 8. Die Armuth selbst for these animals is enormous, many millions of them being

10. D, wenn auch diese Zeit imported into this country annually. It is difficult to conceive lassen, dann habe ich feinen Freund mehr. of an animal better suited to the surgeon's purpose. It makes schon ba mare:

11. Wenn er auch eine rauhe Außenseite hat, so bat er a puncture with its three compound teeth shaped like the toch ein gefühlvolles Herz. 12. Wenn Ihr auch dieses thut, dann will ich letter Y; and this is of such a nature that while it admits of Euch gut belohnen. 13. So viel aucy Gurer sind, ich nehme es mit jetem the free flow of the blood while snction is going on, yet but auf. 14. So viel auch Heinrich arbeitet, so bringt er doch nichts fertig


16. Was auch little drains away afterwards. Again, the creature always fills 15. So viel er auch sprach, sie hörten ihn toch nimt. itself to repletion, though its stomach is, of course, of limited geschehen mag, ich werde ihm treu bleiben.' 17. Was auch für Nachrichten capacity, so that a certain number of leeches applied always

fommen, sie werden nicht muthloß. 18. Was auch mein Freund beginnt, indicates a definite amount of blood abstracted. These con.

er hat fein Glüc. 19. Was es auch sein mag, Niemand soll es erfabren. veniences, united with the fact that leeches often die after 20. Gr hat sogar nicht Geld genug, um Brod zu faufen. 21. Wir müssen gorging themselves, have led some to suppose that Providence Jedermann lieben, selbst unsere Feinde. 22. Ich fann selbst unter diejen created the leech on purpose for blood-letting. It may be so;

Bedingungen Ihren Vorschlag nicht annehmen. 23. Er fonnte sogar unter

allen but if so, it is the only instance in which a species is known to

üchern das schönste auswählen. sacrifice its own welfare for the benefit of another species.

EXERCISE 119. The class Annelida may be divided into orders thus :

1. Whatever he may say, I shall persevere. 2. Even with 1, Suctoria, of which the leech is a type.

that profit they were not contented. 3. The mishap of this 2. Scolecina, of which the earth-worm is a type. 3. Tubicolæ, of which the serpula is a type.

family was so great, that they even asked assistance of strangers.

4. I shall not depart with attendants even. 5. The moon does 4. Errantia, of which the lob-worm and sea-worms are types.

not give us so much light as the sun, even when she shines the

brightest. 6. Whatever your friend may be, you will not obtain LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXXII.

it. 7. Whoever this young lady be, she is very rude. 8

However cunning they may be, they are sometimes mistaken. SECTION LXII.-IDIOMS OF VARIOUS KINDS.

9. Great as my poverty may be, I shall not become disheartened. Auch (also) often corresponds to our word "ever" in compounds; 10. Whatever the news may be, impart it to me.

11. Whatever as :-So groß er auch ist, ich will es doch mit ihm aufnehmen, however advantages may be offered te him, he will not accept of them. big he is, I will enter into the contest with him (literally, take 12. Whatever faults he may have committed, I will forgive him. it with him). Wer er auch sein mag, whoever he may be. Was | 13. Even in the heat of the battle, and amidst the roar of caner auch sagen mag, whatever he may say.

nons, the commander rode quietly to and fro. 14. However Sometimes it is best translated by “even,” as :-Wenn er auch great my misfortune may be, nobody shall perceive it. 15. Even frant ist, so will ich ihm doch nicht helfen, even if he is sick, neverthe- the king must obey the law. 16. Even my adversary praised less I will not help him.


my valour.



ness, sloth.


SECTION LXIII.-IDIOMS OF VARIOUS KINDS (continued). instead of coffee. 4. The Greeks fostered art and science long

before the birth of Christ. 5. He is accustomed to rise at six Pflegen, besides its primary meaning “to nurse" or "take care

7. of,” has in both the present and imperfect the signification to o'clock. 6. I will take care of this book till you return. be accustomed," " to be wont; - Gr pslegte

zu sagen, he used He takes care of his health. 8. Give attention to thyself, not to say. Er pflegt zu reiten, he is accustomed to ride (on horseback). only when you are in society, but also when you are alone. 9. 1. Achten or Acht haben, followed by auf, is used thus : Ich achte them. 10. We must guard ourselves against our enemies.

Good children give attention to that which their parents tell

11. auf das, was (Sect. LXIX. 2) ich höre, I give attention to that which I hear. Ich werde Acht auf ihn haben, I will attend to him A German marmot takes care in the summer of his food for the

winter. (bave attention on him). Er nimmt sich, in Acht, he takes care of himself. Wir müssen uns vor dem Büjen in Acht nehmen, we must guard ourselves against that which is bad (take ourselves in at


EXERCISE 38 (Vol. I., page 211).

1. Sie mögen in den Garten geben, aber Sie dürfen nicht lange dort Allein', alone, but. Hamster, m. German Schmeichler, m. flat- bleiben. 2. Diese aufmerksamen Schüler durften mit ihrem Lehrer nach Ameise, f. ant, em. marmot.


Mannheim geben. 3. Wir können unsere Zeit besser anwenden. 4. Kön, met.

Kleinod, n. jewel, trea- Selbst'erfenntniß.f.self. nen Sie Deutsch sprechen ? 5. Wir konnten unsere Aufgaben diese Woche Appetit', n. appetite.


nicht lernen. 6. Sie müssen die Aufgaben dieser Woche aufmerksam lernen. Christus, m. Christ. Lebensunterhalt, m. Sommer, m, summer. 7. Sie mögen morgen zu Ihren Eltern geben. 8. Er mag ein guter Mann Dachs, m. badger. subsistence. Sorgen, to care, to sein. 9. Die Haussrau muß morgen auf den Markt gehen. 10. Haben Sie Damit', therewith. Mü'Biggang, m. idle

take care.

Ihren Eltern geschrieben? 11. Ja, ich mußte schreiben. 12. Es ist zwei Uhr. Gi'chenbain, m. grove

Tugend, f. virtue. 13. Ich werde bei Ihnen (an Ihrem Hause), ein Viertel auf vier Uhr ankom. of oaks.

Dpfern, to offer, 52- Vor'tragen, to pro- men. 14. Wollen Sie zwanzig Minuten vor acht Uhr fommen? 15. Ich Geburt', f. birth.


found, tell. mag diesen Abend zu Ihnen tommen, aber warten Sie nicht auf mich. Gesund'heit, f. health. Pflegen, to foster. Winter, m. winter. 16. So lange als es regnet. fann ich nicht ausgehen. 17. Fische fönnen Glatt, smooth. Regie'rungsantritt. m. Wiederher'stellen, to re- nur im Wasser leben, und Vögel in der Luft. 18. Sic hätten das nicht Gut, n. good, gift, accession to the store.

thun follen, es wird feine Empfehlung für Sie sein. 19. Ich will heute blessing government.

Abend nach dem (or ins) Theater gchen. 20. Wir mögen ein anderesmal RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

diese Gelegenheit nicht haben.

EXERCISE 39 (Vol. I., page 238). Ein guter Vater sorgt mehr für den A good father cares more for

gei'stigen Schmud seiner Sinter, the intellectual, than for the 1. I must go to the meadow to fetch hay. 2. What is your brother als für den leib'lichen.

corporeal adorning of his to do at school? 3. He is to go to school, to learn the Latin lanchildren.

guage. 4. Man must be honest or wretched. 5. What am I to do? Ein jeder Mensch trägt wegen der Every man has a concern for 6. You may do what you like, and should do what you can. 7. Why did

you not come to our house yesterday? 8. I would, but I could not; I Zukunft Sorge.

the future.

was obliged to stay at home and read. 9. Will the tailor be willing to Vor einem falschen Menschen soll One should guard himself more make me a coat? 10. He will be willing to make you one, but he may

man sich mehr in Acht nehmen, als against a treacherous person not be able to do it. 11. Why will he not be able to do it ? 12. He vor einer gif'tigen Schlange. than against a poisonous ser- will be obliged to go in the country to see his sick brother. 13.


What does the boy want with the knife ? 14. He wishes to cut bread Er hat mehr Acht auf seine Umge'. He gives more attention to and cheese. 15. Have you time to go into the stable ? 16. I have bung, als auf sich selbst. those who surround him than time, but I will not go; I will remain at home.

17. What have you to himself. to do at home? 18. I have letters to read and to write.

19. Are you Gebet Acht auf lehr-reiche Gesprä'che, Give attention to instructive obliged to write them to-day ? 20. I must write them to-day, because

I am going to Heidelberg to-morrow. 21. One must be cautious in und behaltet das Beste.

conversation, and retain the the choice of one's friends. 22. This boy has learnt nothing at all to. best.

day. 23. Have you also learnt nothing ? 24. I have learnt some. So'crates pflegte zu sagen, er wisse Socrates was accustomed to say thing, but not much. weiter nichts, außer daß er nichts he knew nothing farther, than

EXERCISE 40 (Vol. I., page 238). wisse, und so pflegt noch heu'tigen that he knew nothing; and Tages jeder Beschei'dene, und selbst 80, at the present day, every

1. To whom are you going ? 2. I am going to my brother. 3. der Geschei'teste zu sagen.

modest person, yea, even the With whom is this boy going? 4. He is going with his father to the most learned, is accustomed town. 5. From whom did you hear this news ? 6. I heard it from

my old friend. 7. With whom are you going to the village ? 8. I am

not going to the village, I am going with my father to the great town. EXERCISE 120. 9. When are you going out of the town to our friends ? 10. We are

11. 1. Derjenige, welcher in der Jugend sorgt, braucht nicht im Alter zu I am going neither to my friend to-day, nor to the village, nor out of

not going to your friends, we are coming home again to-morrow. forgen. 2. Habe Acht auf Dich, nicht nur in Gesellschaft fremder Leute,

the house. 12. The count has a great castle with little windows. 13. sondern auch wenn Du allein bist, damit (Sect. LXXVI.) Du Dich selbst The river comes from the mountains. 14. Has your father heard any. tennen lernit. 3. Derjenige, welcher nicht immer auf sich Acht giebt, kommt thing from his brother ? 15. Yes, this man is (come) from Hungary, nie zur Selbsterfenntniß. 4. Die alten Deutschen pflegten gewöhnlich in and has brought my father a box from my uncle. 16. Is he going to alten Eichenhainen ihren Göttern zu opfern. 5. Gute Kinder pflegen (Sect. Vienna? 17. No, he is going to Warsaw, and from Warsaw to Cracow. XLVI.) ihre Eltern in ihrem Alter. 6. Meine Freunde pflegen des Mors 18. The Bavarian, the Bohemian, and the Hessian come from Germany, gens Wasser zu trinken. 7. Des Morgens und des Abents pflegt er der

19. The huntsman with his gun comes from the forest. 20. The serNuhe. 8. Wir pflegen, anstatt des Thees, Kaffee zu trinfen. 9. Seiner

vant is going to the town. 21. I heard from my brothers you were

going to their friend. 22. The servant-girl comes from the well, and Gesundheit zu pflegen ist seine erste Sorge. 10. Er pflegt des Mor:

the man-servant goes to the butcher. gens zu arbeiten, und des Nachmittags zu lesen. 11. Derjenige, welcher des Müßigganges pflegt, pflegt auch der Sünde. 12. Pfleget der Jugend, und

EXERCISE 41 (Vol. I., page 239). nicht des Lasters. 13. Er pflegt nicht vor acht Uhr aufzustehen. 14. Man 1. Wenn wir glüdlich sein wollen, dürfen wir nicht vom Pfade ter pflegt nicht in Amerika, wie in Deutschland, zu sagen: „Ich wünsche Ihnen Tugend abweichen. 2. Ich weiß, daß er Ihr Freund nicht ist, aber ich weiß einen guten Appetit." 15. Der Mensch sorgt oft mehr als nöthig ist um gleichfalls, daß er ein Mann von Redlich feit ist. 3. Laßt sie wissen, daß Teinen Lebensunterhalt. 16. Die Amcise sorgt schon im Sommer für ihre diese Neuigkeiten nur Gerüchte sind. 4. Man muß nicht alles sagen, was Nahrung im Winter. 17. Der deutsche Kaiser Marimilian I. trug gleich man weiß. 5. Sie müssen in der Wahl Ihrer Freunde sehr vorsichtig sein. bei seinem Regierungsantritt Sorge, die inxere Ruhe Deutichlands wieter- 6. Wir sollten wissen, an wen wir uns wenten. 7. Wollen Sie dem herzustellen.

Schneider sagen, wenn er Ihren Roc fertig have, bei mir vorzusprechen? EXERCISE 121.

8. Haben Sie Zeit, mit mir nach der Stadt zu gehen? 9. Wenn er dit 1. Guard yourself against those who have smooth words, bad Arbeit nicht hätte zu Stande bringen fönnen, würde er sie nicht unternom. thoughts, and a treacherous heart. 2. He cares more for his men haben. 10. Haben Sie Zeit, diesen Brief zu lesen? 11. Er geht in soul than for his body. 3. We are accustomed to drink tea die Schule, um die lateinische Sprache zu lernen.

to say.



dotted line surrounding the oval o MPRNQ. This shows us an

easy and practical method of forming an oval grass-plot or THE OVAL-THE PARABOLA.

flower-bed, surrounded by a gravel walk of uniform width. The next two problems will be found useful by the practical PROBLEM LXI.-To describe an ovoid or egg-shaped oval of draughtsman, as the first enables him to draw an oval, a figure any given straight line taken as its lesser diameter. approaching very nearly to the form of the ellipse, by a few turns Let A B (Fig. 89) be the straight line that is given on or about of his compasses; while the second shows how an ovoid or egg which to describe an ovoid or egg-shaped oval. Bisect AB in C, shaped figure, of which one end is more pointed than the other, and from c as centre, at the distance C A or C B, describe the circle may be formed. The oval is as elegant in form as the ellipse, ADBE, and through c draw the straight line DZ of indefinite length and quite as useful for all practical purposes. It may be drawn towards 2, at right angles to A B. Through the point E, from far more readily than the ellipse when it is necessary to trace the the points A and B, draw the straight lines A Y, B x of unlimited curve by hand and determine points through which it must pass, length. Then from a as centru, with A B as radius, describe the as in the last problem.

aro BG meeting A Y in G; and from B as centre, with B A as radina, PROBLEM LX.—To describe an oval on any given straight describe the arc A F, meeting Bx in F. From the point B, at line as its greater diameter.

the distance EF or EG, describe the arc FL G. The figure Let A B (Fig. 87) be the given straight line about which, DALB is an ovoid, and it is described about A B as its lesser

as its greater diameter, it is diameter as required. If it be required to make the ovoid required to describe an oval. longer or shorter than the ovoid DAL B, it is manifest that the Trisect the straight line A B points from which the arcs forming the sides of the figure are in the points c and D. From described must be without the points A and B in the straight

the centre c at the distance line A B, produced both ways in the first case, and within the BCD or ca describe the circle points A and B in the straight line A B itself in the second. Sap

A E F, and from the centre D posing that it be required to make it longer than the ovoid DALB, at the distance DC or D B de produce a B both ways to Q and R; in A o take any point , and scribe the circle B E F, and let make c k equal to ch. Take any point L in D z, and through L the circles A EF, BEF inter- from the points 1 and K draw the straight lines H P, Ko of unsect each other in the points limited length towards P and o. Then from and K as centres,

E and F. From the point E, at the distances H B, K A respectively, describe the arcs BN, A X, Fig. 87.

through D, draw the straight meeting Hpko in M and n, and complete the ovoid DA MNB 23 line E G, meeting the circumference of the circle B E F in G, before, by drawing the arc M N from L as centre with the radius and from the point F, through c, draw the straight line fi, LM or L N. The student may work out the remaining case for meeting the circumference of the circle A E F in H. From himself, bearing in mind that the radius with which the arts the point E as centre, with E G as radius, describe the arc G K forming the sides meeting the circumference of the circle A EF in K; and from of the ovoid are F as centre, with the radius FH, describe the arc H L, meeting the described must be circumference of the circle BE F in L. The figure AHLBGK necessarily greater is an oval, and it is described on or about the given straight than the radius of line A B as its greater diameter. The straight line no drawn the circle described through the points of intersection E and F of the circles A EF, about the given BE F, is the lesser diameter of the oval, and m, the point in lesser diameter, or, which its diameters intersect each other, is its centre.

in other words, There is another method of constructing an oval, the prin greater than oneciples of which may be readily applied to the mode of con- half of the straight struction just described, inasmuch as in both cases the oval is line given as the described by arcs of circles drawn from four centres, which are lesser diameter, as, the angular points of a rhombus, a figure formed by placing to when the centres of gether two equal equilateral triangles, base to base.

the side arcs apIn XY (Fig. 88), a straight line of indefinite length, take any proach so closely two points A and B, and on the straight line A B describe the together as to coinequal and opposite equilateral triangles ACB, ADB. Produce the cide with each other

Fig. 89. sides CA, CB of the triangle A C B indefinitely towards E and F, and the centre of and the sides D A, D B of the triangle ADB also indefinitely the circle, there can be no elongation of the lower part of the towards G and H; and through c and D, the opposite vertices of ovoid, which, in fact, then becomes identical with the circle. the equilateral triangles A CD, AD B, draw the straight line K L PROBLEM LXII.—To describe a parabola by mechanical of indefinite length, intersecting the straight line x y in the point means.

In cz take any Fix a long flat ruler by means of two brass pins on the piece point M, and from z of wood or paper on which it is required to describe a parabola, set off z N along Z D, and from a point A (Fig. 90), taken as nearly as possible in the equal to zm. From middle of the ruler, draw a straight line A B at right angles to D as centre at the the ruler, or the direction in which the ruler is fixed. The distance DM, de- straight line AB is called the axis of the parabola, while the

scribe the aro o MP, line C D which represents one side of the fixed ruler is called the Y meeting the straight directrix of the parabola. Take a ruler made in the form of a

lines D G, DH in o right-angled triangle (see Vol. I., page 96), and at the extremity and P; and from c G of the longer of the two sides that contain the right angle GPE as centre, at the dis- fasten a piece of thread or string, and let the thread have s knot tance c n, describe tied in it so that the length of the thread from g to the knot may the arc on R, meet- be exactly equal to the side G F of the triangular ruler. Thrust ing the straight lines a pin through the knot, and fix the pin through any point w, in

C E, C F in Q and the straight line A B, which has been selected as the focus of the Fig. 88.

Then from the parabola to be described. Place the edge Fg of the triangular

point A as centre ruler along the straight line A B, keeping the string tight with at the distance Ao or A Q, and from the point B as centre at puncil-point, which, when the edge FG of the ruler is lying along the distance B P or B R, describe the arcs O Q, PR. The figure the straight line A B, will manifestly be at a point x, the point of OMPRN Q, composed of the four arcs OP, PR, RQ, QO, described bisection of AH, the distance between the fixed ruler and the from the four angular points of the rhombus DBCA as centres, focus of the required parabola. Slide the edge Fs of the is an oval. By taking points beyond M and n at equal distances triangular ruler slowly along the edge c D of the fired ruler in from z, a series of similar ovals may be drawn, as shown by the the direction of c, keeping the pencil-point against the edge Fe

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of the triangular ruler, and the thread at its utmost tension exiled princes was most firmly engrafted on the people, and from the focus to the pencil-point, and from the pencil-point where it was most difficult to follow it for the purpose of to G. When the edge of the ruler has moved from A B to the rooting it out, disaffection was all but universal. The chiefs position L , the pencil-point will have traced out the curve k N, of clans, or heads of great families, there, were petty sovereigns, while the string will be in the position indicated by the dotted lines ruling absolutely over all their tribes, jealous of each other,

HN, NM When the ruler's ready to quarrel, and being ignorant and half barbarous, ever edge occupies the position FG, ready to settle the quarrel by the arbitrement of the sword. To the pencil - point will have the King of Scotland and England they confessed a certain sort traced out the curvo KNO, of allegiance, which they were quite ready to renounce whenever

and the string will be in the the king's pleasure ran counter to their own; but when they 10 position indicated by the once threw in their lot with him they stuok as close as burrs; and thick lines HO, O G. Simi.

no one could have more utterly devoted adherents. Trained larly, when the ruler's edge from childhood to regard implicit obedience to their own chief TB occupies the position E P, the as the highest virtue, their services were of immense import

pencil-point will have traced ance to him with whom, for the time being, their chief was on out the curvo KNOQ, and terms of friendship; and so thorough was their blind attach. the string will be in the posi- ment, that while they would go through fire and water for such tion indicated by the dotted a one so long as the friendship lasted, they would not scruple lines HQ, QP. By turning to murder him the very moment that the chief's sentiments

the ruler E F G, and reversing altered. They were rough men, lived rough lives, and held it Fig. 90.

the operation, the lower part more honourable to live by plunder than by toil; and they pos

of the curve K SZ V may be sessed those vices, as well as those virtues, which are incidental traoed; the change of position of the ruler's edge, and the string, to savages who dwell in the face of nature, and are but slightly being shown by dotted lines, which are lettered RT, Uw, us, influenced by the voice of civilisation. Much sentimental matter 8 T, HV, vw in the diagram.

has often been written about the Highlanders, chiefly by those It will be seen as well from the construction of the mechanical who never knew what their chief characteristics were; and in means for producing the parabola as from examination of the popular novels their virtues have been extolled, while their diagram, that the leading principle of the parabola is that the numerous vices have been hidden or varnished over, and their distance of every point on it from the focus is exactly equal to manners and customs have been presented with that enchanta line let fall from the point in question perpendicularly to the ment which distance lends to the view. While there was much directrix. Thus in Fig. 90, H N, the distance from the focus in that was admirable in the Highlanders-much to excite the most a straight line to the point n, is equal to N L, the perpendicular exalted respect for their courage, their endurance, their devotion, let fall from n on the directrix CD. Similarly H o is equal to 0 F, their hospitality-there was much also to condemn in their Ho to qe, us to 8 R, and u v to vu. A straight line drawn revengefulness, their thievishness, their brutality. Few of them through any point in the curve at right angles to the axis is were given to honest labour for procuring themselves a livelicalled the ordinate of that point. Thus, if we draw an indefinite hood, and many of them were, not to put too fino a point on it, straight line x y, at right angles to the axis A B, passing through no better than King William's letter described them, “a set of the point o and the focus H, H o is the ordinate of the point o, thieves.” They lived in the mountains, as their name implied; and u z the ordinate of the point z. The part Kh of the straight and protected by their hills, which they knew how to defend by line A B, intercepted between K, the vertex of the parabola, and their indomitable bravery-protected also by their poverty, they the focus h, in which the double ordinate oz cuts the axis a B at were long able to defy the authorities in the Lowlands. They right angles, is called the abscissa of the points o z. In like preserved with religious care their allegiance to the Stuart manner Q a is the ordinate of the point Q, and K a its abscissa. princes, who found among them, on the two great risings against

To find the focus of any given parabola, as QK v in Fig. 90, the house of Hanover in 1715 and 1745, their most hardy and draw the axis A B and the directrix c D, and at the point k in the most faithful adherents. Some of the heads of clans were straight line BK make an angle, B KO, equal to 60°. From the members of the Scotch nobility, and these swayed the political point o in which Ko meets the curve draw o u perpendicular to influence of their followers according to their own interests at A B; the point h is the focus of the curve. Make K A equal to court; so that it often happened that as interests conflicted, KH, and through a draw C D at right angles to A B: CD is the clans were opposed to one another, and when they were so, it directrix of the parabola.

was an opposition to the death, for enmity was cherished among

them to the entire exclusion of forgiveness. HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XXII.

Some of the more powerful clans had given in their allegiance

to King William and Queen Mary; but these clans were for the THE MASSACRE OF GLENCOE.

most part amenable to military coercion by the Government, “As for Mac Ian of Glencoe and that tribe, if they can be well while the rest were influenced by bribes, either of money or distinguished from the other Highlanders, it will be proper, favour, and were ready at any moment to turn against the hand for the vindication of public justice, to extirpate that set of that patted them. But by far the greater number of the clans thieves." So wrote King William III., by the hand of the remained in a state of chronic disaffection, would not own Master of Stair, to the commander of the royal troops in Scot- sovereign allegiance to any one, and remained independent of land, in January, 1692. The words were part of a letter of any king save their own chiefs. The trouble they gave was instructions to the king's general, respecting the conduct he enormous; the necessity of keeping up a strong force to check was to pursue towards the Highland chiefs, to whom a summons them, most annoying and costly; and the nucleus they furnished had been made to come in and make submission to the Govern for the gathering of a hostile army in the heart of Scotland, most ment before the 31st of December, 1691. They were words of dangerous to the peace of the kingdom. general or particular significance, according to the way in which Statesmen in London were more concerned for the pacification the reader chose to read them, and according to the circum- of the Scotch Highlands than for any other matter of domestic stances under which they were written. The letter was worded policy. They tried all sorts of ways to effect the object; they thus ambiguously by design, in order that the Secretary of State, played off one chieftain against another, sowed the seeds of who was to give further instructions upon it, might choose which dissension between them, bribed, flattered, threatened, and, interpretation he liked; and he chose an interpretation which had whenever they had the chance, used force ; but all means failed, the effect of covering his master with shame, though posterity and the Highlands remained a bugbear and a thorn in the side has done that master the justice to remove the blame from of the rulers, until, many years later, Mr. Pitt conceived the idea his shoulders and to place it where it is due.

of utilising the courage and the hardihood of the men by em“ The massacre of Glencoe" was on this wise :-Ever since the ploying them as soldiers in the service of the state. Not until Revolution in 1688 had turned out the house of Stuart from the the Highland regiments were raised were the Highlands pacified, throne, there had been more or less of disaffection in certain and certainly in 1691, the time treated of in this sketch, they parts of the kingdom to the rule of the new dynasty. In the were the homes of men who were ready for any desperate enter Highlands of Scotland, where the sentiment of devotion to the prise against the Government.

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Sir John Dalrymple, Master of Stair, was William's Prime Mac Ian went back to his home in the pass of Glencoe, glad Minister for Scotland. He was a man who hated the marauding at having made his peace, his mind having no misgivings about mountaineers with an implacablo hatred, and would gladly have the ratification of his accepted allegiance. The news went ap given his voice in favour of any project for crushing out their to London that Mac Ian of Glencoe had not submitted, and by spirit by harsh means. He disbelieved in anything short of extir- the time the further news of his submission arrived, steps had pation, and did his best to dissuade the Government from a policy been taken to punish him. The Master of Stair was greatly of lenity, which they were willing to adopt. Contrary to his wish, rejoiced at the prospect of being able to make an example, and it was determined to try the effect of a conciliatory present of the Earls of Breadalbane and Argyll, with whom Mac lan was £15,000, which was to be divided among the several chiefs, and at private war, rejoiced at the prospect of taking a bloody John Campbell, Earl of Breadalbane, was chosen to be the agent revenge. The intelligence of Mac Ian's submission was a blow for distributing it. He was to treat with the chiefs, and buy to all three, and they cast about how they might fend it off. their friendship for so much; and he was to hint that, if this In an age when persons arraigned on criminal charges were plan did not succeed, or if the chiefs should afterwards go from condemned to death on failure to sustain some technical obtheir bargain, there would be no more gentle treatment, but an jection to the indictment, it is not surprising to find that even a overwhelming force to overawe them. The earl was not very secretary of state should take advantage of an informality in successful in his negotiations. The chiefs came to his house at order to press matters against an inveterately hated antagonist. Glenorchy, but they could not agree about the price, and one of Substantially, of course, it made no difference whatever, whether them, Macdonald of Glencoe, came to an open quarrel with the submission was made on the 31st of December or on the 6th of king's representative. Lochiel, head of the Camerons, joined the following January, and the attempt made by Mac Ian on with Macdonald, and there were local claims, not thought of by the earlier date might well be taken to show the animus with the Government, and which Breadalbane had not power to settle, which he acted on the latter. But this was not the way in that prevented an apportionment of the money. Negotiation which the secretary looked at the case. He desired a loophole was protracted, the Master of Stair was losing his patience, and, out of which he might fling Mac Ian and his people, and he before the Earl of Breadalbane could give an account of his found it in the fact that Mac Ian had not surrendered by the proceedings, had taken steps more in accordance with his own prescribed day. He knew it would be fatal to his purpose to view of things.

furnish the king with all the information he himself had, and in Proclamation was made at Edinburgh, calling upon the High speaking on the subject, the Master of Stair suppressed the land chiefs to submit themselves to King William and Queen evidence that Mac lan had, though tardily, given in his alleMary before the 31st of December, 1691, and threatening that giance. In those days news was slow in travelling, and the those who did not take the oaths of allegiance by that date royal pleasure was taken as if the Macdonalds of Glencoe were should be treated as traitors and public enemies. Several still contumacious ; but the royal pleasure seems to have been, months were allowed for the rebel chiefs to come in; the Earl even then, that the outlaws should but be repressed with a of Breadalbane's negotiations went slowly forward; and the strong hand, their valley occupied, and examples made of such Government, on the other hand, were earnost in their prepara- as should be guilty of flagrant breaches of the public peace. tions to act up to the spirit of the proclamation that had been certainly there is not any warrant for supposing that King issued.

William or his other ministers were at any time privy to the Naturally enough, the chiefs were unwilling to make submis- plan which the Master of Stair was maturing in his brain. To sion. They hesitated, they blustered, they would die rather him it was a source of deep regret that any of the clans had than submit. Some of them actually made preparations to submitted. He had hoped to make a clean sweep of them all. resist the royal troops, and collected stores of provisions and The Macdonalds of Glencoe he determined should not escape. warlike material. But as the time drew near, and the atti. So the order quoted at the beginning of this sketch was tude of the Government remained firm and threatening, doubts sent down to the Commander of the Forces, and the Master of entered the minds of some whether it would not, after all, be Stair wrote full and particular instructions to explain how this over-hazardous to continue obstinate. A comparison of their generally worded order was to be carried out. Lord Macaulay resources with those of the Government showed at a glance thus describes the theatre where the Master's tragedy was to how hopeless it was for them to persevere ; and gradually they be acted :—“Mac Ian dwelt in the month of a ravine situated gave way, pocketed their pride, and, presenting themselves before not far from the southern shore of Lochleven, an arm of the the sheriffs, took the oaths. By the 31st of December all had sea which deeply indents the western coast of Scotland, and submitted, except Macdonald of Glencoe.

separates Argyleshire from Inverness-shire. Near his house were Macdonald had delayed, partly out of unwillingness to go, two or three small hamlets inhabited by his tribe. The whole partly out of bravado. He was ambitious of the honour of population which he governed was not supposed to exceed 200 remaining out after powerful rivals had submitted, and he souls. In the neighbourhood of the little cluster of villages waited, perhaps in the hope that other chiefs would be laggards was some copsewood and some pasture land; but a little besides himself, and that, united, they would be able to offer further up the defile no sign of population or of fruitfulness was such a stout resistance to the Government as would compel better to be seen. In the Gaelic tongue, Glencoe signifies the Glen terms than an unconditional surrender. But when he found of Weeping; and, in truth, that pass is the most dreary and that all the rest had given in their adhesion, and that if he per- melancholy of all the Scottish passes—the very Valley of the sisted in obstinacy, he wonld have to face the wrath and to cope Shadow of Death. Mists and storms brood over it through the with the strength of the king, he resolved to take the oaths. greater part of the finest summer; and even on those rare days

Not until the 31st of December, the very last moment, did when the sun is bright, and when there is no cloud in the sky, Mac Ian (Macdonald of Glencoe was so called in the Highlands) the impression made by the landscape is sad and awful. The set out with his principal men, to take the oaths at Fort William. path lies along a stream which issues from the most sullen and Arrived at the fort, he found that Colonel Hill, the governor, gloomy of mountain pools. Huge precipices of naked stone frown had not any power to administer the oaths, and that he must go on both sides. Even in July, the streaks of snow may often be to Inverary, the residence of the nearest competent magistrate. discerned in the rifts near the summits. All down the sides of Colonel Hill gave him a letter of recommendation to the sheriff the crags, heaps of ruin mark the headlong paths of the torrents

. of Argyleshire, Sir Colin Campbell of Ardkinglass, and Mac lan Mile after mile the traveller looks in vain for the smoke of one went on his way; but “ the way was long, the wind was cold,” hut, or for one human form wrapped in a plaid, and listens in the pitiless storins of a winter in the Highlands impeded the ola vain for the bark of a shepherd's dog, or the bleat of a lamb. man in his journey, and it was not till the sixth day after the Mile after mile the only sound that indicates life is the faint cry expiration of the term fixed by the amnesty proclamation that of a bird of prey from some storm.beaten pinnacle of rock.” Mac Ian appeared before the sheriff at Inverary.

With zealous care the Secretary of State and his friends, Overcome by the entreaties of Mac Ian, and by the letter of Breadalbane and Argyll, studied the geography of Glencoe, and Colonel Hill, certifying that the rebel chief had offered himself took the necessary measures to bar the ways out of it when at Fort William on the 31st of December to be sworn, Sir Colin once the Macdonalds should become fugitives. Campbell administered the oath, and sent an explanatory cer- beyond the passes from Glencoe were secured by promises, by tificate to Edinburgh, showing why he had departed from the appeals to their hatred and their interest; and when this was strict words of the proclamation.

done, the conspirators proceeded to devise a scheme by which

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The chiefs

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