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they might fall on the Macdonalds unawares, and slay them all, selves till the mass of evidence became enormous, and there was men, women, and children. The season was winter, and the a cry all over Scotland for an inquiry into the circumstances Master of Stair reckoned on its help to finish his work, if per. attendant on the slaughter of the Macdonalds of Glencoe. The adventure any of his prey should escape to the wood or the Scottish Parliament took the matter in hand, and King William thicket. The plot was laid with devilish cunning.
was at length obliged, for the honour of his Government, to Lieatenant-Colonel Hamilton, second in command to Colonel order an inquiry by a commission. Hill, of Fort William, was selected as the military executioner. The result of the inquiry was to fix the entire guilt of the Hill was reckoned too humane, too squeamish, to undertake massacre upon the Master of Stair, whose letters and papers of such a business, and he was simply ordered to place a strong instructions were produced. The subordinates, Hamilton, Glen. detachment under his junior's command. “Better not meddle lyon, Lindsay, and some more, were voted by the Parliament to with them than meddle to no purpose. When the thing is be murderers, and they fled for their lives before the request of resolved, let it be secret and sudden." These were the secre- the Estates that they might be prosecuted for their crimos. For tary's instructions to Hamilton, whose brain readily thought of the Master of Stair, the Estates left him to the judgment of the a method for strictly obeying them.
king, his master, whom they voted to have had no knowA hundred and twenty men were chosen from a regiment ledge of what the Master intended, and whose letter to the lately raised by the Earl of Argyll, and therefore for clan commander of the troops they declared was not capable of the reasons deadly opposed to the Macdonalds; they were put interpretation put upon it by the secretary. The king simply under the command of a Captain Campbell, commonly called dismissed the Master of Stair from his posts, and refused to Glenlyon, whose niece was married to the second son of Mac prosecute him for the murder; and finding that so many persons Ian, and were marched on the 1st of February, 1692, to Glencoe. were implicated in the affair, and that it would be inconvenient The fears of the clansmen were allayed by the king's officers, to prosecute them all, while he could not punish a few only who assured them they came but as friends, and that all they where all were guilty, proclaimed soon afterwards a general wanted were food and quarters. These were accorded cheer- amnesty. For the actual participators in the massacre of fully, the men were distributed through the community, the Glencoe, the only punishment that was inflicted upon them was officers were lodged with the chief's kinsman; Highland hospi. that described by Macaulay, the punishment “which made Cain tality was largely extended to men who came as travellers and cry out that it was greater than he could bear; to be vagabonds friends, and Mac Ian little thought the advent of his guests on the face of the earth, and to carry wherever they went a was in any way connected with his tardy journey to Inverary. mark from which even bad men should turn away sick with Indeed, he supposed, and reasonably, that his fault was con horror.” doned, and if he speculated at all upon the object of the soldiers' march through his territory, he certainly did not think that he was the aim and object of it.
OUR HOLIDAY. All went happily for nearly a fortnight, Glenlyon and Lindsay
CROQUET.-I. were treated like members of Mac Ian's own family, and there Tae game of Croquet is a very recent introduction into the was no hint in the conduct of the officers of the danger that list of our popular pastimes; but the number of persons of was threatening their hosts. Yet all the while Glenlyon was both sexes with whom it is a favourite amusement is now so secretly informing Hamilton of what he saw, and receiving his large, and so rapidly increasing, that we give it a prominent instructions in return. Those instructions, the final instructions, place in this series of papers. It is true it is not every one were to begin operations at 8 a.m. on the 13th of February, and who has access at all times to a private croquet ground; but to kill every Macdonald in Glencoe under the age of seventy. many of our public places of recreation are now provided with Hamilton intended to come with 400 men for the purpose accommodation for the game, and, as it becomes more widely of cutting off fugitives, but in any case Glenlyon was to fall on known, additional facilities will no doubt spring up for its at the time and date agreed.
practice. There was not any suspicion of guests who were eating and Before describing it, we will give a short account of the hisdrinking at the clansmen's tables, sleeping in their huts, and tory of the game. Although new in its modern features, it is interchanging the offices of friendship with them, until a few little more than an old game revived, after it had been almost hours before the massacre began, and then the suspicions of forgotten. Most of our readers either know or have heard of John Macdonald, son of Mac Ian, were allayed as soon as the neighbourhood of Pall Mall, in St. James's Park, and are aroused by the assurances of Lindsay, that they were only about perhaps aware that the long avenue in front of Buckingham to march against the Glengarry men, who had been giving some Palace is called “ The Mall.” These names are derived from a trouble. Sharp at five o'clock, Glenlyon began the work by pastime which was frequently played here after the Restoration, shooting his host and family, and then the fiendish slaughter went and, there seems reason to believe, was introduced from France on all through Glencoe. Mac Ian was shot through the head, his when King Charles II. returned from his exile in that country. wife was so maltreated that she died next day, and the chief's It is certain that the same game had long been known in France, sons had a hairbreadth escape, having only time to fly ere the where it was termed the jeu de mail, and the following account human bloodhounds could come upon them. The rattle of of it is given in a modern book of French sports and pastimes :musketry mingled grimly with the groans of the dying and “This game, which is said to have been played by the Gauls, the shrieks of the wounded, and the red glare of the burning our ancestors, was so generally played in former years, that houses-for the soldiers set fire to the dwellings which had the greater portion of the promenades adjoining many of our sheltered them-lighted the way to the destruction which was towns consisted of a long avenue, termed the mail, because it meant to be universal. But Hamilton was delayed on the was set apart for the jeu de mail. To this day it is still as much road, and did not appear in time; Glenlyon's men bangled at in vogue as ever in some of the towns in the centre of France, their bloody work, and the result was that at least half of the and in Montpellier it has never ceased to be a favourite amusepeople escaped. When Hamilton came he found the work on- ment with all classes and all ages. The instrument termed the finished, and though he committed a few more cold blooded mail consists of a club of strong wood, made in the form of a murders by way of wreaking vengeance, he was unable to follow cylinder, furnished at the two extremities with a tip or ferule the bulk of the fugitives into the fastnesses which were known of iron, and in the middle of which is firmly fixed a handle, only to them. When he had gone the ruined remnant of the about a yard long, not too stiff nor too pliant, but proportioned Macdonalds came back, only to find their houses a heap of to the weight of the cylinder. The ball, which is struck with ashes, the bodies of their murdered kindred unburied, and all the club, is made of boxwood, very dry and firm.” the flocks of the clan driven away as plunder.
Here we have a description of the same implements as those It was a long time before the truth leaked out. The perpe- that were used in the English game of Pall-mall, as appears trators of the massacre kept the thing quiet, and the surviving from the recent discovery of a set, concerning which the following sufferers by it were not in a position to make themselves heard. account is given in Mr. Timbs's “ Curiosities of London :". Rumour, then revelations by men in their cups, then the com- “In 1854 were found in the house No. 68, Pall Mall, a box plaint of Mac Ian's sons, gradually brought the affair at Glencoe containing four pairs of the mailes, or mallets, and one ball, into prominence. The story was disbelieved at first, as being such as were formerly used for playing the game of Pall Mall simply impossible; but fresh facts continued to present them. I in the Mall of St. James's Park. Each maile is four feet long,
and is made of lancewood; the head is slightly curved, and half inches in diameter, perfectly round, and each painted of a measures outwardly five and a half inches, the inner carve different colour, so that each player may know his own. being four and a half inches. The diameter of the maile-ends The mallets for striking the balls should bear a proper prois two and a half inches, each shod with a thin iron hoop: the portion to the size and weight of the latter. They are usually handle, which is very elastic, is
made in one or other of the forms bound with white leather to the
shown in the annexed engraving, breadth of two hands, and ter
although more fanciful ones have minated with a collar of jagged
been devised, and are occasionally leather. The ball is of boxwood,
seen in use. The handles should two and a half inches in die
be made of ash wood, about two meter. A pair of mailes and a
feet nine inches long, and thinner ball have been presented to the
in the centre than at the two British Museum."
ends, which allows a spring in These mallets are almost the
the stroke. In the thickost part, game in construction as those
which is grasped by the hand, used in the game of Croquet,
Fig. 1.-CROQUET MALLETS.
they should be about an inch in while the ball also is similar,
diameter, and taper to five-eighths although smaller in size. The English game of Pall - mall, / of an inch in the middle. The heads of the mallets should be although no detailed description of it is extant, no doubt so far of box-wood, their greatest diameter two and a half inches, and resembled that of Croquet, that the object of it was to propel their length about four and a half inches. the ball along the ground from one fixed point to another. But The pegs for a single set of implements are two in number, whereas in Croquet the ball is
one being driven in at each end struck through a series of iron
of the ground. They are about hoops, there is no evidence that
two feet in length, an inch and a such appliances were used in the
quarter in diameter at the top, game played by King Charles and
and brought to a point at the his court, nor, it will be seen by
bottom, so as to be readily driven the foregoing extract, was any
into the earth. They are usually hoop found with the other instru
painted with rings of colour, ments of the game. So far there
which show the order of players would appear to be a difference
-blue first, then pink, black, yel. in the two games; but, on the
low, brown, orange, green, and red. other hand, it is a well-known
The hoops are either eight or fact that in some districts of
ten in number, according to the France the jeu de mail has long
arrangement adopted in laying been played through a series of
out the ground. They are made hoops, and it is quite possible
of round iron-wire, arched in form, that they were also used occa
and each leg about fifteen inches sionally when the game
long from the crown of the arch. brought to England. If so, the
Being driven about two inches identity of the game of Pall-mall
into the ground, they should stand with that of Croquet is no unrea50
thirteen inches high when fired, sonable assumption. At any rate, A
the span of the arch being about the occasional use of hoops in the
nine inches. Flat-topped hoops jeu de mail in France is sufficient
are occasionally employed, but are to prove that Croquet has no title
not recommended. If the boops whatever to be considered a modern invention.
Fig. 2-THE CROQUET GROUND.
are painted white, they are more
easily distinguished. We have gone into this matter,
The arrangement of the hoops as questions are frequently asked
in laying out the croquet ground concerning it, and surprise has
is varied according to the size of sometimes been expressed that so
the ground, or the preferenoe of attractive a pastime was not de
those who may use it; but the plan vised until Waunin the last few
shown in Fig. 2 is that most com. years.
monly adopted, and it forms the The great charm and attraction
basis for all other arrangements. of Croquet, and the secret of its
The relative distances here given popularity, lie in the fact that it
are suited to a ground where stands almost alone as a game in
space is limited. which persons of both sexes can
The arrow lines show the direcjoin in the open air, and find both health and recreation to
tion in which the balls are played, "
and the figures indicate the order gether. Occupying this position,
in which the hoops are taken in it is likely that the popularity of
playing the game.
Thus, comCroquet will increase rather than
mencing at a short distance on diminish. We see no reason why
either side of the starting peg, a croquet ground should not be
each player aims to drive the ball formed on many a village green,
with his mallet through hoop No. or why the game should not have,
1, and so on through each in order like cricket, its allotted space in
until he passes No. 7. Then he our public parks. In this way it
has to hit the turning peg with might soon be found taking the place of more objectionable | his ball, and to return through hoop No.
7 (which thus practically amusements, and add another source of health and happiness to becomes No. 8 also), and along the other side of the ground, the people.
taking all the other hoops in downward succession, until he We pass on now to a description of the game, and the appa- repasses No. 1; he has then to strike the starting peg with his ratus and rules for playing it. The implements required are ball, and this completes the game. balls, mallets, hoops, and pegs.
A more detailed description of the game, with a code of rules The balls should be of box or beech-wood, about three and a | to be observed in playing it, we must reserve for another paper.
2 + 1 =
LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-X.
To give another example: carbonic oxide burns with oxygen
to form carbonic acid gas, thus :LOWER OXIDES OF NITROGEN AND COMPOUNDS OF THE
CO +0=C0g. GAS WITH HYDROGEN. The protoride of nitrogen, nitrous oride, or laughing gas (N:0, The figures represent the volumes, that is, two volumes of CO atomic weight = 44 ; density, because it is a compound gas, 22), is (carbonic oxide) and one volume of oxygen combine to form trio best prepared by heating in a flask ammonium nitrate; the volumes of co, (carbonic acid). We shall find that ammonia iz salt first melts, and by slightly raising and continuing the heat separated into its component gases, nitrogen and hydrogen, it becomes decomposed, resolving itself into nitrous oxide and under certain circumstances, or as thus expressed :water, which comes away as steam. This is expressed thus :
NH, N + 3H.
1 + 3; The gas cannot be collected over cold water unless with much
or two volumes of ammonia when decomposed become ore loss, for 100 cubic inches of water at 13o Cent. absorb 77 of the volume of nitrogen and three of hydrogen, or four volumes of
tho constituent gases, in combining to form ammonia, condenso gas. However, if the water be hot, a very small quantity is re
into two volumes. We shall tained, hence the gas must be collected over hot water or mer
often meet with illustra. cary, upon which metal it has no action. Properties.—The gas is colourless and without smell, but tions of this simple rule.
There is a moro delicate possesses a sweetish taste.
method of demonstrating When subjected to a pressure of about 30 atmospheres at the temperature of 0° Cent., by a process which will be described in
the composition of nitrous a succeeding lesson, the gas becomes a clear liquid. The Fig. 35 is filled with mer
oxide. The bent tube in same phenomenon is exhibited if the gas be cooled down to
Fig. 35. -88° Cent., that is to say, liquid nitrous oxide boils at -88°, or
cury, a small piece of potasthe vapour of that liquid (that, is nitrous oxide gas) has a tension the tube is inverted into a capsule of mercury, and nitrous oxide
sium having been introduced into the bent part by an iron wire; equal to one atmosphere at the temperature of -88° Cent.; and as it requires a pressure of 30 atmospheres at 0°. Cent. to liquefy end of the tube beneath the mercury being covered by the finger
gas passed into it. Heat is then applied to the potassium, the it, we say that at 0° Cent. the gas has a tension of 30 atmo. spheres. When liquid nitrous oxide is mixed with bisulphide of The potassium takes the oxygen from the gas, forming potash,
to prevent the escape of the gas when combustion takes place. carbon, and eaused rapidly to evaporate under the exhausted and the nitrogen is left. After the combustion is perfected, the receiver of an air-pump, the greatest known degree of cold is finger may be removed, and it will be found that the mercury obtained - 140° Cent.
When a body in a state of ignition is plunged into this gas, the stands at the same point in the tube, thus proving that although gas is decomposed into nitrogen and oxygen, this latter causing the oxygon has been abstracted, it retains its original volume. the body to burn with the same brilliance as if it were in pure which it takes the name of “laughing gas,” remains to be
The most remarkable property of nitrous oxide, and from oxygen. With sulphur the process is somewhat peculiar: if the sulphur be only ignited feebly, the flame will be extinguished, mentioned. It may be inhaled from an india-rabber bag. Place showing that there is some effort required to determine the the tube from the bag in the mouth, close the nostrils, and decomposition of the gas; therefore the sulphur must be in a lable sensation will be experienced, which expre33es itself in
breathe the gas in the bag. After about 2) minutes a pleasur. state of thorough ignition. The resulting compounds are exactly those in the cases exertion, which, if the subject be strong, amounts to "dangerous.”'
uncontrolled fits of laughter, or it may be exlıibited in muscular alluded to in the lesson on oxygen.
If the experiment of burning phosphorus in this gas be There is little or no danger in this experiment to the majority arranged as in Fig. 34—that is, a jar of the gas over water, of persons; but where the heart is diseased, or in persons of the stopper of the jar being rapidly removed, and in its place a few months the pure gig, unmixed with air, has displaced
full habit, it had better not be attempted. Within the last cork fitted, through which passed a “deflagrating spoon,” in which is a piece of ignited phosphorus-it will be observed chloroform in minor operations, especially in dentistry. The
that the water in the jar will have patient breathes the gas and becomes unconscious and insensible
Nitric Oxide (N,0,=NO; combining weight, 30; density, 15). of nitrous oxide, as the phospho- - As the termination ic will indicate, this gas contains more rus consumed the oxygen, of course oxygen than nitrous oxide. It is easily obtained by acting on the water would rise to fill the copper with nitric acid diluted with 2; times.its volume of place of the gas. The explanation
wator. The action is thus expressed :of this fact is, that in nitrous oxido
3Ca + SINO, = 3 (Cu2NO,) + 4H,0 + 1,0.. there is as large a volume of nitro- The flask will be found full of red fuines, for nitric oxido comgen as of the compound gas, that bines at once with oxygen to form nitric tetroxide, which is a is, in two volumes of the gas there deep.coloured gas. This aotion is an infallible test for the are two volumes of nitrogen and
presence of nitric oxide. The gas may be collected in the Fig. 34.
one volume of oxygen, these three usual way over water, and it will be found to be colourless. It
volumes being condensed into is less ready to support combustion than nitrous oxide, seeing two. The combination of gases by volume offers no difficulty that it requires a greater heat to decompose it, so that its if the student remember that simple gases are reckoned as oxygen may tako part in the combustion. Phosphorus, when one and compound gases as two volumes. To illustrate this immersed in this gas, must be very thoroughly ignited, or it will statement
be extinguished. Pelouzo suggests the following manner for 51,0 + 2P = P,05 + 10N
procuring this gas perfectly pure :--Digest hydrochloric acid represents the process which takes place when phosphorus is with iron filing; till it will dissolve no moro ; decant--that is, burnt in nitrous oxido. The P,03 (phosphoric acid), which is pour off-the cloar liquid, and add to it its own bulk of hydroformed, being a solid, does not enter into our calculations of the chloric acid. Place the liquid in a retort, and add potassium volumes of the gases; but it will be observed that there are five nitrate (saltpetre), and the nitric oxido begins to come off in atoms of a compound gas (N,O), and on the other side of the large quantities. The composition of the gas may be deterequation ten atoms of the simple gas N: hence, according to the mined as in the caso of nitric oxide. If the formula be N, 0,, above statement, if we reckon the compound gas as two volumes, it will be evident that we must have as much nitrogen left after we shall have ten volumes of N, O, and after the combustion has the combustion as there was nitric oxide before. Thus:taken place we shall still have an equal quantity (ten volumes) of gas left-namely, ten. volumes of the simple gas N, which is
N, 0,= 2N + 20.
NO. Ferified by the experiment.
The oxygen, being in a solid state in the potash, is not taken into
= 2 + 2.
account: honce two volumes of N,0, =two volumes of nitrogen; The gas must either be collected over mercury or by displacebut this is found not to be the case, for upon removing the ment, as in the case of hydrogen (Fig. 23), as it is one-half as finger, the mercury rises in the bent tube exactly one-half the heavy as air. Its specific gravity is 0.59, and it possesses the volume occupied by the gas. Therefore the formula for nitric well-known pungent odour of “smelling salts." oxide must be NO, and not 1,0, :
When breathed it has a violent irritating power on the pulNOEN + 0.
monary passages. It is a powerful base, neutralises the 2 =1+-;
strongest acids, and returns the colour to litmus paper reddened that is, the volume of nitrogen one-half that of the nitric by an acid. oxide, which agrees with the result of the experiment.
It is very soluble in water. The liquid at 0° Cent, and 760 This gas has not yet been liquefied.
mm. pressure is capable of absorbing 1149 times its volume. If a Nitric trioxiile, or nitrous acid (N,03 ; combining weight, 76; jar of the gas be held with its mouth downwards to the surface
and density, 38).- This gas is noted for its deep-red colour. The of water, the water will rush into the jar as into a vacuum, most ready method of preparing it is by heating in a capacious unless the glass be strong the jar will probably break. retort 1 part of starch with 8 of nitric acid. The gas liberated
When water containing ammonia is heated, the gas is giren is almost pure N,0..
off, so that at 20° Cent. only half the quantity of gas is reIt forms compounds called nitrites. A very minute trace of tained which the water possessed at 0° Cent. any nitrite may be detected by mixing a dilute solution of potas
When submitted to a pressure of 7 atmospheres at the ordinary sium iodide with starch and a little dilute hydrochloric acid. temperature of the air, the gas becomes a liquid, which boils at Render the liquid to be tested also acid with hydrochloric acid; 1 - 38.5° Cent., and freezes into a transparent solid at - 175°
Cent. then mix the two liquids; if any nitrite be present, the liquid will become blue. These salts may frequently be detected in
This fact has been advantageously applied by M. Carré to
freeze water. the well-water of towns.
A saturated solution of ammonia is placed in a When this gas is reduced to a temperature of -18° Cent., the strong iron vessel, which is connected by a pipe with a red fumes become a dark-blue liquid. When added to water, it “receiver,” which is a cavity in the thick wall of a cylindrical is at once decomposed into nitric oxido and nitric acid, thus :
vessel. When heat is applied to the liquor ammonia, the gas
is given off in large quantities; but not being able to escape, it 3N,03 + H2O=2HNO, + 4NO.
finds itself under great pressure, and begins to condense into a Nitric tetroxide, or nitric peroxide (NO.,; combining weight, liquid in the receiver. The interior of the cylindrical vessel is 46; density, 23).— The reddish-brown fumes which appear when filled with water, the heat is now removed from the other vessel
, nitric oxide meets with oxygen are chiefly of this substance. It is best prepared by heating lead nitrate in a small glass pouring cold water over it. But this renders the water it contains
and the temperature of the water it contains is reduced by retort. The fumes which are given off are a mixture of peroxide capable of absorbing the gas again, and therefore the liquefied of nitrogen and free oxygen ; if they are conducted through a bent
in the "receiver” begins to evaporate rapidly; this, however, tube which is surrounded by ice and salt, the peroxide becomes it cannot do, without absorbing a large quantity of latent heat, condensed into a liquid. The reaction is thus expressed:
and hence the water which the “receiver” surrounds freezes. 2(Pb2NO3) = 2 PbO + 4NO, +0,.
Ammonium (NH,).--Place a globale of mercury in a cavity in The red fumes are very suffocating, but will support the com- a piece of sal-ammoniac, and moisten it with liquor ammonia ; bastion of a taper immersed in them. This compound may be then if the positive wire of a battery be attached to the salt, distinguished from the former, nitrous acid, by its power of and the mercury be touched with the negative, the globule will imparting to a neutral solution of potassium sulpho-cyanide, a swell and assume all the appearance of an amalgam. When the red tint; an excess of the peroxide, however, renders the liquid current is suspended, the mercury returns to its ordinary state, again colourless.
giving off ammonia and hydrogen. The compounds of nitrogen and hydrogen are :
There is only one way of accounting for this, namely, that
sal-ammoniac is a chloride of a metal (NH,CI), and that in the Amidogen
ordinary way electrolysis took place --the metal combining with Ammonium
the mercury formed an amalgam. But this compound only Amidogen (NH,) is not known in a separate state, but it is having permanence under the influence of the current, decombelieved to exist as a constituent of numerous compounds whic's poses when the current is interrupted. chiefly belong to organic chemistry, and are termed amides.
Nessler's test discovers the most minute quantity of ammonia Ammonia (NH); combining weight, 17; density, 8:5). - This then add potassic iodido saturated with mercurio iodide. If any
Saturate the solution supposed to contain ammonia with potash, compound receives its name from the fact that it was first pre- ammonia be present, a “ brick-dust” precipitate will appear. pared from the dung of the camels which the Arabs collected at the temple of Jupiter Ammon, the halting-place before the through a red-hot porcelain tubo, or by passing a series of electric
The composition of ammonia is discovered by leading the gas journey of the desert of Libya was undertaken. Nitrogen and sparks. Either of these methods resolves the compound into its hydrogen do not combine directly with each other, but it seems whenever they are liberated together by the decomposition of components, which are found
to occupy double the volume of the any compound containing them, they unite to form ammonia, gas, as might be expected from this equation, which has been and it appears frequently to be formed when hydrogen, in its proviously alluded to:nascent state--that is, just liberated from its combination
NH, EN + 3H
=l+ 3; meets with nitrogen of the air. Thus, if iron filings be moistened and exposed to the air they become oxidised, partly at the expense
that is, two volumes of NH, become, when decomposed, foar of the oxygen of the water; and the hydrogen as it is liberated volumes of the mixed gases. forms, with the nitrogen, ammonia, which is found in the com. pound. This is also exhibited when tin, zinc, iron, and some other metals are acted on by dilute nitric acid, thus :
LESSONS IN GREEK.-X. 9HN0, 4 4Zn = 4(Zn2NO2) + 3H2O + NH.
THIRD DECLENSION (continued). The whole action is not expressed by this formula-for the There is yet another class in the subdivision of nouns whose water which dilutes the acid is decomposed-ard the cquation nominatives append s to the stem (see page 258), of which the may be rectified by using the liberated constituents of the water. stem ends in v or vt. As examples, take “ pas, prv-os, the nose; Any organic bodies which contain nitrogen when distilled in a και δελφις, δελφιν-ος, a dolphin ; ο γιγας, γιγαντ-05, a giant; και closed vessel give off ammonia. Formerly this method was re- odous, odovt-os, a tooth (Latin, dens, English, dentist). sorted to for its production from horn clippings, hence its name
Singular. - spirits of hartshorn. It is now obtained from the refuse pro- Nom. pis. δελφις.
οδους. ducts of the distillation of coal in the manufacture of gas. For Gen. piv-os. δελφίν-ος.
οδοντ.05. the laboratory it may be prepared by gently heating equal Dat. piv-s. δελφίν-1.
οδοντι, weights of quick-lime (oxide of calcium), made into a pasto Acc. piv-a. δελφίν-α.
οδοντ-α. with water and sal-ammoniac, which is ammonium chloride.
Voc. piv. δελφις (ιν). γιγαν.
povr. Cao + 2NH2Cl =CaCl, + 3H,0 + 2NH..
EXERCISE 32.-ENGLISH-GREEK. Nom. δίν-ες. δελφiv-€5. γιγαντ-€S.
1. We have ivory. 2. Ivory is produced (γιγνομαι) in districts Gen. δίν-ων. δελφίν-ων. γιγαντ-ων.
οδοντ-ων. of Africa. 3. The rays of the sun delight the shepherds. 4. Dat. ρί-σι. δελφι-σι. γιγά-σι. οδου-σι. The brothers and the sisters are delighted by the rays of the Acc. piv-as. δελφίν-ας.
5. The sister is lovely. 6. We admire fino ivory. 7. Dual.
Many elephants are in Africa. 8. The business of the teeth is Ν.Α.Υ. δίν-€. δελφίν-€. γιγαντ:€.
to masticate the food. 9. It is the duty of every man to worship G.D. δίν-οιν. δελφίν-οιν. γιγαντ-Οιν.
the divinity. 10. To the gods there once was (in idiomatic To this class belong the following adjectives :
English, the gods cnce carried on) a war against (npos) the
giants. 1. Ιη -ας, -αινα, -αν, as μελας, μελαινα, μελαν (gen. μελανος,
According to odovs are formed words compounded with odovs, μελαινης, μελανος), black; and ταλας, ταλαινα, ταλαν, unhappy. 2. Πας, πασα, παν (gen. παντος, πασης, παντος), all, every και το γιγας, adjectives in -ας, (gen. -αντος), as o, η ακαμας, unsub
as o, η μονοδoυς (gen. μονοδοντος), having one toot; according and its compound απας, άπασα, απαν.
dued, unwearied. 3. Έκων, εκουσα, εκον (gen. έκοντος, εκουσης, εκοντος), willing; and ακων, ακουσα, ακον, unwilling (a privative making εκων into | 2. NOUNS WHICH IN THE GENITIVE HAVE A voWEL BEFORE ακων).
THE TERMINATION -OS. 4. The adjectives in -εις, -εσσα, -εν.
For example, χαριεις, I pass on to this second great division of nouns (for the first xapierda, xapiev, lovely, which have in the dative plural of the great division the learner must rofer to page 195); and here, first, masculine and neuter gender -ot instead of -E101, as it is in I must take up substantives which end in -eUs, -avs, and -ous. λειφθεις, left behind; for the participles in -εις, -εισα, -εν, forIn The stem of these ends in ν. The v remains at the end of the the case regularly in -€101.
word and before consonants, but disappears in the middle Singular.
between vowels. Nouns in -eus have in the accusative singular Nom. 8 χαριείς, η χαριεσσα, το χαριεν.
-a, and in the accusative plural -as; take in the genitivo sinGen.
χαριεντος, χαρι€σσης, χαριεντος. gular what is called the Attic form in -ws, instead of -os; and Dat. χαριεντι, χαριεσση,
χαριεντι. in the dative singular, as well as in the nominative plural, Acc. χαριεντα, χαρίεσσαν, χαρίεν.
admit contraction, which, however, is commonly not found Voc. χαριεν, χαριεσσα, χαριεν.
in the accusative plural. If a vowel precedes -eus, the whole Plural.
singular and plural is contracted, as in xocus. Nouns in -aus Nom. χαριεντές,
and -oūs take the contraction only in the accusative plural. χαφιεσσαι, χαριεντα.
The words about to be declined are ο βασιλευς, ο king; ο χοευς, Gen. χαριεντων, χαρίεσσων, χαριεντων. Dat.
a measwe of liquid (about a gallon); d, ñ Bows, a bull or cow, χαριεσι,
χαρίεσσαις, χαριεσι. Acc.
an ox (Latin, bos, bovis); and í ypaws, an old woman.
χοευς. βους. γρανς. Ν.Α.V.
Gen. βασιλε-ως. χυεω)ώς. * βο-ος.
Acc. βασιλε-α. χο(εα)α. βούν. γραύν.
γραι. Nom. και λειφθεις, ή λειφθεισα, το λειφθεν.
Plural. Gen. λειφθεντος, λειφθεισης, λειφθεντος.
Nom. βασιλείς. χοείς. Bo-es. γρά-ες. Dat. λειφθεντι, λειφθειση, λειφθεντι.
Gen. βασιλε-ων. χο(εω)ών. βο-ών. γρα-ων. Acc. λειφθεντα, λειφθεισαν, λειφθεν.
Dat. βασιλεύσι. χoεύσι. βoυσι. γραυσι. Voc. λειφθεις, λειφθεισα, λειφθεν.
Acc. βασιλε-ας. χο(εα)ας. (βο-ας) βούς. (γρά-ας) γραϋs. Plural.
Voc. βασιλείς. χοείς. βο-Ες. γρά-ες.
G.D. βασιλε-οιν. χοε-οιν. βο-οιν.
γρα-ούν. Acc. λειφθεντας, λειφθεισας, λειφθεντα.
Αρχα(gen.),Igovern. Εκτωρ, -ορος, o, Hec-1 Όμηρος, ου, δ,Ηomer.
Οφθαλμος, -ου, ο, οι Ν.Α.Υ. λειφθεντε, λειφθεισα, λειφθεντε.
not, dishonour, Επιμελεια, -ας, ή, oye. G.D. λειφθεντoιν, λειφθεισαιν, λειφθεντοιν.
attention to, care. Πατροκλος, -9υ, και, VoCABULARY. Αχαριστος, -ον, αn. Θυω, I sacrifice.
Ιερευς,-εως,6,a priest Πολυλογος, -ον, talk. Ακτις, -ίνος, η, ο Ευπoρoς, -ον (with Μαχη, ης, ή, fight, Αχιλλεύς, -εως, o, Κυρος, -ου, ο, Cyrus. atire. beam, ray. gen.),easily passed, battle.
the hero Achilles. Anpos, -ov, è, idle Te (enclitic) και, Αυτος, he himself abounding. Οσφραινομαι (gen.), | Bουλομαι, I visit, talk, chatter. and—also, both. (Latin, ipse); ο Ηλιος, -ου, o, the sun. Ismell something. will.
Νομευς, -εως, o, a Τηλεμαχος, -ου, ο, αυτος, the same Κωτίλος, -η, -ον, 1ο- Ποτε, once (an en
Γονευς, -εως, και, ο shepherd.
Telemachus. (Latin, idem). quacious.
| Νομη, ης, ή, o pasture φονευω,I put to Βρωμα, •ατος,
το, Λεαινω, I make Φιλανθρωπος, man- Εικαζω (dat.), I liken Οδυσσεύς, -εως, ό, death, kill, mur. food. smooth, polish, ! loving, philan. to, compare with. Ulysses.
1. Οι βασιλείς επιμελειαν εχουσι των πολιτών. 2. Η αγελη
το νομεί έπεται. 3. Εκτωρ υπ’ Αχιλλεως φονευεται. 4. Ο! EXERCISE 31.-GREEK-ENGLISH.
ιερεις τους θεούς βούς θυουσιν. 5. Κυρος παις ην αγαθων γονεων. 1. Ου πασιν ανθρωπους και αυτος νους εστιν. 2. Τοις oδoυσι τα
6. Οι αχαριστοι τους γονεας ατιμαζουσιν. 7. Πειθου, ω παι, τοις βρωματα λεαινομεν. 3. Οι δελφίνες φιλανθρωποι εισιν. 4. Eστιν * γονεύσιν. 8. Τηλεμαχος ην Οδυσσεως υίος. 9. Bουλου τους ανδρος αγαθου παντα κακα ανδρειως φερειν. 5. Πολλαι Λιβυης γονεας προ παντος εν τιμαις εχειν.
10. Οι των γραών ληρο: τα χαραι ευποροι εισιν ελεφαντος.
6. Παντες κωτιλον ανθρωπον ωτα τειρoυσιν. 11. Καλως αρχεις, ο βασιλεύ. 12. Αι γραες εχθαιρoυσιν. 7. Τοις γιγάσι ποτε ην μαχη προς τους θεους. 8.
πολυλογοι εισιν. 13. Οι νομείς την βοών αγελην εις νομήν αγονσιν. Ταις του ήλιου ακτίσι χαιρομεν. 9. Ρινων εργον εστιν οσφραινεσθαι. 14. "Ομηρος τους Ηρας οφθαλμους τοις των βοών εικαζει.
* The verb coti with a genitive, as liere, signifies "it is the duty of," " it is becoming in."
* That is, xocws is contracted into xows, xoea into xoi, xoewy into zoev, and xocas izto xoas,