37 acres 40. acres, acres. account of the greatly superior weight of the latter. This or, what is the same thing, so that the four quantities shall be small velocity is easily overcome by the muscles, which being proportionals. stretched, act, to a certain extent, like & spring, and thus the It is evident, since a concrete quantity can only be compared blow is scarcely felt. with another of the same kind (Obs. 11, Lesson XXVII., Vol. II., We must now pass on to consider the impact of elastic page 102), that the fourth quantity determined must be of the bodies, and for this we may take balls of ivory suspended in the same kind as the third quantity. In order that the ratios of same way as those of clay were. We shall find that, though the the two pairs of quantities may be equal, either two must be effects produced by these are different, the same general laws of one kind and two of another, or all four must be of the same apply. The bodies, however, instead of moving on together, kind will, after impact, rebound and fly apart. 2. Suppose we have the following question proposed :Let us raise one of the balls c (Fig. 102) and allow it to fall EXAMPLE.-If the rent of 40 acres of land be £95, what will against the other. The first effect will be that the momentum be the rent of 37 acres ? will be shared between the two, but, being elastic, they will be It is evident that the sum required must bear the same ratio compressed, and the reaction in regaining their shape, being to £95 that 37 acres do to 40 acres. equal and opposite to the action, will destroy the motion of cand Hence we have, writing the ratios in the form of fractions, donble that of D. The former will therefore remain at rest, and Sum required. D will move on with a velocity equal to that which c had. If a the abstract number 37 £95 40 acres series of several balls be thus suspended so as just to touch one Therefore the sum required A5 x £95, which can be reduced another, and the end one raised and allowed to fall against tho to pounds, shillings, and pence. others, the motion of the first will be imparted to the second, 3. The last question might also have been solved thus:and by that to the third, and so on throughout the entire series, Since 40 acres cost £95, the motion of each being destroyed by the reaction of the next. 1 acre costs £16; The result will thus be that the end ball only will rise, all the And therefore 37 acres cost 37 x 95 pounds. others remaining at rest. So, if two balls bo allowed to fall, two will be raised at the other end. We sce, then, that no 4. In solving such a question by the Rule of Three, the state momentum is lost here, any more than it was in the case of in- ment of the proportion is generally written thus :elastic bodies; but it is not shared between all the balls, as it was in the other case. These experiments can, of course, be varied 40 : 37 : : £95 : sum required. to almost any extent, and you are recommended to try them for Then, by equating the product of the extremes and means, we yourselves, for more is always learnt by seeing or trying a few ex- get the result. We have put the first example, however, in periments than by reading about many. As, however, there is the fractional form, in order to indicate clearly the fact that difficulty in procuring and suspending ivory balls, the experiments the ratio of the two quantities of the same kind (acres in this can be tried in a simpler way with common glass marbles. Lay case) is an abstract number, by which the other quantity, the two thin strips of wood along a smooth surface, like the top of a £95, is multiplied. When we state the question in the second table, and adjust their distance so that a marble may just roll way, and talk about multiplying the means and extremes along between them; or, better still, cut a small groove in which together, some ccnfusion might arise from the idea of multithe marbles may run. One marble may then be laid in the plying 37 acres by £95. The fact to be borne in mind is that groove, and another made to strike it gently. The latter will the rule is merely the expression of the fact that the ratios of come almost to rest, while the other will move. The reason two pairs of quantities are eqnal. why it does not come absolutely to rest is, that glass is not 5. The example we have given is what is called a case of perfectly elastic, and thus the reaction is not direct Proportion--that is to say, if one quantity were increased, quite sufficient to destroy the motion. If seve- the corresponding quantity of the other kind would be increased. ral marbles be laid so as to touch one another, Thus, if the number of acres were increased, the number of E and one made to strike the end, the same re- pounds they cost would be increased. sults will ensue as with the ivory balls. If, however, the case be such that, as one of these corre There is one other law relating to impact. sponding quantities be increased, the other is proportionally It is, that "the angle of incidence is equal to the diminished, the case is one of what is called Inverse Proportion. Fig. 103. angle of reflection.” The meaning of this will For instance :be clear from the annexed figure. Let any EXAMPLE.—If 35 men eat a certain quantity of bread in 20 body strike against a surface ac, in the direction D B, it will re- days, how long will it take 50 men to eat it? bound from it in the direction 'B E, making the same angle with Here, evidently, the more men there are, the less time will the perpendicular B r that Bp does. The angle D B F, or that they take to eat the bread; hence, as the number of men at which it strikes a C, is called the angle of incidence, while increases, the corresponding quantity of the other kind—11, FBE is the angle of reflection, and the law asserts that these the number of days-decreases. are always equal. As we pass to optics and other branches of Hence, since 50 men are more than 35 men, the required physics, we shall find further illustrations of this law, number of days will be fewer than the 20 days which corte spond to the 35 men. ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES IN LESSON XVII. In stating the proportion, therefore, in order to make the 1. It will rise a little over 156 feet, and will reach the earth again in ratios equal, if we place the larger of the two terms of one ratio 6} seconds. in the first place, we must place the larger of the two terms of 2. The elevation is 5}' x 16, which equals 3016, or 484 feet. the other ratio in the third place. 3. It will strike the earth with a velocity of 16). Thus, placing 50 men in the first place, we must put 20 4. It will take 7 seconds, in the last of which it will fall 208 fcet. days (which, we can see, will be larger than the required 5. 16 X 33, or 528 feet, answer) in the third place, and then the statement would be 6. It would require 6 seconds, and pass over 576 feet. correctly made thus : 20 days ; required number of days. LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.--XXXII. Therefore the required number of days = 20 * # days = 14 days. RULE OF THREE--SINGLE AND DOUBLE. N.B.-We might reduce the example to a case of Direct Proportion thus, which will, perhaps, explain the above method 1. This is a name given to the application of the principles of more clearly :Simple Proportion to concrete quantities. We have shown of the bread in one day, (Art. 5, Lesson XX., Vol. I., page 343) that if any three num 50 bers be given, a fourth can always be found such that the four required number of days numbers shall be proportionals. Hence, if three concreto quantities be given, two of which are of the same kind, and the the number of men, we have Hence, since the quantity eaten in one day will increase with third of another kind, a fourth quantity of the same kind as the third can be found such that it whall bear the same ratio As 35 : 50 : ; to : required number of days; to the third quantity as the first two bear to each other ; Therefore required time = 20 * 16 = 14 days, as before. 35 men eat 1 or 50 1 6. The last question might also have been solved thus : GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.—III. 35 men cat the quantity in 20 days; BEFORE proceeding farther and deeper into our subject, we wish Therefore 1 man eats 's of the quantity in 20 days; 1 to draw the pupil's attention to an explanation of projection, a Thereforo 1 man eats of the quantity in 1 day; 35 x 20 term applied not only to perspective but also to other systems of TO representation, namely, orthographic and isometric. Our reason Therefore 59 men eat of the quantity in 1 day; 20 x 35 for introducing this now, is in order to make it clearly under1 20 x 95 And therefore 50 men would occupy stood how the plan of an object is to be treated when we are 50 days in eating the bread. about to make a perspective drawing of that object, as we very 20 x 35 frequently meet with cases when the plan of the object to be N.B.—To get the time occupied in doing a certain work, represented must be drawn according to the position which that when the amount done per unit of time (say per day) is given, object presents, whether horizontal or inclined. The plan, as we must evidently divide the whole quantity of work by the we said in Lesson I., is produced by perpendicular lines drawn amount done in a day. In the case given above, the bread from overy part of an object upon a horizontal plane. Now, being considered the unit, of the bread is eaten in 1 day, there can be no difficulty in drawing a plan when the subject represented by it is parallel with the ground or horizontal and therefore which is the whole amount eaten divided plane; but it occurs sometimes that it is placed at an angle 20 x 35 with both planes, that is, with the picture-plane and groundby the amount eaten in one day, will be the whole time occupied. plano: therefore in cases of this kind it is necessary to under stand the first principles of orthographic projection, namely, projec7. Hence we get the following statement of tion by straight lines upon vertical and horizontal planes. We Simple or Single Rule of Three. have mentioned above another mothod of projection, isometric; Write down the ratio of the two quantities which are of the as the term has been introduced, we will explain its meaning same kind, putting the greater in the first place. Then ob and then pass it by, as it does not, like orthographic, form any serving from the nature of the question whether the fourth auxiliary to perspective. The term isometric signifies like. quantity required will be greater or less than the third one measurement, that is, all the parts of the drawing, both near which is given, place tho greater of the two in the third place and distant, are drawn to one and the same scale, also the plan of the proportion, and multiply the extremes and means and elevation are combined in one drawing. It is a method together. much used by architects and engineers when they wish to give what is generally called a bird's-eye view of a building, etc., EXERCISE 51.-EXAMPLES IN SINGLE RULE OF THREE. without diminishing the distant parts, as shown in perspective 1. If 16 barrels of flour cost £28, what will 129 cost? projection. A drawing made isometrically will enable a stranger 2. If 641 sheep cost £485 15s., what will 75 cost? to understand the proportions, position, and general character 3. If £11 58. buy 63 pounds of tea, how many can be bought for of a subject probably better than any other system; hence the £385 ? 4. A bankrupt pays 6s. 4d. in the pound: what will be received on reason of its frequent use. a debt of £2,563 10s.? The extent to which we intend to proceed with orthographic 5. What is £1,460 worth in dollars, allowing 4 dollars 84 cents to projection must be limited to that which relates to, and can a pound, and 100 cents to a dollar ? assist us in, our present subject, by which we hopo to make it 6. If lb. of szuff cost £i, what will 150 lbs. cost ? a valuable auxiliary in our efforts to render the science of per. 7. A man bought of a vessel, and sold of what he bought spective easy and intelligible. for £8,240, which was just the cost of it: what was the The difference between the results of perspectivo and ortho. whole vessel worth? 8. If of a yard cost of a crown, what will 3, yards cost? graphic projection is caused by the altered position of the eye 9. Ii '10 men build a wall in 7 days, how long would it take 24 only, and from that place is included all that can be seen within when viewing the object. In perspective the eye is in one place men to build it? 10. If 6 men build a wall in 15 days, how many men would it take the angle of sight. In orthographic projection the eye is supjust to finish it in 22 days? posed to be opposite every part at the same time, above the object 11. If of a ton costs 98. 8 d., what would 47 of a cwt. cost? when the plan is represented, and before it when the elevation is 12. If a twopenny loaf weighs 1 lb. 2 oz. when wheat is 50s. a represented; consequently, in perspective, all the visual rays quarter, what should it weigh when wheat sells for Gos. ? proceeding from the object to the eye converge to one point; 13. If the weight of a cubic inch of distilled water be 253-1': grains, but in orthographic projection these rays are drawn parallel and a cubic foot of water weighs 1000 oz. avoirdupois, find the with each other, and perpendicularly to the plane of projection, number of grains in a pound avoirdupois. 14. If 1 lb. avoirdupois weighs 7,000 grains, and 1 lb. troy weighs whether the plane is horizontal or vertical. To make this clear, 5,760 grains, find how many pounds aroirdupois are equal to we request the pupil to compare Figs. 5 and 6 of the last 175 lbs. troy. Lesson with Fig. 8, when he will notice that the characteristic 15. Find the rent of 27a. 3r. 15p. at £1 3s. 60. per acre. difference between the two systems rests entirely upon the 16. The price of standard silver being 58. 6d. per ounce, how many different treatment of the lines of projection, which, as we have shillings are coined out of a pound troy ? said, converge in one case, and are parallel in the other. Fig. 8 17. A bankrupt's assets are £1,500 108., and ho pays 9s. 3}d. in the is to show how a cube is projected orthographically upon vertical pound : what are his debts ? and horizontal planes of projection. A is the vertical, and B the 18. If standard gold is worth 13 d. per grain, how many sovereigns horizontal. cis the cube in space, that is, at a distanco from would be coined out of a pound troy of gold ? 19. What is the income of a man who pays 538. 10d. tax when it both planes of projection. If straight lines are drawn from the is 7d. in the pound? angles of the cube perpendicularly to and meeting the plane B, 20. Raising the income tax 1d. in the pound increases my amount and then lines (a, b, c, d) be drawn to unite them, we shall have of tax by £2 3s. 4d., and the tax I actually pay is £15 3s. 4d. : a plan of the cube; and as the edges in this case are placed what is the rate of the income-tax? perpendicularly with the ground, the plan will be a square. 21. A barrel of beer lasts a man and his wife 3 weeks, she drinking Again, if horizontal and parallel lines are drawn from the half the amount he does : how long would it last 5 such angles of the cube until they meet the vertical plane A, and aro couples ? then joined by the lines e, f, g, h, we shall produce the elevation ; and because the horizontal edges of the cube are perpendicular KEY TO EXERCISE 50, LESSON XXXI. (Vol. II., page 270). to the vertical plane of projection, the drawing in this case also will be a square. Consequently, it will be seen that the drawing d. 15. ·025. of the plan or the elevation is the same size as the object on the 16. 115, respective plano to which the object is parallel, according to the 5 87. 17. 8 14 103 given scale of that object, as in Figs. 10 and 11. This result 3. 19. 3.786. makes orthographic projection of much importance for practical 12. 157 15 67. 15.997. purposes. The working drawings for the guidance of builders 20 18 21. 13. and mechanists are made by this method. Horizontal lengths 7. 23 11 5). and breadths are shown both in the plan and elevation, but 14. 023. s. d. 3 0 10, 5 1. 6. £ s. .889. 0. 18. *938. 8 119. 25 17 1. 20. 5. 6. *014. heights are indicated only in the elevations. Sometimes when the angle it forms with the ground; therefore man will be equal subject is a simple one-for instance, a plain wall—its course to o an; this was the reason the angle man in Fig. 15 was and thickness will be shown in the plan, and its height marked made 50°. By comparing Figs. 15 and 16, the same letters by indices in brackets at the end, as (10.5 feet), meaning that it being used in both, the corresponding lines will be seen, and it is to be built 10 feet 6 inches high. Fig. 9 is the plan and front will be understood why c d in Fig. 15 is made equal to mn, elevation of a cottage. It will be seen that if the plan be drawn because, as in Fig. 16, mn is equal to no, the distance of the first, perpendicularly dotted lines must be drawn parallel with upper end of the rod from the ground, and no is equal to cd, each other from every angle, and from the terminations and therefore m n is equal to cd. projections of each line, which will determine the extent of the PROBLEM VI. (Fig. 17).—The frustrum of a right square elevation and of its several parts, but not its height. If the pyramid rests with its base on a horizontal plane, the lengths of elevation be drawn first, the perpendicularly dotted lines are the edges of the top and base being respectively 1.3 and 2.4 projected downwards to produce the plan. In orthographic pro- inches, and the height 2.8 inches; draw its plan and elevation. If jection we usually draw a line to represent the meeting or axis a pyramid be divided into two parts by a plane parallel to its of the two planes of projection, the horizonal and the vertical, base, the part next the base is called a frustrum of a pyramid, or which, as in Fig. 10, we have marked xy; therefore it must be sometimes a truncated pyramid. Draw the square abdc, the plan remembered that all above that line is understood to be the of the base 2:4 inches side (see Lessons in Geometry, Problem vertical plane of projection upon which the elevations are drawn, XVIII., Vol. I., page 255), and within it the square efhg, the plan and all below it the horizontal plane upon which the plans are of the top 1.3 inch side. In order to place the plan of the top so drawn. The plan of a circle when parallel with the ground is a that the edges shall be equidistant from the edges of the plan circle of the same size indicated by the scale. The elevation is of the base, proceed as follows:-Draw the diagonals cb and a straight line only, equal to the diameter (Fig. 10). If the circle a d, make c n equal to 1:3 inch, and draw nh parallel to is standing on its edge perpendicularly to the ground, then its cgfb; draw gh parallel to cd; the rest will be evident, as plan is a straight line only, and the elevation is a circle (Fig. 11). the angles are in the diagonals, and the sides are parallel to ab To illustrate the positions (Fig. 10), let the pupil hold a penny. and ac respectively. Having drawn the plans, then draw xy, piece horizontally before, and level with, his eyes; he will see the ground line, parallel to one side of the square; draw am and the edge, the elevation; then let him place it upon the ground, bl; draw the lines ei and f k, continuing them above a y equal and look down upon it; he will see the whole circumference, to the height of the frustrum 2.8 inches; join im, kl, and il; the plan. Reverse the position of the penny, and do the same mikl will be the elevation. The pupil will observe that other for Fig. 11. We trust there will be no difficulty now in under- elevations can be drawn from the same plan, opposite any standing the position of the eye with respect to both planes of other side, when required for working purposes a common projection. As we intend to devote the present Lesson to the practice in drawing extra elevations for building construction ; consideration of this subject, preparatory to more important in these cases all that is necessary is to arrange the ground line questions in perspective, we will give our pupils a few simple or axis of the planes opposite the side of which the elevation is problems for practice, reserving others of a more complicated required. Fig. 18 is the same subject as Fig. 17 : xy is placed nature till they are required in future Lessons. parallel to one of the diagonals of the plan, consequently two faces PROBLEM II. (Fig. 12).—A rod, 4 feet long, is parallel with, of the frustrum are seen, a' and b', shown in the plan as a and ). and 2 feet from, both planes; draw its plan and elevation. Scale inch to the foot.–First draw x y, the axis of the planes, and LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XXXVI. draw ab, 4 feet long, parallel with and 2 feet from xy; then from the extremities a and b draw perpendicular lines to c and SECTION LXIX.-THE IMPERATIVE. d; mark c and d 2 feet above xy, and join them; e will be the 1. CONJUGATION OF THE IMPERATIVE OF THE REGULAR elevation, and f the plan. VERBS. PROBLEM NI. (Fig. 13).—When the same rod is at an angle Chant rend of 40° with the vertical plane and parallel with the horizontal sing finish receivo chér aperç -oive plane.-Draw a line eg at an angle of 40° with æy, make es Qu'il parl vend let him speak let him cherish let him perceive let him sell. equal to 2 feet, and draw fa parallel to xy: a will be the plan Donn tend of one end of the rod 2 feet from the vertical plane; upon eg let us give let us furnish ist us gather let us tend. and from a make ab, the plan, equal to 4 feet: draw the per Cherch entend -ez. pendicular lines a c and bd, and draw cd, the elevation, punish Loar. parallel with and 2 feet above xy. Qu'ils port -issent d -oivent perd -ent. PROBLEM IV. (Fig. 14).—When a rod is at an angle of 40° let them carry. let them scize. let them ovo. let them lose. with the ground and parallel with the vertical plane.--Draw eg 2. The first person singular, and the first and second perat an angle of 40° with xy, and draw the perpendicular ef sons plural of the imperative, are the same as the first person 2 feet from xy, also fc parallel with xy; cut off cd, equal to singular, and the first and second persons plural of the present 4 feet, the whole extent of the rod : from c and d draw per- of the indicative. The pronouns are dropped :pendiculars cutting ay to a and b; join ab, for the plan, Je parle, parle ; Je fiuis, finis. I speak, speak; I finish, finish. parallel with ay. When the object is at an angle with both planes, the angle of imperative, aie, ayons, ayez ; être, to be, sois, soyons, soyez ; 3. Exceptions.-Avoir, to have, make in those persons of the inclination with the horizon is made on the horizontal plane. PROBLEM V. (Fig. 15). — Let the rod have one end on the ground, savoir , to know, sache, sachons, sachez ; and aller, va, and vas and let it rise at an inclination of 50°, and let its plan be at an before y not followed by an infinitive. 4. Vouloir has only the second person plural, veuillez, hare angle of 40° with the vertical plane.—Draw the line eag at the the goodness to.... given angle 40° with the vertical plane; upon this line the plan will be represented. Draw ah at an angle of 50° with a g, and 5. A third person singular and plural is given in the imperamake a m equal to the length of the rod; from m draw n n per- belong properly to the subjunctive, as they express rather a tive by most of the French grammarians. These parts, however, pendicular to ag; an will then be the plan of the rod when inclined to the horizon at 50°. Draw ncd and ab at right strong wish than a command. The English expressions, let him angles with « y, and make cd equal to mn; join 6 d; the line speak, that he may speak, are rendered in French by qu'il parle . id will be the vertical elevation. That this may be more clearly English to the right, to the left. 6. A droite, à gauche, correspond in signification to the understood, we will draw the eidograph of the problem, Fig. 16, Go to the right, to the left. that is, the figure or appearance it would present when placed in Allez à droite, à gauche, conjunction with the two planes of projection (Fig. 8 is also an 7. For the place of the pronouns in connection with the cidograph). In Fig. 16 a o is the given rod, and an is its plan. imperative, gee Sect. XXVI., i, 4; Sect. XXVII. 1, 2, 3, 4. Now in order to get the inclination of a o, the rod, which is raised RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. from the paper at an inclination of 50°, must be rabatted, that Prenons la première rue à droite. Let us take the first street to tke right, is, thrown down upon the horizontal plane; the course of the Ne cherchez plus à le tromper. Seek no longer to deceive him. dotted arc om will show this. We must construct the angle of Sachons nous contenter du néces. Let us know how to content ourselves the inclination of the rod upon the horizontal plane, that is, the saire. with necessaries. fin .is rec -ois render. .isse perc -evons -ez -issez conc -evez seck -ent sais use. vernor. Faites bien attention à ce que vous Pay great attention to what you say. prendre un parti, to take a determination; prendre du café, da dites. thé, etc., to take coffee, tea, etc. Dites toujours la vérité. Always tell the truth. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Courez voir votre père. Run and see your father, Prenons garde de nous blesser. Let res take care not to hurt oureelres, Clef, f., key. Promett-re, 4, ir., to Sans faute, reithout Prenez garde de déchirer vos habits. Take care not to tear your clothes, Crayon, m., pencil. promise. fail. N'avez-vous pas pris le deuil ? Have you not put on mourning? Institutrice, f., teacher. Rapport-er, 1, to bring Se serv-ir, 2, ref., to Prenez la peine de vous asseoir. Take the trouble to sit down, Obé-ir, 2, to obey. back. Prenez du thé ou du café. Take tea or coffee. What resolution have you taken ? Précepteur, m., in- liver. [back. Verrez, 3, ir., from VOCABULARY. Attend-re, 4, to expect, Gât-er, 1, to spoil. Robe, f., dress, Gouverneur, m., go-Soin, mn., care. 1. Envoyez chercher le médecin, votre petit garçon est malade. Chocolat, m., chocolate. Tomb-er, 1, to fall. 2. Nous l'avons déjà envoyé chercher. 3. Vous n'avez pas Courrier, m., courior. Lorsque, when, Tach-er, 1, to stain, to besoin de votre crayon, prêtez-le-moi [Sect. XXVI. 4; Sect. Croi-re, 4, ir., to believe. Port-er, 1, to wear. spot. [oilent. XXVII. 4]. 4. Je ne saurais vous le prêter, je m'en sers. 5. Déchir-er, 1, to tear, Quelquefois, sometimes. Se tai-re, 4, ir., to be Donnez-le-moi ou me le prêtez [$ 100 (6)]. 6. Je l'ai promis à votre institutrice. 7. Si vous no le lui avez pas dit, dites-le-lui EXERCISE 135. aussitôt que possible. 8. Ne le lui dites pas encore. 9. Parlez- 1. Allez voir mon frère, il a quelque chose à vous communi. lui-en ($ 39, 17] la prochaine fois que vous le verrez. 10. Ayez qner. 2. Courez leur dire que je les attends. 3. Mon frère a patience, mon ami, votre père ne tardera pas à venir. 11. bien pris garde de déchirer ses habits. 4. Votre cousine a-tObéissez à votre précepteur. 12. Je lui obéis toujours, donnez- elle pris garde de tacher sa robe ? 5. Elle a pris garde de lui-en une bonne partie. 13. Je lui en ai déjà donné plus des tomber, car en tombant elle l'aurait gâtée. 6. Ces petites filles deux tiers. 14. Avez-vous porté cette clef au serrurier ? 15. ont-elles pris le deuil ? 7. Elles viennent de le prendre. 8. J'ai oublié de la lui remettre. 16. Portez-la-lui sans faute cette Pour qui prenez-vous le deuil ? 9. Je porte le deuil de ma après-midi. 17. Veuillez me dire où demeuro M. G. 18. mère. 10. Prenez-vous du thé ou du café le matin? 11. Nous Prenez la première rue à gauche, il demeure dans la deuxième prenons du thé et du café. 12. Ne prenez-vous pas quelquemaison à droite. 19. Allons, Mesdemoiselles, dépêchons-nous. fois du chocolat ? 13. Nous n'en prenons que lorsque nous 20. Menez-les-y le plus tôt possible. 21. No me les rapportez sommes malades. 14. Quel parti le gouverneur a-t-il pris ? pas. 22. Renvoyez-les-moi lemain. 23. Portons-les-y. 24. 15. Il a pris le parti de se taire. 16. Prendrez-vous mon parti Ne les y portons pas. 25. Prêtez-les-lui, mais ne les lui donnez (my part) ou celui de votre fils ? 17. Je prendrai le vôtre, si pas. je crois que vous avez raison. 18. Pourquoi ne prenez-vous EXERCISE 134. pas la peino de lire sa lettre ? 19. Parce qu'elle n'en vaut pas 21. II 1. Give a book to the young man. 2. I have already given la peine. 20. Votre courrier a-t-il pris les devants ? him one, and he does not read it. 3. Lend it to him, if you n'a pu prendre les devants. 22. N'avez-vous pas tort de will not give it to him. 4. I will not lend it to him. 5. Make prendre son parti ? 23. Je n'ai pas tort de le prendre. 24. haste, young ladies, it is ten o'clock. 6. Have the goodness to Avez-vous pris le thé (your tea)? 25. Nous n'avons pas pris give me a pen. 7. I have given one to your brother. 8. Obey (our) le thé, nous avons pris le café ? your father, and speak to your sister. 9. Will you not send EXERCISE 136. for the letter? 10. I will send for it. 11. Send for it as soon 1. Has your brother taken care not to spoil his hat? 2. He as you can. 12. Do not do so (le), but write to my cousin. 13. has taken care not to spoil it, he has only one. 3. Go and Come, children (mes enfants), learn your lesson. 14, Give him speak to your sister, she calls you (appelle). 4. Will you not some [8 39 (17)], or lend him some [$ 100 (6)]. 15. Do not tako a cup (tasse) of tea ? 5. I have just taken my tea. 6. make haste, we have (le) time. 16. Have patience, my child, What have you said to your little girl? 7. I have told her to the merchant will soon come. 17. Send it to him, if you take care not to tear her dress. 8. Let us take care not to cannot give it to him. 18. Write to him this afternoon without tear that book. 9. My son has just brought it. 10. Has he fail. 19. I would write to him if I had time. 20. Let us take taken his tea ? the first street to the left. 21. Take the second street to the 12. At what hour do you take tea at your house ? 11. He has not yet taken tea, it is too early. right. 22. Pay attention to what your brother says. 23. Let take tea at six o'clock. 14. Do you take tea or coffee for us tell the truth. 24. Let us read that book today. 25. Pay breakfast (à votre déjeûner) ? 15. We take coffee. 16. Is your your debts as soon as possible. 26. Let us obey our instructor. courier gone on before ? 17. He has not been able to go on 27. Carry the key to him. 28. Bring me back the books which before. 18. What resolution have you taken? 19. I have I have lent you. 29. Do not bring them back to me, read taken the resolution to study my lesson. 20. Have you taken them. 30. Let us have patience, we shall soon have money. care not to tear your books ? 21. I have taken care not to stain 31. Let us speak to them, they are at my father's. 32. Tell them. them that I intend to write to them to-morrow morning. 33. determined to remain silent. 22. What has your brother determined ? 23. He has 24. Have you taken my part? Go to church this afternoon. 34. Bring me back my letters. 25. I have taken my brother's part. 26. Are you right to 35. Do not carry them there, but bring them to me as soon as take his part ? 27. I am right to take his part, because he is possible. right. 28. Are you not afraid to take his part ? 29. I am not SECTION LXX.-THE IMPERATIVE AND THE INFINITIVE afraid to take his part. 30. Will you take your sister's part IDIOMS, ETC. or mine ? 31. I will take my sister's part. 32. Go and read 33. I know my 1. A verb following another verb in the imperative, is put your book, you do not know your lesson. in the infinitive (according to general rule, Sect. XX. 2). The lesson, and I know also that you are my friend. 34 Let us conjunction, which often comes between the two verbs in go to our father, he wants us. English, is not used in French. Allez parler au musicien, Go and speak to the musician. KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. Allez faire votre ouvrage, Go and do your work. Courez voir ces messieurs, Run and see those gentlemen. EXERCISE 42 (Vol. I., page 207). 2. Prendre garde, to take care, to take heed, when followed by 1. Où votre ami va-t-il ? 2. Il va chez vous ou chez votre frère another verb in the infinitive, means to take care not to. 3. N'a-t-il pas l'intention d'aller chez votre associé ? 4, II a l'intention Prenez garde de tomber, Take care not to fall. d'y aller, mais il n'a pas le temps aujourd'hui. 5. De quoi aver-TORS besoin aujourd'hui ? 6. J'ni besoin de mon gilet qui est ches de 3. Prendre le deuil, means to go into mouring ; prendre la tailleur. 17. Vos babits sont-ils chez le peintre : 8. Ils n'y sont pas, peine, to take the trouble ; prendre les devants, to go on before ; ils sont chez le tailleur. 9. Où demeurez-votis, mon ami? 10. Ja 13. We |