Imágenes de páginas

heights are indicated only in the elevations. Sometimes when the angle it forms with the ground; therefore man will be equal subject is a simple one-for instance, a plain wall—its course to o an; this was the reason the angle man in Fig. 15 was and thickness will be shown in the plan, and its height marked made 50°. By comparing Figs. 15 and 16, the same letters by indices in brackets at the end, as (10:5 feet), meaning that it being used in both, the corresponding lines will be seen, and it is to be built 10 feet 6 inches high. Fig. 9 is the plan and front will be understood why cd in Fig. 15 is made equal to mn, elevation of a cottage. It will be seen that if the plan be drawn because, as in Fig. 16, mn is equal to no, the distance of the first, perpendicularly dotted lines must be drawn parallel with upper end of the rod from the ground, and no is equal to cd, each other from every angle, and from the terminations and therefore m n is equal to cd. projections of each line, which will determine the extent of the PROBLEM VI. (Fig. 17).-The frustrum of a right square elevation and of its several parts, but not its height. If the pyramid rests with its base on a horizontal plane, the lengths of elevation be drawn first, the perpendicularly dotted lines are the edges of the top and base being respectively 1.3 and 2.4 projected downwards to produce the plan. In orthographic pro- inches, and the height 2.8 inches; draw its plan and elevation.--If jection we usually draw a line to represent the meeting or axis a pyramid be divided into two parts by a plane parallel to its of the two planes of projection, the horizonal and the vertical, base, the part next the base is called a frustrum of a pyramid, or which, as in Fig. 10, we have marked < y; therefore it must be sometimes a truncated pyramid. Draw the square ab dc, the plan remembered that all above that line is understood to be the of the base 2:4 inches side (see Lessons in Geometry, Problem vertical plane of projection upon which the elevations are drawn, XVIII., Vol. I., page 255), and within it the square efhg,

the plan and all below it the horizontal plane upon which the plans are of the top 1.3 inch side. In order to place the plan of the top so drawn. The plan of a circle when parallel with the ground is a that the edges shall be equidistant from the edges of the plan circle of the same size indicated by the scale. The elevation is of the base, proceed as follows :-Draw the diagonals cb and a straight line only, equal to the diameter (Fig. 10). If the circle a d, make cn equal to 1.3 inch, and draw nh parallel to is standing on its edge perpendicularly to the ground, then its cgfb; draw gh parallel to cd; the rest will be evident, as plan is a straight line only, and the elevation is a circle (Fig. 11). the angles are in the diagonals, and the sides are parallel to a b To illustrate the positions (Fig. 10), let the pupil hold a penny. and ac respectively. Having drawn the plans, then draw ay, piece horizontally before, and level with, his eyes; he will see the ground line, parallel to one side of the square; draw a mand the edge, the elevation; then let him place it upon the ground, bl; draw the lines e i and f k, continuing them above « y equal and look down upon it; he will see the whole circumference, to the height of the frustrum 2-8 inches; join im, kl, and il; the plan. Reverse the position of the penny, and do the same mikl will be the elevation. The pupil will observe that other for Fig. 11. We trust there will be no difficulty now in under- elevations can be drawn from the same plan, opposite any standing the position the eye with respect to both planes of other side, when required for working purposes--a common projection. As we intend to devote the present Lesson to the practice in drawing extra elevations for building construction ; consideration of this subject, preparatory to more important in these cases all that is necessary is to arrange the ground line questions in perspective, we will give our pupils a few simple or axis of the planes opposite the side of which the elevation is problems for practice, reserving others of a more complicated required. Fig. 18 is the same subject as Fig. 17 : ay is placed nature till they are required in future Lessons.

parallel to one of the diagonals of the plan, consequently two faces PROBLEM II. (Fig. 12).—A rod, 4 feet long, is parallel with, of the frustrum are seen, a' and b', shown in the plan as a and ). and 2 feet from, both planes; draw its plan and elevation. Scale

inch to the foot.First draw x y, the axis of the planes, and draw ab, 4 feet long, parallel with and 2 feet from cy; then

LESSONS IN FRENCH.—XXXVI. from the extremities a and b draw perpendicular lines to c and

SECTION LXIX.--THE IMPERATIVE. dl; mark c and d 2 feet above xy, and join them; e will be the 1. CONJUGATION OF THE IMPERATIVE OF THE REGULAR elevation, and f the plan.

PROBLEM III. (Fig. 13).—When the same rod is at an angle


rend of 40° with the vertical plane and parallel with the horizontal sing

finish plane.-Draw a line eg at an angle of 40° with xy, make es Qu'il parl

let him speak

let him perceive equal to 2 feet, and draw fa parallel to xy: a will be the plan of one end of the rod 2 feet from the vertical plane; upon eg



let us give let us furnish lut us gather and from a make ab, the plan, equal to 4 feet: draw the perpendicular lines a c and bd, and draw cd, the elevation,

punish parallel with and 2 feet above xy.

Qu'ils port -ent

-issent d -oivent perd -ent. PROBLEM IV. (Fig. 14).—When a rod is at an angle of 40°

let them carry.

let them ovo. with the ground and parallel with the vertical plane.-Draw eg

2. The first person singular, and the first and second perat an angle of 40° with my, and draw the perpendicular ef sons plural of the imperative, are the same as the first person 2 feet from wy, also fc parallel with cy; cut off cd, equal to singular, and the first and second persons plural of the present 4 feet, the whole extent of the rod : from c and d draw per of the indicative. The pronouns are dropped :pendiculars cutting ay to a and b; join ab, for the plan, Je parle, parle ; Jo finis, finis. I speak, speak; I finish, finish. parallel with #y. When the object is at an angle with both planes, the angle of imperative, aie, ayons, ayez ; être, to be, sois, soyons, soyez ;

3. Exceptions.-Avoir, to have, make in those persons of the inclination with the horizon is made on the horizontal plane. PROBLEM V. (Fig. 15).—Let the rod have one end on the ground, savoir, to know, sache, sachons, sachez; and aller, va, and vas

before y

not followed by an infinitive. and let it rise at an inclination of 50°, and let its plan be at an

4. Vouloir has only the second person plural, veuillez, hare angle of 40° with the vertical plane.-Draw the line cag at tho

the goodness to.... given angle 40° with the vertical plane; upon this line the plan will be represented. Draw a h at an angle of 50° with a g, and tive by most of the French grammarians. These parts, however,

5. A third person singular and plural is given in the imperamake a m equal to the length of the rod; from m draw m n per- belong properly to the subjunctive, as they express rather a pendicular to a g; a n will then be the plan of the rod when

The English expressions, let hiin inclined to the horizon at 50°. Draw ncd and ab at right strong wish than a command. angles with xy, and make cd equal to mn; join bd; the line speak, that he may speak, are rendered in French by qu'il parle. bd will be the vertical elevation. That this may be more clearly

6. A droite, à gauche, correspond in signification to the anderstood, we will draw the eidograph of the problem, Fig. 16, i English to the right, to the left.

Allez à droite, à gauche,

Go to the right, to the left. that is, the figure or appearance it would present when placed in conjunction with the two planes of projection (Fig. 8 is also an

7. For the place of the pronouns in connection with the cicograph). In Fig. 16 a o is the given rod, and a n is its plan. imperative, see Sect. XXVI., i, 4; Sect. XXVII. 1, 2, 3, 4. Now in order to get the inclination of a o, the rod, which is raised

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. from the paper at an inclination of 50°, must be rabatted, that Prenons la première rue à droite. Let us tako the firsi street to tke riglul. is, thrown down upon the horizontal plane; the course of the Ne cherchez plus à le tromper. Seck no longer to deceive him. dotted arc om will show this. We must construct the angle of Sachons nous contenter du néces. Let us know how to content ourselves the inclination of the rod upon the horizontal plane, that is, the saire.

with necessaries.






chér .isse
let him chorish
fourn -issons


.S. render. vend -e. let him sell.

-Ons let us tend. entend -ez. loar.

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cono conceive

let them seize.

let them lose.

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Faites bien attention à ce que vous Pay great attention to what you say. prendre un parti, to take a determination; prendre du café, da dites.

thé, etc., to take coffee, tea, etc. Dites toujours la vérité.

Always tell the truth.
Allons! Messieurs, dépêchez-vous. Come! gentlemen, make haste.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. *Tenez, Monsieur, voilà votre argent. Hore, Sir, here is your monoy. Euvoyez chercher le tapissier. Send for the upholsterer. Veuillez accepter ce présent. Be so kind as to accept this prosent. Allez chercher votre parapluie. Go and fetch your uribrella.

Courez voir votre père.

Run and see your father.

Preuons garde de nous blesser. Let res take care not to hurt ourselre,
Clef, f., key.
Promett-re, 4, ir., to Sans faute, trithout

Prenez garde de déchirer vos habits. Take care not to tear your clothes, Crayon, m., pencil. promise.


N'avez-vous pas pris le deuil ? Have you not put on mourning, Institutrice, f., teacher. Rapport-er, 1, to bring Se serv-ir, 2, ref., to Prenez la peine de vous asseoir. Take the trouble to sit down. Obé-ir, 2, to oboj. back.

Prenez du thé ou du café.

Take tea or coffee.
Partie, f., part.
Remettore, 4, ir., to de- Tiers, m., third. Quel parti avez-vous pris?

What resolution have you taken ? Précepteur, m., in- liver.

[back. Verrez, 3, ir., from
Renvoy-er, 1, to send voir, to seo.


Attend-re, 4, to expect, Gât-er, 1, to spoil. Robe, f., dress.
to wait for.

Gouverneur, m., 30- Soin, m., care, 1. Envoyez chercher le médecin, votre petit garçon est malade. Chocolat, m., chocolate.

Tomb-er, 1, to fall. 2. Nous l'avons déjà envoyé chercher. 3. Vous n'avez pas Courrier, m., courior. Lorsque, when.

Tach-er, 1, to stain, to besoin de votre crayon, prêtez-le-moi [Sect. XXVI. 4; Sect. Croi-re, 4, ir., to believe. Port-er, 1, to wear. spot. (oilent. XXVII. 4). 4. Jo ne saurais vous le prêter, je m'en sers. 5. Déchir-er, 1, to tear, Quelquefois, sometimes. Se tai-re, 4, ir., to be Donnez-le-moi ou me le prêtez [$ 100 (6)]. 6. Je l'ai promis à votre institutrice. 7. Si vous no le lui avez pas dit, dites-le-lui

EXERCIHE 135. aussitôt que possible. 8. Ne le lui dites pas encore. 9. Parlez- 1. Allez voir mon frère, il a quelque chose à vous communi. lui-en ($ 39, 17] la prochaine fois que vous le verrez. 10. Ayez quer. 2. Courez leur dire que je les attends. 3. Mon frère a patience, mon ami, votre père ne tardera pas à venir. 11. bien pris garde de déchirer ses habits. 4. Votre cousine a-tObéissez à votre précepteur. 12. Je lui obéis toujours, donnez- elle pris garde de tacher sa robe ? 5. Elle a pris garde de lui-en une bonne partie. 13. Je lui en ai déjà donné plus des tomber, car en tombant elle l'aurait gâtée. 6. Ces petites filles deux tiers. 14. Avez-vous porté cette clef au serrurier ? 15. ont-elles pris le deuil ? 7. Elles viennent de le prendre. 8. J'ai oublié de la lui remettre. 16. Portez-la-lui sans faute cette Pour qui prenez-vous le deuil ? 9. Je porte le deuil de ma après-midi. 17. Veuillez me dire où demeuro M. G. 18. mère. 10. Prenez-vous du thé ou du café le matin ? 11. Nons Prenez la première rue à gauche, il demenre dans la deuxième prenons du thé et du café. 12. Ne prenez-vous pas quelque maison à droite. 19. Allons, Mesdemoiselles, dépêchons-nous. fois du chocolat ? 13. Nous n'en prenons que lorsque nous 20. Monez-les-y le plus tôt possible. 21. No mo les rapportez sommes malades. 14. Quel parti le gouverneur a-t-il pris ? pas. 22. Renvoyez-les-moi lemain. 23. Portons-les-y. 24. 15. Il a pris le parti de se taire. 16. Prendrez-vous mon parti Ne les y portons pas. 25. Prêtez-les-lui, mais ne les lui donnez (my part) ou celui de votre fils ? 17. Je prendrai le vôtre, si pas.

je crois que vous avez raison. 18. Pourquoi ne prenez-vous EXERCISE 134.

pas la peino de lire sa lettre ? 19. Parce qu'elle n'en vaut pas 1. Give a book to the young man. 2. I have already given

la peine. 20. Votre courrier a-t-il pris les devants ? 21. n him one, and he does not read it. 3. Lend it to him, if you prendre son parti ? 23. Jo n'ai pas tort de le prendre. 24

n'a pu prendre les devants. 22. N'avez-vous pas tort de will not give it to him. 4. I will not lend it to him. 5. Make haste, young ladies, it is ten o'clock. 6. Have the goodness to Avez-vous pris le thé (your tea)? 25. Nous n'avons pas pris give me a pen. 7. I have given one to your brother. 8. Obey (our) le thé, nous avons pris le café ? your father, and speak to your sister. 9. Will you not send

EXERCISE 136. for the letter? 10. I will send for it. 11. Send for it as soon

1. Has your brother taken care not to spoil his hat? 2. He as you can. 12. Do not do so (le), but write to my cousin. 13.

has taken care not to spoil it, he has only one.

3. Go and Come, children (mes enfants), learn your lesson. 14. Give him speak to your sister, she calls you (appelle). 4. Will you not some [$ 39 (17)], or lend him some ($ 100 (6)]. 15. Do not take a cup (tasse) of tea ? 5. I have just taken my tea. make haste, we have (le) time. 16. Have patience, my child, What have you said to your little girl? 7. I have told her to the merchant will soon

17. Send it to him, if you take care not to tear her dress. 8. Let us take care not to cannot give it to him. 18. Write to him this afternoon without tear that book. fail. 19. I would write to him if I had time. 20. Let us take taken his tea ?

9. My son has just brought it. 10. Has he the first street to the left. 21. Take the second street to the 12. At what hour do you take tea at your house ?

11. He has not yet taken tea, it is too early. right. 22. Pay attention to what your brother says. 23. Let take tea at six o'clock. 14. Do you take tea or coffee for us tell the truth. 24. Let us read that book to-day. 25. Pay breakfast (à votre déjeûner) ? 15. We take coffee. 16. Is your your debts as soon as possible. 26. Let us obey our instructor. courier gone on before ? 17. He has not been able to go on 27. Carry the key to him. 28. Bring me back the books which before.

19. I hare I have lent you.

18. What resolution have you taken ? 29. Do not bring them back to me, road taken the resolution to study my lesson. 20. Have you taken them. 30. Let us have patience, we shall soon have money.

care not to tear your books ? 21. I have taken care not to stain 31. Let us speak to them, they are at my father's. 32. Tell

them. 22. What has your brother determined ? 23. He has them that I intend to write to them to-morrow morning. 33.

determined to remain silent. Go to church this afternoon. 34. Bring me back my letters. 25. I have taken my brother's part.

24. Have you taken my part:

26. Are you right to 35. Do not carry them there, but bring them to me as soon as

take his part ? 27. I am right to take his part, because he is possible.

right. 28. Are you not afraid to take his part ? 29. I am not SECTION LXX.-THE IMPERATIVE AND THE INFINITIVE afraid to take his part. 30. Will you take your sister's part IDIOMS, ETC.

or mine? 31. I will take my sister's part. 32. Go and read 1. A verb following another verb in the imperative, is put your book, you do not know your lesson. 33. I know my in the infinitive (according to general rule, Sect. xx. 2). The lesson, and I know also that you are my friend. 34. Let us conjunction, which often comes between the two verbs in go to our father, he wants us. English, is not used in French.

Allez parler au musicien, Go and speak to the musician.
Allez faire votre ouvrage,

Go and do your work,
Courez voir ces messieurs, Run and see those gentlemen.

EXERCISE 42 (Vol. I., page 207). 2. Prendre garde, to take care, to take heed, when followed by 1. Où votre ami va-t-il ? 2. Il va chez vous on chez votre frère another verb in the infinitive, means to take care not to.

3. N'a-t-il pas l'intention d'aller chez votre associé ? 4. 1 a l'intention Prenez gardo de tomber, Take care not to fall.

d'y aller, mais il n'a pas le temps aujourd'hui. 5. De quoi avez-vous

besoin aujourd'hui ? 3. Prendre le deuil, means to go into mouring ; prendre la tailleur.

6. J'ni besoin de mon gilet qui est ches de

7. Vos habits sont-ils chez le peintre ? 8. Ils n'y sont pas peine, to take the trouble ; prendre les devants, to go on before ; | ils sont chez le tailleur. 9. Où demeurez-vons, mon ami! 10. Ja



13. We

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3. Am I panion.

pas ici.

demeure chez votre belle-spur. 11. Monsieur votre père est-il à est-il ? 14. Il est chez Monsieur votre père ou chez M. votre frère. la maison ? 12. Non, Monsieur, il n'y est pas. 13. Où votre domes- 15. Avez-vous l'intention d'envoyer chercher le médecin ? 16. J'ai tique porte-t-il le bois ? 14. Il le porte chez le capitaine russe. 15. l'intention de l'envoyer chercher. 17. Ai-je raison d'envoyer chercher Le monsieur qui est avec Monsieur votre père, demeure-t-il chez | l'Ecossais ? 18. Vous avez tort de l'envoyer chercher. 19. Allez-vous lui? 16. Non, Monsieur, il demeure chez moi. 17. A-t-il tort do trouver M. votre père l'après-midi ? 20. Je vais le trouver le matin. demeurer chez vous? 18. Non, Monsieur, il a raison de demeurer chez 21. Votre frère va-t-il chez votre oncle tous les lundis. 22. n y va moi. 19. D'où le charpentier vient-il ? 20. Il vient de chez son tous les dimanches. 23. Allez-vous apprendre la musique ? 24. Ma Associó, 21. A-t-il deux associés ? 22. Non, Monsieur, il n'en a nièce va l'apprendre, si elle a le temps. 25. Est-ce que je vais lire ou qu'un, qui demeure ici. 23. Avez-vous le temps d'aller chez nous ce écrire ? 26. Vous allez lire demain. 27. Va-t-il chez vous tous les matin? 21. Nous avons le temps d'y aller. 25. Nous avons l'inten- jours ? 28. Il vient vous trouver tous les mercredis, 29. À quelle tion d'y aller et de parler à Maderroiselle votre seur, 26. Est-elle heure ? 30. À neuf heures moins un quart. 31. Vient-il de bonno chez vous? 27. Elle est chez elle. 28. Avez-vous du pain, du beurre heure ou tard ? 32. Il vient à neuf heures et quart. 33. Qu'allez-vous et du fromage à la maison? 29. Nous y avons du pain et du beurre. chercher ? 34. Nous allons chercher des légumes, de la viande et du 30. Nous n'y avons pas de fromage, nous n'aimons pas le fromage. 31. sucre, 35. Nous avons besoiu de sucre tous les matins. Votre montre est-elle chez l'horloger? 32. Elle y est. 33. Avez-vous deux montres d'or?

EXERCISE 47 (Vol. I., page 251). 34. Je n'ai qu'une montre d'or. 35. Qui a l'intention d'aller chez mon père ce matin? 36. Personne n'a l'inten. 1. Are yon going to write to him? 2. I am going to write to him tion d'y aller.

and communicate to him this news. 3. Are you going to speak to EXERCISE 43 (Vol. I., page 215).

him of me? 4. I am going to speak to him of you and of your com. 1. Where am I going? 2. You are going to the hatter's.

5. Do you send them fine trees? 6. I send them applegoing to the bank ? 4. You are going to the bank and to the concert. trees, pear-trees, and cherry-trees. 7. Do you not send me cherry.

trees ? 5. Do I cut your wood ? 6. You cut neither my wood nor my coat.

8. I do not, you have some already. 9. Are you right to 7. Do I wear a green hat ? 8. You do not wear a green hat, you wear speak to them of this affair ? 10. I am not wrong to speak to them a black oue.

of this affair. 9. Is your scholar going anywhere? 10. He going to

11. Come to us to-morrow morning. 12. Come to us

this afternoon. church, to school, and to market. 11. Is he not going to the hair.

13. Do you go to them every day? 14. I go to them dresser's ? 12. He is going nowhere. 13. Do you not wear red

every evening. 15. Do you give them good advice ? 16. I give them leather boots ? 14, I wear black leather ones. 15. Do you not go to the good advice and good examples. 17. Do you speak to us about your banker's ?

sisters? 16. I do not go to his house, he is absent since yesterday.

18. I speak to you of them. 19. Do you not speak to us

about our brothers ? 17. Is he coming to the bank this morning? 18. He intends to come

20. I speak to you of them. 21. Do you not if he has time.

love them ? 19. Has he a wish to go to the concert? 20. He has

22. We love and respect them, 23. Do you think of & great wish to go, but he has no ticket. 21. Do you live in this this book or do you not? 24. We think of it, and we speak of it. village? 22. Yes, Sir, I do. 23. Do you send this note to the post. 25. We do not think of it. office? 24. I send it to its address.

EXERCISE 48 (Vol. I., page 251).
EXERCISE 44 (Vol. I., page 215).

1. Quand allez-vous écrire à M. votre frère ? 2. Je vais lui écrire 1. Est-ce que je porte mon grand chepeau noir ? 2. Vous portez demain matin. 3. Avez-vous l'intention de lui écrire tous les lundis ? un beau chapeau vert. 3. Le banquier va-t-il chez le perruquier ce

4. J'ai l'intention de lui écrire tous les mardis. 5. Avez-vous envie matin ? 4. Il y va ce matin. 5. A-t-il l'intention d'aller à la banque de lui parler aujourd'hui ? 6. J'ai envie de lui parler, mais il n'est ce matin? 6. n n'a pas l'intention d'y aller, il n'a pas le temps. 7.

7. Où est-il ? 8. Il est chez lui. 9. Leur parlez-vous ? 10, Envoyez-vous vos lettres à la poste? 8. Je ne les y envoie pas, elles Oui, Monsieur, je leur parle de cette affaire. 11. Vous donnent-ils ne sont pas encore écrites. 9. Est-ce que je vous envoie un billet?

de bons avis ? 12. Ils mo donnent de bons avis et de bons exemples. 10. Vous m'envoyez un billet, mais je n'ai pas envie d'aller au concert.

13. Allez-vous trouver Mademoiselle votre sæur tous les jours ? 14. 11. Monsieur votre frère va-t-il à l'école demain ? 12. Il y va au

Je vais la trouver tous les matins à neuf heures moins un quart. 15. jourd'hui et il reste demain à la maison. 13. Est-ce que j'y vais ? 14.

Aime-t-elle à vous voir ? 16. Elle aime à me voir, et elle me reçoit Vous n'allez nulle part. 15. Où allez-vous ? 16. Je vais chez M.

bien. 17. Pensez-vous à cette affaire ? 18. J'y pense toute la journée. votre frère ; est-il à la maison? 17. Il n'est pas à la maison, il est 19. En parlez-vous avec M. votre frère ? 20. Nous en parlons souvent. absent depuis hier. 18. Monsieur votre frère demeure-t-il dans ce

21. Envoyez-vous votre compagnon chez moi ? 22. Je l'envoie tous village ? 19. Il n'y demeure pas, il demeure chez mon neveu. 20.

les jours. 23. Etes-vous chez vous tous les jours ? 24. J'y suis tous Avez-vous tort d'aller à l'école ? 21. Non, Monsieur, j'ai raison d'aller les matins à dix heures. 25. Aimez-vous à aller à l'église ? 26. J'aime à à l'église et à l'école. 22. Avez-vous envie de venir chez moi ? 23.

y aller tous les dimanches avec un compagnon.

27. Parlez-vous de vos J'aime à aller chez vous et chez M, votre frère. 24. Quand venez.

maisons ? 28. J'en parle. 29. M. votre frère parle-t-il de ses amis ? vous chez nous? 25. Demain, si j'ai le temps. 26. Le banquier 30. Oui, Monsieur, il parle d'eux. 31. Pense-t-il à eux ? 32. Oui, aime-t-il à venir ici ? 27. Il aime à venir chez vous. 28. Le perru

Monsieur, il pense

à eux,

33. Pense-t-il à cette nouvelle ? 34. Oui, quier vient-il ? 29. Il ne vient pas encore. 30. Qu'envoyez-vous à Monsieur, il y pense. 35. Je les aime et je les honore, l'écolier ? 31. Je lui envoio des livres, du papier et des habits.


EXERCISE 49 (Vol. I., page 252). Où est-il ? 33. Il est à l'école. 34. L'école est-elle dans le village ? 35. Elle y est.

1. Will you give this book to my brother? 2. I can lend it to him,

but I cannot give it to him. 3. Will you send them to us? 4. The EXERCISE 45 (Vol. I., page 236).

milliner can send them to you. 5. Do you show them to her ? 6. I 1. What are you going to do? 2. I am going to learn my lessons.

see them and show them to her. 7. Are you afraid to lend them to 3. Are you not going to write to your acquaintances ? 4. I am going us ?

8. I am not afraid to lend them to you. 9. Can you not send to write to nobody. 5. Who has just spoken to you? 6. The Irish.

us some fish?

10. I cannot send you any, I have but little. 11. Will man has just spoken to us. 7. When is the Scotch lady going to you speak to them of it ? 12. I will speak to them of it, if I do not teach you music? 8. She is going to teach me next year.

14. I come to see 9. Is she forget it.

13. Do you often come to see them? going to commence on Tuesday or on Wednesday? 10. She is going them every morning and every evening. 15. Do you not speak to to coinmevce neither on Tuesday nor on Wednesday; she intends to

them of your journey to Poland ? 16. I speak to them of it, but they commence on Thursday, if she has time. 11. Does your companion will not believe me. 17. Do I see my acquaintances on Mondays? go to church every Sunday? 12. She goes every Sunday and every

18. You see them every day of the week. 19. Do they send you more Wednesday. 13. To whom do you go? 14. I do not go to any one.

money than our merchant's clerk ? 20. They send me more than he. 15. Do you not intend to come to me to-morrow ? 16. I intend to go

21. Do you send any to the bookseller? 22. I send him some when I to your dyer. 17. Do you send for the physician? 18. When I am

owe him. 23. Are you not wrong to send him some ? 21. I cannot all I send for him. 19. Does he remain with you the whole day? be wrong to pay my debts. 20. He remains with me only a few minutes. 21. Do you go to school in the morning ? 22. I go in the morning and in the afternoon, 23.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXIII. Do you go every day? 24. I go every day, except Monday and Sunday. 25. Saturday I remain at home, and Sunday I go to

EUROPE (continued). church. EXERCISE 46 (Vol. I., page 236).

THE maps that accompany our present lesson in Geography

present accurate delineations of the principal features of Franco 1. L'Irlandais que va-t-il faire ? 2. Il va enseigner la musique. 3. and the great Scandinavian and Iberian peninsulas. We shall Vient-il de commencer son travail? 4. Il vient de le commencer. supplement these in our next with a map of the countries of 5. Qui vient de vous écrire ? 6. Le teinturier vient de m'écrire. 7. Votre petit garçon va-t-il à l'église tous les jours ? 8. Non, Monsieur, Central and Southern Europe on nearly the same scale as the il va à l'église le dimanche, et il va à l'école tous les jours. 9. Allez: map of France in this lesson. vous chercher le médecin? 10. Je l'envoie chercher parceque ma

We now proceed with an enumeration of the islands which sour est malade. 11. Allez-vous trouver mon médecin ou le vôtre ? belong to Europe. Of these, by far the most important, both 12. Je vais trouver le mien, le votre n'est pas à la maison. 13. Où in political and commercial importance, are the British Islos.

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Under this head are included Great Britain, anciently called Minorca, Ivica, and Formentera, E. of Spain; Sicily, S.W. of Albion or Britannia, and divided into the three countries of Naples, and separated from it by the Srait of Messina ; England, Wales, and Scotland ; and Ireland, anciently called Malta, S. of Sicily, and belonging to Great Britain; the lonian Hibernia, with various islands of much smaller dimensions lying Islands—viz., Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Manra, Theaki around or near the coast. The principal of these are the Isle of or Ithaca, Cerigo, and Paxo, situated W. of Greece, and S.W. Man, in the Irish Sea, situated at nearly an equal distance from of Turkey, in the Ionian Sea, and now belonging to Greece; England, Scotland, and Ireland; the Isle of Anglesea, which Candia or Crete, S.E. of Greece; many of the islands of the is separated from the mainland of Wales by the Menai Straits ; Archipelago-namely, the Negropont (anciently Eubæa), Andros, the Scilly Isles, anciently called Cassiterides, or the Islands of Syra, Naxia, Paros, Antiparos, Hydra, Spezzia, Egina, ete., Tin, adjacent to Cornwall, tke real tin region; the Isle of lying E. and S.E. of Greece ; and Lemnos or Stalimene, Imbros, Wight, south of, and forming part of, Hampshire; lze Hebrides, Samothraki, and Thaso, lying S. of Turkey, and belonging to or Western Islands, lying west of Scotland; th) Orkney and that power. The chief islands in the Mediterranean reckoned Shetland Islands, north of Scotland; and the Channel Islands, as belonging to Asia are Lesbos or Mitylene, Scio or Chios, Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, and Sark, which lie to the north | Samos, Patmos, Rhodes, and many others, lying to the E. of west of France.

Turkey in Asia, Next to the Lon.W. PLon. E. from Greenwich 15

Norul Cape British Islands,

or rather Asia Tanumerle

Minor; and the most import- NORWAY, SWEDEN

Cyprus, situant in the north

ated in the leof Europe are DENMARK.

vant, which bethose which

longs to Turkey, belong to and

and whose form part of

chief town is the kingdom of

Nicosia. Denmark, and


The principal lie in the chan.

Algimang nel or passage

capes (Latin, ca

put, a head) in to the Baltic,

Sidor 65

Europe are the called the Cat



The tegat - viz.,

North Cape, on Zealand, which

the island of contains Copen

Mageröe, in lat. hagen, the capi


71° 10',and long tal of that

26° 1' E., is com kingdom, with


monly reckoned Fünen, Laaland,

the most northFalster, Moen,

ern point of EuLangeland, Born.

rope; but this, holm, and Judit

according to various others. Achra,

some authors, is In other parts Fablun

Nordkyn, is of the Baltic


Finmark, in lat. are the islands -Upsal

71° 6' N.; the of Rugen, Oland,

north point of Gottland, Aland,

Nova Zembla is Oesel, and Dago.


in lat. 77° 4' N., The


Dd islands

and long. 770 5 called the The Name

E.; the Nate Azores, etc?

(German, the Western Is.


nose Riga

or beak).

Vindau lands, which are Viborg

the most southgenerally


ern point of Nor sidered to belong

Christiastardo to Europe, and of

53 way, on the SkeTrend,

ger. Rack; the which Terceira

Skaw, or most and St. Michael



northern point are the princi


of Jutland, in pal, are situated Hambut

Denmark; Cape about 800 miles

R u S


La Hogue, in W. of Portugal,

France; Capes to which they belong. The island of Iceland, which belongs to Ortegal and Finisterre, in Spain, of which the latter, as the Denmark, and is celebrated for its hot springs and its volcanoes, name indicates (Latin, finis, the end; terræ, of the earth), vas is situated on the edge of the arctic circle, and having its deemed by the ancients the end or attermost extremity of the northern point within the Arctic Ocean; the Faroe Isles, which world ; Cape Roca, near Lisbon, and Cape St. Vinoent, in belong to the same kingdom, and are situated N.W. of the Portugal; Cape Trafalgar and Tarifa Point, lat. 36° 1' N., long. Shetland Isles. Ferro, one the Canary Isles, once formed the 5° 36' W.; Cape Spartivento and Cape di Leuca, in Italy, and site of the first meridian, to which all nations referred the Cape Matapan, in Greece (the Morea), the last-named espe longitude, and it is to be regretted that this did not retain its being in lat. 36° 22' N., and long. 22° 28' E.; Cape Passaro, in position as the universal meridian for the world at large, and Sicily; and others of less importance. In the British Islands for the simplification of the mode of reckoning the longitude in Dunnet Head, and not Cape Wrath, is the most northerly point different countries. The islands which lie in the most northern of Great Britain ; also Lizard Point, and not Land's End regions of Europe are the Lofoden Isles, W. of Norway; Spitz- is the most southerly point. The most northerly point of bergen, and Nova Zembla, in the Arctic Ocean.

Ireland is Mullin or Malin Head, and the most southerly point The islands of the greatest importance in the south of Mizen Head, and not Cape Clear, which is on an island called Europe, and which lie in the Mediterranean Sea, are the Clare Island. following :-Corsica, which belongs to France, lying in the The northern highlands of Europe are those which contain Tuscan Sea; Sardinia, s. of Corsica, and separated from it the Scandinavian system chain of mountains, extending from by the Strait of Bonifacio; the Balearic Isles-viz., Majorca, the Naze to the North Cape, and consisting of the Langefeld,





Stroinspo CENUSTIANIA Westeras

Gros Carlstads

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the Dovrefield, and the Kiolen ranges, of which the highest point which flows from the Carpathian Mountains, and, after a is Skageslöestinden, in the southern range, about 8,670 feet course of 500 miles, falls into the same sea at Akerman; the above the level of the sea ; and the Uralian or Ouralian chain, Danube, which has its source in the Black Forest (Schwarz. extending from the shores of the Arctic Ocean to beyond the I wald), flows through Bavaria, Austria, and Turkey, and, after a source of the Ural river,

course of nearly 1,800 which falls into the Cas. ENGLAND Dover Dunkirk

miles, falls into the Black pian Sea, and forms, with



Sea at Ismail; the Rhine both, the boundary beLoftuli

and the Rhone, which both tween Europe and Asia.

spring from the Swiss The south-eastern high.

Alps, take opposite lands of Europe are the


courses, the former run. Caucasian chain of moun.



ning through the Lake of tains, between the Caspian "Gucrase

louen, Sea and the Black Sea, of

Constance, after a northParis

ern course of about 600 which the highest peak



miles through Germany, is Mount Elburz, about Brest Rennes

France, and the Nether. 18,500 feet above the level Lava

lands, falls into the Gerof the sea, and the high


man Ocean, after losing est mountain in Europe.

itself in the Waal, the The southern highlands of


Maese or Meuse, the Leck, Europe consist of the Bal.


and the Old Rhine, and kan (anciently Hæmus) F

forming the great delta of Mountains in Turkey, the

Holland between Rotterhighest points being about

La Rochelle


dam and Amsterdam; the 10,000 feet above the


latter running through sca level; the Eastern



the Lake of Geneva, after Alps (German, mounAngouleme

a southern course of about tains), stretching from


645 miles through France, the Balkan range to the Bordeaux

falls into the Mediterracommencement of the

nean Sea at the Gulf of Western Alps, north of


Lions, where it also forms the Adriatic, of which the

a delta; the Arno and highest summits are Mont

Nisines lavignon

the Tiber, on the west Blanc and Mont Rosa,


Marseilles of Italy, fall into the each more than 15,000


Tuscan Sea ; and the Po feet above the level of the

and the Adige, on the east

ZVONS sea, and which border

of Italy, fall into the Switzerland on the south, 73 Lon.East from Washington


Adriatic; the Xucar and and Italy on the north;

the Ebro, of Spain, fall the Carpathian Mountains in the north of Hungary and Tran. | into the Mediterranean; the Douro and the Tagus, of Portugal, sylvania ; tha Hercynian Mountains, in Germany; the Cevennes with the Guadalquivir of Spain, fall into the Atlantic; tho and the Vosges, in France; the Pyrenees, between France and Dwina and the Onega, of Russia, fall into the White Sea ; the Spain, of which the highest points or peaks are Mont Perdu | Vistula and the Oder, of Germany, fall into the Baltic Sea ; and Maladetta, each

and the Elbe, of the more than 11,000 feet & Lon.West from Greenwich

(Lon.East 2

same country, into the high; the Cerro Mulha. 14 cen, the highest point of

44 German Ocean, at Ham. Cortegal


burg. the Sierra Nevada, in Ferrol

The chief lakes of Spain, 11,633 feet above


Europe are the follow. the level of the sea;

ing :-In the north, Laand Etna, the Sicilian

Santiago Tec
Pämpelünne) ԻՐ

doga and Onega, in Rus. volcano, which is nearly

sia, the largest in Europe, 12 of the same elevation


the former being 130 Bragi as the Pyrenean peaks,


Barcelona miles long and 70 miles being 10,874 feet in

broad, the latter smaller ; Oporld height.


Peipus and Ilmen, in the The principal rivers in

same country, very conEurope are the follow. Filguei: schimulira

siderably less (the lasting:--The Volga, which


named is connected with rises in the Valdai Hills,

Ahrimtes Tagus 1



Lake Ladoga and the in2 Russia, runs a course

river Volga by means of through that country of


canals, and thus a line of cbout 2,400 miles, and

communication is formed falls into the Caspian Sea


between the Baltic and at Astrakhan, where ite

the Caspian Seas); the

Orinda delta (or land enclosed by

Lakes Wener, Wetter, its mouths in the shape


and Mälar, in Sweden, of the Greek letter A, or Lagos


with the river Gotha, delta) is about fourteen


which form a line of miles wide. The Ural,

communication between

Tidtatt which rises in tho


the middle of the Baltic

-Gibraltar Ural Mountains, runs a

3C Sea and its entrance. In Su of Giòn tan course of about 1,800



tho south of Europe the miles, and falls into

lakes of Constance, Luthe Caspian Sea; the Don, which, after a course of nearly cerne, and Geneva, in Switzerland; and of Maggiore, Lugano, 1,000 miles, falls into the Sea of Azof, at the town of Azof; and Como, in Italy, are all remarkable for the beauty of their the Dnieper, which, after a course of a little more than 1,200 scenery. The following table contains some useful particulars miles, falls into the Black Sea at Kherson; the Dniester, relating to the lakes of Europe.

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