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William. Yes, and I someway had got it into my head that

by dropping the s I should put all right.

Areas in Eleva. Grentest
Countries. square tions

in Deptlasi

Thomas. I have known others make a similar inistake. But Feet. Peet.

come, I will endeavour to give you such instructions and explana

tions as shall make the case clear to you. Only observe that you Ladoga Russia 6,190 59

must watch and suspect yourself, and you must never cease your Onega


3,400 Ilmen

self-questioning until you have rigidly applied and know that Russia


107 Peipus


you habitually apply in practice that which you learn in study. Saima


For your comfort I may tell you that I know many persons who Ennre


once spoke as ungrammatically as you do, nay, as you did, and Wener Sweden 2,120

288 who now both speak and write our language with neatness as well Wetter


84) 295 432 as strict accuracy. Let us begin. You know what a noun is ? Mälar


William. Yes, a noun is a name.
Switzerland 82 1,230 984

Thomas. Exactly: the noun may be called the name, for it
Switzerland 90 1,437 426

is the part of speech which gives names to things, to all objects Lucerne


1,380 900

and realities, whether they are audible or visible, whether they Zurich Switzerland 80

600 Constance Switzerland 228 1,250 964

are thoughts or feelings, whether in the outer world or in the Platten Sea, or Lake Balnton Hungary


mind. Every real object, and some that are unreal; everything Maggiore

80 678 1,800

known, conceived of, felt, or beheld, is called a noun; for every. Como.


684 600 thing must, for grammatical purposes, have a name. If an idea Garda

183 320

95 or a material object has no name, it has, as far as grammar is

concerned, no existence. You know, also, what a pronoun is ? We append a summary of the principal islands, capes, moun. William. Yes, a pronoun is a for-name, a word that stands tains, and rivers of Europe. In the summary of the rivers, the in the place, or performs the work of a noun; thus, instead of ocean or sea into which each river flows is named.


Thomas. No, go no farther, please to correct yourself.

William. Thank you, I am glad you stopped me. Aland, Baltic

Finisterre, W. of Spain,
British Islands, N. Atlantic.

Thomas. Learn to stop yourself when wrong.
La Hague, France.
Candia, S. of Greece.
Matapan, S. of Morea.

William. I will try.
Corsica, S. of Sardinia.
Naze, S. of Norway.

Thomas. Ay, that's the word; as the children in the infant
Cyprus, the Levant.
North Cape, I. Mageröe.

school sing, “Try, try, try again.” Now proceed. Fünen, W, of Zealand. Ortegal, Spain.

William. Well, then, instead of saying " he likes reading," I Gothland, Baltic.

St. Vincent, S. of Portugal, might have said “Thomas likes reading."
Greek Isles, Archipelago.
Spartivento, S. of Italy,

Thomas. Precisely; then, you see, Thomas is the noun, and
Iceland, Arctic Circle.
Tarifa Point, Gibraltar,

he the pronoun. So far, well. You know, also, what a "person" Malta, S. of Sicily.

Negropont, Archipelago.
Nova Zembla, Arctic Ocean. Alps, N. of Italy.

William. Yes, I am a person.
Sardinia, S. of Corsica.
Apennines, Italy.

Thomas. Well

, that is pretty near the mark. Are there any Sicily, S. of Italy. Carpathian, Hungary.

other persons besides you in the world? Spitzbergen, Arctic Ocean. Dovrefield, Norway.

William. Yes, certainly: you for instance, and father and Tho Azores, N. Atlantic. Etna (volcano), Sicily.

mother. The Balearic Isles, E. of Spain. Pyrenees, France,

Thomas. Very good; now when you speak of yourself you say The Ionian Isles, W. of Greece. Ural, Russia. Zealand, Cattegat. Vesuvius (volcano), Naples.

I, do you not ?

William. Yes.

Thomas. And when you speak to me, you say you ?
Danube, Black Sea.
Oder, Baltic Sea.

William. Certainly.
Dnieper, Black Sea.
Onega, Arctic Ocean.

Thomas. And when you speak of your father and mothor you Dniester, Black Sea,

Petchora, Arctic Ocean.

say they? Don, Black Sea. Po, Mediterranean Sea.

William. I do.
Douro, Atlantic Ocean.

Rhine, North Sea.
Dwina, Arctic Ocean.
Phone, Mediterranean Sea.

Thomas. Well, then, you see there are three ways of speaking Ebro, Mediterranean Sea.

Seine, Atlantic Ocean.

of persons, as for instance, I, you, they.
Elbe, North Sea.
Scheldt, North Sea.

William. Exactly so.
Garonde, Atlantic Ocean.
Tagus, Atlantic Ocean.

Thomas. Now, of these, which think you is “number one ?" Gotha, Baltic Sea.

Thames (Brit. Isles), North Sea. William. Well, I hope I am not selfish.
Guadiana, Atlantic Ocean.
Ural, Caspian Sea.

Thomas. I mean no imputation; I dare say you are no more
Loire, Atlantic Oceau.
Vistula, Baltic Sea.

selfish than other people ; however, is not "the great I” in all Meuse, North Sea.

Volga, Caspian Sea.

cases “ number one ?" Neva, Baltic Sea. Weser, North Sea.

At any rate, we may, in grammar, call
I the first person; do you allow that?

William. I suppose I must not object.

Thomas. Let us thon call you the second person. Next to two CONVERSATIONS ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-II.

stands three, and, consequently, he and they may be termed the William. Mr. Mather laughed at me, to-day, when, in con

third person. Mark, I represent the speaker, you the person

spoken to, he the person spoken of. Do you understand ? Here versation with him, I said "he like reading." Thomas. Who is Mr. Mather?

you have the same facts set forth in instances :William. The new secretary of the Mechanics' Institution.

THE THREE PERSONS. Thomas. An unfit man for his office, I should judge, if he is

1. I love. 2. You love. 3. They love. accustomed to laugh at the mistakes of the members.

Hore I is the first person, you the second, they the third. William. Well, however that may be, I really fancy I shall William. Thank you ; so far all is plain. never be able to speak correct English, for I suppose “he like Thomas. Observe, then, that as there are (you know) two reading” is wrong.

numbers, the singular and the plural, so each number has Thomas. Certainly, it is not good English.

pronouns of its own. Here they are in full, the figuras William. And yet I have tried to correct what you term the denoting the persons. errors of my bringing-up; and now, alas! I am as far off as ever.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS, SINGULAR AND PLURAL. Thomas. No, by no means as far off as ever, if only because


Plural. you are trying to get right; earnest effort nover wholly fails;

1. I love.

We love. you are a little too impatient. Why, one thing you have over:

2. Thou lovest.

You love. come; you used to say “I speaks,” and “they speaks.”

They love.

3. He loves

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William. What do you mean by personal pronouns ?”

Divers. The more usual arrangement now is according to the Thomas. Pronouns that indicato or relate to persons. Thoy number of eyes, ono genus having but two, others six, and the are called personal to distinguish them from other pronouns; but greater number eight. with those other pronouns do not trouble your head just now. Where do spiders live ? Some in little cells, formed of the Turn back to the form. In that form you see the model of good most delicate tissues; some in holes in the earth, or in wall English, or the pattern which you are to imitate. Mark, then, crevices; many in our wine-cellars; a few in our libraries; hosts that he, the third person, is the only person that has its verb high in the air, or in tubes suspended from leaves; and not a ending in s. It was, then, rather curious that you should havo small number in the water. The webs of the geometrical spider struck off the s there, instead of dropping it in tho first person may be studied in almost every garden. Look at its work. See singular, and in all the persons of tho plural. In Hampshire, how beautifully the main threads radiate from the centre, and with they are so fond of the s, that they put it to all persons, except what peculiar art the circular lines are secured to the radiating the second person singular; or if they make an exception, they tissue. The repairs of this net demand incessant attention. do so where of all places they ought not, namely, in the third Once a day the whole is examined, and the torn or loosened person singular. However, study what I havo said-study and threads adjusted. Look closely at a net of the diadem imitate tho example I have given. One word more. I have (Epeira diadema) garden spider. You will recognize the creaused and not explained the word verb.

ture by the gem-like whitish markings on the body, and the William. Oh, you need not explain that; the verb, I know, is dark bands and spines on the legs. Those thrcads which form the doer, the verb represents action; for instance, love is a verb. tho spirals are more glutinous than the fine but stronger Thomas. Yes; give me some others.

lines radiating from the centre, where the diadem takes his William. Well, write is a verb, so is strike, and think, and sentinel-post. Take a magnifying-glass, and a multitude of run, and stor, and shout.

fino globules may be traced along the spiral threads. These Thomas. Enough, enough. Now study and strive to apply constitute a series of fastenings by which the circular lines are these instructions,

gummed firmly to the radiating threads. The number of these William. Cannot you give me some instances to correct? globules, or web-ties, is surprising, a single net of the "diadem”

Thomas. I do not think the proper way to teach you good spider having been found to contain above 87,000. The net of English is to put beforo you instances of bad English; as, how the Epeira a poclisu, a species allied to the garden diadem ever, you are accustomed to these blunders, you can hardly be spider, usually consists of twenty-six radiating lines, and misled by them; probably you may, in many instances of bad twenty-four rows of spirals. A large web of this kind has English, recognise some old friends, from whose company I been calculated to contain 120,000 viscid globales. Besides the advise you to separate yourself now and for ever. Here, how radiating and spiral threads, the observer will not fail to notice ever, are some examples of first bad, and secondly good English; tho main lines which extend beyond the geometrical work, correct the former, and parse the latter.

and support the whole. These main threads are fastened at William. Parse, what is that?

each end to leaves or twigs, and the radiating lines are then Thomas. Give tho person and number of each instance. firmly secured to these supports. If one of these important Bad English to be corrected and avoided.

lines bo suddenly broken, tho beautiful geometrical structure I gives; they gives; you gives; thou gives; he give; we gives; will collapse and become a ruin. they runs; he run; William cough ; William and Mary coughs; why The whole of such a net, with all its elaborate tracery of does they laugh? They does not laugh; I docs very well; they does radiating and parallel lines, with its thousands upon thousands badly; Henry ride well; do Henry rido well? Sarah sing sweetly; of points, is sometimes produced in about forty minutes. A the Sunday scholars goes to church; the curate rend (present) the web over a cannon's mouth, or across the opening in the poorlessons impressively ? do the clerk pronounce distinctly? you eats like box, is therefore no proof that cither has been long disused. a sloven; they drinks too much,

Tho cannon may have been discharged yesterday, and yet a Good English to be parsed and imitated.

perfect web be over its mouth this morning. The reader will The girl siugs charmingly; the dogs bark; the heu clucks; the not forget that in this short time the spider not only arranges wind whistles; the storm rages; the tempest hurries on; you love the fino geometrical lines, but also spins the whole from its own reading; my father and mother go to church every Sabbath; how body. Let the reader examine carefully one of tho fine threads, will the choristers sing? do the boys sing well ? the girls have a

Does it not seem almost beautiful voico; thou singest out of tune ; he keeps time very well; and then estimate its diameter. I praise diligent scholars ; I entreat you to remain here; do you wish impossible to express in the fraction of an inch the thickness me to learn Latin ? good boys love learning; hero, father is coming; of that filmy tissue ? But the fine line is not a single one, he runs after tho hare ; hares have swift feat; does le love money? being composed of no less than 4,000 threads. Some of these he who loves money is not wise; ho learns English ; does he learn wonderfully complex lines are themselves so fine that 4,000,000 Latin ? they learn German, and you, I hear, learn Italian,

twisted together would not exceed the thickness of an ordinary

lair from the human head. Yet each one of these 4,000,000 RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.

tissues is itself composed of 4,000 single threads. The dia

meter, therefore, of one simple thread is but one sixteen THE SPIDER.-PART I.

thousand-millionth (www.) part of the thickness of a human As there are about 1,200 species of known spiders—ono genus hair. If such a statement seems almost incredible, it is but ono (Epeira) containing above sixty---a large volume would be of the many mysteries abounding in the lower forms of life. required even to describe the more remarkable families. We The spinning machine is a wonder in itself. Under the can, therefore, only mention in this and a future paper some of hinder part of the spider's body a small depression may bo the most important facts connected with the structure, works, seen. Look closer, and, rising from this hollow, there will be and habits of spiders.

noted six small, tube-shaped bodies. Now use a microscope, These animals are no longer classed with insects, from which and the observer may detect a great number of exceedingly they differ in four particulars, having simple eyes instead of fino openings on four of the tube-like bodies, about 1,000 on compound, eight legs in place of six, no antennæ, and not under- each. Through each of these 4,000 apertures the spider draws going the interesting metamorphoses so characteristic of insect a fino thread, and all the 4,000 tissues, being hardened by the life. All the families of spiders and scorpions are grouped atmosphere, and twisted together, form one of the threads in together under the term Arachnida, derived from the Greek tho web. These four tube-like bodies are called spinnerets, the name for a spider, apaxın (a-rak'-ne). The word Araneidæ in- upper pair differing much from the lower in structure. Two cludes under it the true spiders only, and is from aranea, the kinds of threads are produced by this machine, at least in the Latin designation of the animal. Our common English name is case of the geometrical spider. The spirals of the web possess derived from the old word spinder, a spinner. A more ancient a glucy quality wanting in the radiating lines. But whenco descriptive term was attercop, signifying poison-head.

does tho spider procuro the delicate fluid which it draws through We may note, in passing, that all spiders are distributed into the pores of the spinncrets ? From six or cight reservoirs two great sections-Pulmonario, or those which breatho by pul- behind, in which a glassy substanco is formed and stored up monary cavities; and Trachearia, or those which breathe by till required. A peculiar comb-like apparatus on one or moro tracheæ, like insects. They are also sometimes classed accord of the feet is used for twisting, carding, and adjusting the fine ing to their habits, as Hunters, Wanderers, Sedentaries, and tissues as they issue from the pores of the spinnerets. This

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wonderful animal-machine, with its system of reservoirs, None of our English webs approach in size some of the spinning apparatus, and carding claws, is far more complex foreign kinds. The main lines of the Bermuda spider's web are and admirable than the Lancashire self-acting "mules,” which sometimes suspended between trees sixteen yards apart, and spin at one time a thousand threads of "twist,” each resem. i "will snare a bird as big as a thrush." These long threads bling a cable when compared

being emitted from the spiwith the spun tissue of the

der's body, are carried by the spider.

wind to distant trees, or Some spiders never

across rivers, and when one their webs for nets. Thus

adheres to some substanco the small gossamer spider

the animal speedily crosses turns her fine threads into a

on the slender bridge, and convenient bridge for pass

cffectually fastens its first ing from one plant to ano

line of suspension. If a webther, or uses them as a fairy.

spinning spider be placed on like chariot to bear her aloft

a twig surrounded by water, in the air. Sometimes a

it will generally contrive to whole army of these minute

escape by sending out its creatures descends upon the

threads, and so forming a fields, and even rivers, as in

bridge. 1811, when the Tagus was

Some spiders are called covered for half a mile with

webless, but the females of the webs of the gossamers,

these do, nevertheless, spin which floated safely on their

a substance for the cocoons, silvery rafts. These floating

in which their eggs are prewebs and spiders have settled

served. Some of these also on ships sixty miles from

often spin a beantiful silky land, as when the rigging of

substance, with which they the Beagle discovery vessel

luxuriously line their cells, was covered with a cloud of

formed in old walls or in the gossamers in the estuary of

earth. Most spiders have the Rio de la Plata.


very clear notions of making The building spider uses

themselves comfortable at the soft webs for lining the cell which it has formed in the home. Spiders, though clever, are not considered capable of much earth, and also for securing the movable trap-door at the en- tender emotion. The females will sometimes even kill and eat trance. This door is usually made of about fifteen layers of the males, but often show a high degreo of affection for their web, alternating with as many of fine earth. All these walls of young. Some carry the cocoons, containing the eggs, about web are curiously united to form a self-closing door-hinge. with them on all their journeys; others select a sheltered place The water or diving spider (Argyroneta aquatica*) con. on which the cradle can be safely slung during the winter.

structs a bell-shaped house, to the careful manner in which the "ogg-
which it retires with its cap- cup " is covered over to protect the
tured prey. The residence is contents from the cold, is itself a wit-
made waterproof by a gummy ness to the spider's motherly fore.
covering, air being carried down thought. These cocoons may often
to the house by a bag formed be seen on the inner walls of sheds and
of the same gummy substance out-houses. A few spiders really wait
fastened under the animal's upon and feed their young. The wolf.

body, where it sparkles, when spider, fierce as her name sounds, will FOOT OF SPIDER (MAGNIFIED).

filled with air, like a crystal fight to the death with the ant-lion in

globule. This clever spider defence of her egg.cocoon. fastens its home to water-plants by strong web-lines, which act In one peculiar respect spiders resem- SPINNERET OF SPIDER as cables.

ble crabs, being compelled repoatedly to (MAGNIFIED). The diving spider is often found in Cambridgeshire and the change their coats. The first of these adjoining counties, and appears to pass the winter in its moults must be undergone by the young spider before it can aquatic house, which it completely fills with air as the cold even move. The creature is at first bound up like a mummy in season approaches. If by any accident the nest should then be a tight covering, confining all the limbs. Some house-spiders tilted on one side so that the air escapes and water enters, the obtain nine changes of raiment in a life-time. It is at these half-torpid inhabitant perishes. This spider

seasons that the spider has its only chance of is of a dark-brown colour, the legs armed

recovering the lost limbs which it often parts with spines, and the body silky to the touch.

with so easily. The loss of a leg is not & tri The males of this species are larger than the

vial matter, as the want of the combing-clar females; but the contrary is the general law

may prevent the proper spinning of the web of the spider family. The red and white hairy

threads. Sir Joseph Banks caught a spider brook spider of Cambridgeshire (Dolomedes

having but three legs; he kept it for exami. fimbriatus) must not be confounded with tho

ration, and in about a month saw the old skin above-mentioned diver, though it runs readily

cast off, when the rudiments of five new legs over the surface of water. Some of the tube

appeared, which in threo days grow to half the making spiders will even dive under the water,

size of the old ones. In twenty-nine days after but their cells are never aquatic.

there was a second casting off the skin, when The webs of the common house spider can

the five legs became still larger. It seems, not be called beautiful; but the mode in which

therefore, that lost limbs are not completely one layer of tissue is interwoven with another,

restored at one moulting. The feet of most and the whole kept extended and in shape by

spiders exhibit a complex apparatus, fitted the long supporting threads, will repay obser.

for walking on glass, running over water, alors vation. The construction and arrangement of the cell to which a ceiling, or moving over the fino web lines. The animal may these spiders carry their prey, and where they watch in constant indeed be said to take hold with her hands." These ter's readiness to dart forth, will furnish additional topics of interest. should be carefully examined through a microscope to detect the

fine brush and hooked arrangement by which, according to Mr. • Argyroneta signifies a spinner of silver thread.

Blackwall, the spider clings to the smoothest surfaces.

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LESSONS IN BOTANY.—XXIII. or even exceeding the length of the anthers ; capsule oblong or

lanceolated, much longer than the flowers; seeds elliptic, inSECTION XLIV.-CINCHONACEÆ (continued).

dented on the margins. It is this species which was first VALUABLE though coffee be, we now arrive at the consideration observed and described by the botanist Condamine. It is the of a pouds which is of far greater importance—the genus Cine same plant that was formerly described under the name of clona. Coffee is only a luxury ; were the supply of the article | Cinchona micrantha, also cinchona of Lima (Fig. 184). suddenly to fail, we could do without it, and our health would Red cinchona (Cinchona nitida of Riuz and Pavon) has obovate be none the worse; but what would the doctors do without lanceolate leaves, tapering off towards the base, glabrous on both cinchona bark—that precious medicine so valuable in agues and sides, shining above, covered with a slight down below, not low fevers ?

marked with furrows at the axillary juncture of the nerves; capCinchona bark and the potato tuber are the two most precious sule lanceolate, twice as long as it is wide ; seeds imperfectly dendonations which America has presented to the world. One ticulated. The bark of this species is greyish-white externally; secures us against famine, the other is almost a specific in certain its chemical composition is said to differ from that of the preceding febrile diseases.

in the circumstance that besides cinchona and quina there exists The various species of cinchonas are all evergreen trees or in it a third alkali resembling these in general qualities, but conshrubs, inhabiting the valleys of the tropical Andes, between laining more oxygen; it is termed aricina. White cinchona bark the tenth parallel of north and the

is not employed in medicine. The nineteenth of south latitude, grow

discovery of the medical properties ing at elevations varying from 3,600

of cinchona bark is enveloped in to 9,800 feet above the level of the

great obscurity; all that we know sea. The trunk and larger branches


about it for certain is this:-Before are cylindrical, but the younger

the year 1638—that is to say, 150 boughs are tetragonal, covered with

years subsequent to the discovery of the cicatrices

America - not which corre

even the Spaspond to the

niards were acpresence of for.

quainted with mer leaves and

the febrifuge stipules. The

qualities of cinbark, which is

chona bark; bitter, contains

but in this year, two alkaloids,

or thereabouts, quina or qui

the Countess nine, and cin.

del Chinchon, chona orcin.

the wife of the chonine. The

Spanish viceroy wood is white,

of Peru, W28 becoming yel.

cured of a violow with age ;

lent intermitthe leaves are

184 tent fever by opposed, entire,

drinking an inveined, petio

fusion of the late; the cells

bark, and this of their epider

led to its intromis being in

duction into many species

Europe. Were swollen by a 183

the natives liquid, giving

themselves acrise to small

quainted with conical eleva

it? Humboldt tions. The petiole is short and

answers this question very positively semi-cylindrical ; the stipules are

in the negative, and refers the discaducous, ordinarily free, cleft at

covery to the Jesuit missionaries, the internal portion of their base

who, being in the habit of tasting by small lanceolated glands, which

the bark of every tree they hewed secrete a gummy-resinous matter;

down, at length discovered the prethe flowers are disposed in terminal

cious febrifuge. Other authors of panicles; the corolla is white, roseate, 183. THE

YELLOW CINCHONA (CINCHONA CALISAYA) :-a, its repute contend that the virtues of or purple, and of a delicate odour ;

FLOWER; 6, PISTIL ; C, COROLLA OPENED; D, FRUIT; e, SEC- cinchona bark were known to the the pedicels are bracteolate at their


the Spaniards; but the question In commerce the varieties of cin.

again arises, how they first became chona bark are very numerous. They are all comprehended, acquainted with its properties ? To account for this the ridicu. however, under the four general heads of yellow, grey, white, lous tale has been invented, that certain animals, while labouring and red bark.

under fever, happened to gnaw the bark of one of the cinchona The tree which yields the Cinchona Calisaya (Fig. 183), or trees, and were cured forthwith. Far more probable is it that some royal yellow bark, bears oblong, lanceolate, ovoid leaves, obtuse cinchona trees having been laid prostrate by tempests in a pool of at their points, tapering off towards their base, marked with water, and the latter becoming charged with the medicinal prin. clefts at the bifurcation of the veins; filaments considerably ciple, some person labouring under fever drank of this water, shorter than the anther ; capsule ovoid, scarcely equal in length was cured, and published the result. But however this may be, to the flowers. The bark of this species is preferred to that of it is certain that the remedy first became popularised in Europe all others, on account of its containing more quina and less through the agency of the Count del Chinchon, viceroy of Peru, cinchona, the latter alkali not being so valuable as the former. whose wife, as we have said, was cured of intermittent fever by

The grey cinchona of Losca (Cinchona Condaminea of Humboldt its administration. and Bonpland) has lanceolate, oval, or pointed leaves, glabrous The new remedy, however, was badly recoived in France and and shining above, marked with furrows inferiorly corresponding Italy. The faculty set their faces against it. Physicians who with the bifurcation of the veins. The indentations of the dared to prescribe its use were persecuted, and it was only the calyx are triangularly pointed or lanceolate ; filaments equalling patronage of Louis XIV. which ultimately rendered it popular


in France. This monarch, suffering from intermittent fever,

And lull them to a cradle calm ; but thou was cured by an English empiric named Talbot, by means of a

With everlasting, undecaying tida, secret remedy. This was no other than cinchona bark. Louis

Doth rest not, night or day. The moming stars,

When first they sang o'er young creation's bhah. XIV. purchased the secret for the sum of 48,000 livres, and

Heard thy deep anthem; and those wrecking fires bestowed yearly a pension of 2,000 livres on the Englishman,

That wait the archangel's signal to dissolve besides giving him letters of nobility. Three years subsequently

This solid earth, shall find Jehovah's name the remedy was published; it was a highly concentrated vinous

Graven as with a thonsand diamond spears, tincture of cinchona bark. Cinchona trees grow in the densest

On thine unending volume. forests of Peru. The task of discovering them, removing their

Ev'ry leat, bark, and conveying the latter to the place of export, is trouble

That lifts itself within thy wide domain, some, difficult, and dangerous. In these forests there are no

Doth gather greenness from thy living spray,

Yet tremble at the baptism. Lo!-yon birds roads. Frightful precipices intersect the path of the cascarillero,

Do boldly venture near, and bathe their wing or bark-gatherer, across which it is difficult to pass, even whilst

Amid thy mist and foam. 'Tis meet for them unembarrassed by a load. So soon as the treasure of bark has

To touch thy garment's hem, and lightly stir been secured, these difficulties and dangers proportionately

The snowy leaflets of thy vapour wreath, increase, so that the comparatively low price at which cinchona

For they may sport unharmed amid the cloud, bark may be procured is in itself a matter of surprise.

Or listen at the echoing gate of heaven,
Without reproof. But, as for us, it seems

Scarce lawful, with our broken tones, to speak

Familiarly of thee. Methinks to tint

Thy glorious features with our pencil's point,

Or woo thee to a tablet of a song,
THE next piece is designed as an exercise for cultivating the “oro-

Were profanation.

Thou dost make the soul tund quality," or full, round, and forcible voice, which belongs to

A wondering witness of thy majesty; energetio and declamatory expression. A loud, clear, ringing

But as it presses with delirious joy tone should prevail throughout the reading or recitation of such

To pierce thy vestibule, dost chain its step, pieces.

And tame its rapture with the humbling view

Of its own nothingness; bidding it stand [oro.q.] Ay, tear her tattered ensign down !

In the dread presence of the Invisible,
Long has it waved on high;

As if to answer to its God through thee.-Sigourney.
And many an eye has danced to see
That banner in the sky;

The following specimen of descriptive humour requires the
Beneath it rung the battle shout,

“lively movement in its rate of utterance. The voice is, in And burst the cannon's roar;

this instance, accelerated beyond the rate of serious communixThe meteor of the ocean air

tion in any

form, although it does not possess the rapidity Shall sweep the clouds no more!

which belongs to the excited style of lyric or dramatic poetry, Her deck,-once red with hero's blood,

in the most vivid style of humorous expression. This lesson Where knelt the vanquished foe,

combines, also, an exemplification of “moderato" force and When winds were hurrying o'er the flood,

"middle" pitch. The object in view in the practice of such And waves were white below,

exercises as this is to gain animation and briskness in utterance. No more shall feel the victor's tread,

A lagging or drawling tone is utterly incompatible with humorOr know the conquered knee;

ous delineation. Mere rapidity, however, will not succeed in The harpies of the shore shall pluck

imparting liveliness to style : the utterance must be slow enough The eagle of the sea !

to be distinct and spirited.
Oh! better that her shattered hulk

Should sink beneath the wave;
Her thunders shook the mighty deep,

The renowned Wouter (or Walter) Van Twiller was descended frou
And there should be her grave :

a long line of Dutch burgomasters, who had successively dozed 943 Nail to the mast her holy flag,

their lives and grown fat upon the bench of magistracy in Rotterdam, Set every threadbare sail;

and who had comported themselves with such singular wisdom soà And give her to the god of storms,

propriety, that they were never either heard or talked of-whick, The lightning and the gale !--Holmes.

next to being universally applauded, should be the object of ambition

of all ages, magistrates, and rulers, The following piece is designed for practice in the "slow"

His surname, Twiller, is said to be a corruption of the original utterance which characterises the tones of sublimity and awe. Trcijfler,* which, in English, means Doubter-& namo admirably de The "rate" of voice is not altogether so slow as will be required scriptive of his deliberative habits. For, though he was a man in some pieces; yet it retains much of that effect which cannot shut up within himself, like an oyster, and of such & profoundly te be given without slowness of movement and full pauses. The

flective turn, that he scarcely ever spoke except in monosyllables, set note, in the style of this lesson, continues low, although not so

did he never make up his mind on any doubtful point. This 39

clearly accounted for by his adherents, who affirmed that he always remarkably deep as in the preceding. The principal object of practice, in this instance, is to secure that degree “slowness"

conceived every object on so comprehensive a scale, that he had not

room in his head to turn it over, and examine both sides of it; so that which marks the tones of wonder and astonishment.

he always remained in doubt, merely in consequence of the astonishXI, NIAGARA.

ing magnitude of his ideas !

There are two opposite ways by which some men get into noticeFlow on for ever, in thy glorious robe

one by talking a vast deal and thinking a little, and the other by hold Of terror and of beauty! Yea, flow on

ing their tongues and not thinking at all. By the first, many a Unfathomed and resistless! God hath set

vapouring, superficial pretender acquires the reputation of a man of His ainbow on thy forehead: and the cloud

quick parts ; by the other, many a vacant dunderpate, like the ori, Mantled around thy feet. And he doth give

the stupidest of birds, comes to be complimented by a discerning Thy voice of thunder, power to speak of Him

world with all the attributes of wisdom. This, by the way, is a ser Eternally,---bidding the lip of man

casual remark, which I would not for the universe have it thought I Keep silence, and upon thy rocky altar pour

apply to Governor Van Twiller, On the contrary, he was a very is Inconse of awe-struck praise.

Dutchman, for he never said a foolish thing; and of such invincible Ah! who can dare

gravity, that he was never known to laugh, or even to smile, through To lift the insect-trump of earthly hope,

the course of a long and prosperous life. Certain, however, it is, Or love or sorrow, 'mid the peal sublime

there never was a matter proposed, however simple, and on which Of thy tremendous hymn ? E'en Ocean shrinks

your common, narrow-minded mortals would rushly determine at the Back from thy brotherhood; and all his waves

first glance, but what the renowned Wouter put on a mighty mysterioas, Retire abashed. For he doth sometimes seem

vacant kind of look, shook his capacious head, and having smoked for To sleep like a spent labourer, and recall His wearied billows from their vexing play,

• Pronounced Tweefler.


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