Imágenes de páginas

four or five minutes with redoubled earncstness, sagely observed that Must he,-a blooming, laughter-loving child, "he had his doubts about the matter"—which in process of time Be mated thus?—The thought was cruel, wild! gained him the character of a man slow in belief, and not easily His knees together smote, as first, in fear, imposed on.

He gazed around his prison ;-then a tear The person of this illustrious old gentleman was as regularly formed Spranz to his eyes in kind relief; and snid aud nobly proportioned as though it had been moulded by the hands Tho little boy, "I will not be afraid. of some cunning Dutch statuary, is a model of majesty and lordly

Was ever spirit of the good man knoren grandeur. He was exactly five feet six inches in height, and six feet To injure children whom it found alone !five inches in circumference. His head was a perfect sphere, and of And straight he taxed his memory, to supply such stupendous dimensions, that dame Nature, with all her sex's Stories and texts, to show he might rely ingenuity, would have been puzzled to construct a neck capable of Most safely, humbly, on his Father's care, supporting it; wherefore she wisely declined the attempt, and settled Who hears a child's as well as prelate's prayer. it firmly on the top of his backbone, just between the shoulders.


And thus he stood,-on Whitefield's form his glance body wis of an oblong form, particularly capacious at bottom; which In reverence fixed, -and hoped deliverance. was wisely ordered by Providence, seeing that he was a man of seden. tary habits, and very averse to the idle labour of walking. His legs,

Mean while, the recreant teacher,--where was he? though exceeding short, were sturdy in proportion to the weight they

Gone in effrontery to take his tea had to sustain; so that, when ereet, he had not a little the appearance

With the lad's mother!-Supper done, he told

The feat that should display her son as bold. of a robustious beer-barrel standing on skids. His face, that infallible index of the mind, presented a rast expanse, perfectly unfurrowed or

With eye indignant, and with words of flame, deformed by any of those lines and angles which disfigure the human

How showers that mother's scorn, rebuke, and shame,

And bids him haste! and hastes herself, to bring countenance with what is termed expression. Two small grey eyes

Him from Death's realm, who knew not yet its sting: twinkled feebly in the midst, like two stars of lesser magnitude in the hazy firmament; and his full-fed cheeks, which seemed to have taken

And yet believed, --so well her son she knew,toll of everything that went into his mouth, were curiously mottled

The noblo boy would to himself be true: and streaked with dusky red, like a Spitzenberg apple.

He would sustain himself, and she would find His habits were as regular as his person. He daily took his four

Him patient and possessed, she trusted well his mind. stated meals, appropriuting exactly an hour to each; he smoked aná

The boy yet lives, and from that distant hour

Dates much of truth that on his heart hath power; doubted eight hours; and he slept the remaining twelve of the fourand-twenty. Such was the renowned Wouter Van Twiller-a true

And chiefly this,-whate'er of wit is wed philosopher; for his mind was either elevated above or tranquilly

To word of his,--to reverence the dead. settled below the cares and perplexities of this world. He had lived

XIV. FOUNDATION OF NATIONAL CHARACTER. in it for years without feeling the least curiosity to know whether the sun revolved round it, or it round the sun; and he had watched for

[To be marked for Inflections by the student.] at least half a century the smoke curling from his pipe to the ceiling, Mental energy has been equally diffused by sterner levellers than without once troubling his hend with any of those namerous theories ever marched in the van of a revolution,-the nature of man and the by which the philosopher would have perplexed his brain, in account providence of God. Native character, strength, and quickness of ing for its rising above the surrounding atmosphere.-Washington mind are not of the number of distinctions and accomplishments Irving.

that human institutions enn monopolise within a city's walls. In XIII. THE CHILD OF THE TOMB: A STORY OF NEW BURYPORT.

quiet times they remain and perish in the obscurity to which a false

organisation of society consigns them. In dangerous, convulsed, and [The following fact is found in Knapp's “Life of Lord

trying times, they spring up in the fields, in the village hamlets, and Dexter.”]

on the mountain tops, and teach the surprised favourites of human

law, that bright eyes, skilful hands, quick perceptions, firm purpose, Where WHITEFIELD sleeps, remembered, in the dust,

and brave hearts, are not the exclusive appenage of courts. The lowly vault held once a double trust; Aud Parsons, reverend name, that quiet tomb

Our popular institutions are favourable to intellectual improvement,

because their foundation is in dear nature. They do not consign the Possessed,- to wait the day of weal and doom. Another servant of the living God,

greater portion of the social frame to torpidity and mortification. They

send out a vital nerve to every member of the community, by which its PRINCE, who (bereft of sight) his way had trod,

talent and power, great or small, are brought into living conjunction Unerringly and safe, life's journey through, Now sought admittance to these slumberers too.

and strong sympathy with the kindred intellect of the nation; and As earth receded, and the mansions blest

every impression on every part vibrates, with electric rapidity, through Rose on his vision,-"Let my body rest

the whole. They encourage nature to perfect her work; they make With Whitefield's"-said he, yielding up his breath,

education, the soul's nutriment, cheap; they bring up remote and In life beloved, and not disjoined in death.

shrinking talent into the cheerful field of competition : in a thousand Obedient to his wish, in order then

ways they provide an audience for lips which nature has touched with

persuasion; they put a lyre into the hands of genius; they bestow on Were all things done; the tomb was oped to ken Of curious eyes,-made ready to enclose

all who deserve it, or seek it, the only patronage worth having, the Another tenant in its hushed repose :

only patronage that ever struck out a spark of “celestial fire,"—the

patronage of tair opportunity. And, lighted with a single lamp, whose ray

This is a day of improved education; new systems of teaching are Fell dimly down upon the mouldering clay,

devised; modes of instruction, choice of studies, adaptation of textWas left, prepared, to silence as of night,

books, the whole machinery of means, have been brought, in our day, Till hour appointed for the funeral rite.

under severe revision. But were I to attempt to point out the most It chanced the plodding teacher of a school,

efficacious and comprehensive improvement in education-the engine A man of whim, bold, reckless, yet no fool,

by which the greatest portion of mind could be brought and kept Deemed this an opportunity to test

under cultivation, the discipline which would reach furthest, sink How far the fears of spirits might infest

deupest, and cause the word of instruction not to spread over the The bosom of a child. A “likely" boy,

surface, like an artificial hue, carefully laid on, but to penetrate to The choicest of his flock, a mother's joy,

the heart and soul of its objects-it would be popular institutions. He took, unscrupulous of means, if he

Give the people an object in promoting education, and the best His ends might gain, and solve the mystery.

methods will infallibly be suggested by that instinctive ingenuity

of our nature, which provides means of great and precious ends. Both stood within the mansion of the dead,

Give the people an object in promoting education, and the worn And while the stripling mused, the teacher fled,

hand of labour will be opened to the last farthing, that its children Leaving the child, where the dull cresset shone,

may enjoy means denied to itself.-E. Everett.
With the dumb relics and his God alone.
As the trap-door fell suddenly, the stroke,
Sullen and harsh, his solemn reverie broke.
Where is he?--Barred within the dreadful womb

Of the cold earth--the living in the tomb!

The opened coffins showed Death's doings, sad, -
The awiul dust in damps and grave-mould clad,

PROBLEM LXIII.—To describe a parabola by fixing a number of Though near the haunt of busy, cheerful day,

points through which the curve may be traced, the abscissa and He, to drear night and solitude the prey!

ordinate of any point in the curve being given. Must he be watcher with these corpses !-Who

Let P (Fig. 91) be any point in the required parabola, and let Can tell what sights may rise ? Will reason then be true ? A represent its ordinate, and B its abscissa. Through P draw the The point

[ocr errors]







straight line Px of indefinite length towards x, and along px pivot A. Before starting, when the edge of the ruler is con. from p set off PC, CD, each equal to 1. Through c draw cy tiguous to x. y, the point o will be at u, the pencil-point at P, of unlimited length towards y, and along it from c set off CE and the string in the position BF, F K. As the ruler moves equal to B. Through P and d draw PF, DG parallel to CE and upwards, the pencil-point traces out the curve FLNP, the point

1p equal to it, and through E draw G describing or moving in the path of the arc : M, and the

FG parallel and equal to Px. end of the ruler d in the path of the aro ko.
Divide pc, cd into any number Q, where A B is bisected at right angles by the perpendicular
of equal parts in the points a, b, R s, is the centre of the hyperbola. By reversing the ruler,
c, etc., and divide p F, D G each and repeating the operation below x y, the lower part, Ft, of
into the same number of equal | the
parts in the points m, n, o, etc., Pit may be
s, t, u, etc., as each of the straight traced ; and
lines PC, CD have been divided by fixing the

into. Draw straight lines through ruler so that
* the points a, b, c, etc., parallel to the point re-

C E, and from E draw straight presented in
lines to the points m, n, o, etc., the figure at
in P F, and the points s, t, u,

A may be at
Fig. 91.

eto., in DG. Then through the B, and the

points 1, 2, 3, etc., formed by the end of the intersection of Er with the parallel through f, E q, with the string fastparallel through e, E P, with the parallel through d, etc., trace ened at A, the curve E P above the axis E C, and the curve ED below it. the opposite The curve PE D is the required parabola.

branch of PROBLEM LXIV.-To describe an hyperbola by mechanical the hypermeans.

bola passing The hyperbola, instead of being considered as a single curve, through is frequently represented as consisting of two equal and sym. may be de

Fig. 93. metrical curves, having their vertices opposite each other, and scribed. The their branches proceeding in contrary directions. The reason straight line v B U, passing through the focus B, is called the of this may be understood from Fig. 92, in which two cones are latus rectum of the hyperbola ; FB the abscissa, and BV the represented, the one having its apex against the apex of the ordinate of the point v; FZ the abscissa, and PZ, Tz the other, and its base turned in the contrary direction. Such a ordinates of the points P and T. The chief peculiarity of double cone as this may be generated by the revolution of two the parabola is, that the distance of every point in the curve, as equal equiangular and similar right-angled triangles, having the ruler passes from one position to another from the focus, is their vertices contiguous, and their altitudes in the same equal to its distance from the point marked G in the ruler

. straight line as the triangles A B C, A DE, in the figure. We Thus, when the ruler is in the position A K, and G is at , may also conceive the double cone to be generated by the FH is equal to FB; in the position AD, L B is equal to LG;

revolution of a straight line, BA F, OF DAG, in the position AO, NM is equal to NB; while in the position round its central point, A (which is fixed), and AP, Pw is equal to P B. The distances, A F, FB; A L, LB; inclined at any angle less than a right angle AN, NB; AP, PB, are called the focal distances of the points to a perpendicular straight line, E A C, passing F, L, N, P respectively, and the difference between the greater through a, which perpendicular becomes the and the lesser of any of these pairs of distances from the foci axis of the cone thus generated. Now if we of the hyperbola is equal to EF, the major axis of the hypersuppose a plane HKML to pass through the bola ; and this is true for every point in the curve.

For this axis Ec of the double cone, and the double reason, in the commencement of the problem, A G was made cone to be cut by another plane parallel to equal to E F. the plane I KML, as the plane NOPQ, it is PROBLEM LXV.—To describe an hyperbola by firing a number manifest that it will cut each branch of the of points through which the curve may be traced, the major arie,

cone in NO R, P8Q, which form two equal and the abscissa and ordinate of any point in the curve being a symmetrical and opposite curves, and which given.

are considered as each forming a branch of In Fig. 94 let any indefinite straight line, x Y, be the axis of the Fig. 92. the complete hyperbola.

required by Our readers will now more readily compre- perbola; the

k hend the method of describing an hyperbola by mechanical portion in. P means, and when certain data are given; and they will also tercepted be. understand why an hyperbola is said to have two foci, like an tween

the ellipse.

points A and In X Y (Fig. 93), which represents any straight line of indefinite B being set length, let two points, A and B, be selected as the foci of the off equal to hyperbola to be described. Take a flat, narrow ruler, CD, with P, the given

X a hole in it near one end, through which a pin may be inserted major axis ; to fasten the ruler to the paper or board on which the hyperbola and Q, R beis to be traced, the ruler working freely round the pin. Suppose ing the given F, in AB, be selected as the vertex of the hyperbola that is to abscissa and be traced. Take another point, E in A B, so that A E is equal ordinate of to F B; then E will be the vertex of the opposite branch of the a point in hyperbola, and E F the major axis of the curve. Let a string the be fastened at the end, D, of the ruler C D, and let the string From B, set be of unlimited length, or, what is as well, of the same length off along XY, us the ruler. Set off along the ruler from the point a, in the in the direcdirection AD, a straight line A G, equal to E F, and holding the tion of Y,

Fig. 94. string tightly to the edge of the ruler, mark at the point B C equal to Q, and through c draw the straight line de of opposite to the point g in the ruler; then thrust a pin through indefinite length, at right angles to Xy; and from c along D & the string at the point thus marked, and fasten it down at the in the directions of D and E, set off CF, CG, each equal to R. point B. Keeping the cord stretched to its utmost tension The points F and G are points in the required curve.

Through with a pencil-point, and having the edge of the ruler applied r and a draw F H, GK parallel to xy, and through B draw IK to the straight line xy, move it slowly upwards round the parallel to DE. Divide CF, CG each into five equal parts in



[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

The aro

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


may be

the points a, b, etc., e, f, etc., and divide H F, KG also into | during the revolution. It is evident that, as every point of the five equal parts in the points k, l, etc., 0, P, etc. Of course, circumference of the circle in succession touches the straight when the curve is large, the greater the number of parts into line a C during the revolution, A C, which we may call the base which the double ordinate, FG, and the parallels, HF, KG, are of the cycloid, is equal in length to the circumference of the divided, the more accurately the curve can be traced, care circle B K D. If the circle be caused to return to its position being taken to divide the parallels into the same number of in the centre of the cycloid when B is at its highest position, as equal parts as each half of the double ordinate, PG, is divided in the figure, and straight lines, such as MH, N F, be drawn into. From the point A draw straight lines through the points through the circle parallel to the base and terminating both F, a, b, etc., and from B draw straight lines through the points ways in the curve of the cycloid, these straight lines pass k, l, etc., 0, P, etc., and through the points of intersection of through opposite points in the circumference of the circle B KD,

at equal distances from the diameter B D, which is perpendi.
cular to the base, G L being equal to go, and Ek to E P. It
will be found that LH is equal to the aro B L, and that the arc
Bu is equal to twice the chord B L, and so on for the other
points, m, n, F, in the curve of the cycloid, through which
straight lines have been drawn parallel to the base.
BC will therefore be equal to twice BD, the diameter of the

generating circle, and the whole curve A B C consequently Fig. 95.

equal to four times B D. This curve is said to have been

discovered and its properties first investigated by Galileo. the lines Aa, BN, Ab, Bm, etc., numbered 1, 2, etc., and the points

PROBLEM LXVII.-To describe a spiral. F, B, and a, trace the curve FBG. This curve is the hyperbola drawn. Draw a horizontal straight line, x Y, of indefinite length

Take any point, A (Fig. 97), as the centre of the spiral to be required.

Lest some of our readers may be tempted to inquire of what through A, and from A as centre, with any distance, AB, practical use it may be to be acquainted with the method of describe the semicircle B DC. tracing parabolas and hyperbolas of different degrees of cur.

Then from the point B as rature, we may remind them that the parabola sometimes is centre, with the distance B C, nged in forming an arch, while such articles as tazzas and wine describe the semicircle C EF glasses, and other pieces of useful and ornamental china-ware,

on the opposite side of A B. may be formed by the revolution of an hyperbola about it's Next, from A as centre, with axis

, as may be seen by copying the curve in Fig. 94, so that the the distance A F, describe x. verter, B, points downwards, and then adding a slender stem the semicircle F G H, and and foot to form a wine-glass.

then from B and A, in alterPROBLEM LXVI.—To describe the curve called the cycloid.

nation as centres, at the The term cycloid, derived from the Greek Kurdocions (ku-klo- distances BH, A L, etc. etc., i'.dees), like a circle, is a name given to the curve traced by any in succession as

describe as many semicircles point in the circumference of a circle during the complete revolu.

Fig. 97. tion of the circle while rolling along a straight line. For example,

required. A spiral of any as a carriage is drawn along on a road or railroad, the end of given number of turns may be described on a given straight any spoke in one of its wheels, or a nail in the tire, describes a

line by dividing the given straight line into as many equal parts succession of curves, similar to the curve resembling half of an

as there are turns required, and bisecting the central division

if the number of turns be odd, or the division on the right or ellipse in Fig. 95. That the reader may understand how the curve is traced, let A B C D represent a circle, having two diameters, Ac, left of the centre of the line if the number of turns bo even. BD, intersecting each other at right angles, and let the circle be The centres to be fixed in describing the semicircles must be standing on a straight line, xy, of indefinite length, so that the point of bisection, and either of the points of division imme. the diameter a c is at right angles to xy, which is a tangent diately contiguous to it if the number of turns be odd, or the to the circle A B C D, the circle touching

it only in the point a point of bisection and the centre of the divided line if the Suppose the circle to roll slowly along the straight line x1, in to describe a spiral of eight turns or semicircles on the given

number of turns be even. Thus, in Fig. 97, if it be required the direction of x, and pass into the position A' B'c' '. It has now performed a quarter of a complete revolution, and the straight line e T, divide e T into eight equal parts, in the point A in ascending into the position A has traced a path centre of the spiral. Then from the points A and B, in alternes

points n, , C, B, F, L, P, and bisect BC, or BF, in a for the represented by the curve A A'. In the next quarter of a revolution the point A is brought to the top in the position A", tion, describe the semicircles B D C, C E F, etc. etc. and when a complete revolution of the circle has been made it

PROBLEM LXVIII.-Any two straight lines being given, to has passed from A" to A" and A"", having traced in its passage

determine a curve from A to A"" the curve A A A"A"" A". Practically, the cycloid

by which they shall may be traced by causing a thin disc of metal, ivory, or even

be connected. cardboard, having a slight nick in its circumference to receive a

Let A B,C D (Fig. pencil point, to travel slowly along the edge of a ruler until a

98) be any two
straight lines which
it is required to
connect by a curve.
Produce A B, CD
in the direction of
B and c, until they
meet in E. Bisect
the angle B E C by

the straight line
Fig. 96.

From the extremities B and

Fig. 98. complete revolution has been made. At the commencement of c of the straight the revolution the pencil-point must be on the line along which lines A B, C D, draw B F, C F perpendicular to A B and C E the disc is to revolve, as a, in the straight line x y, in Fig. 95 respectively, and intersecting each other and the straight line above.

EF in the point F. From F as centre, with the distance F B or Like the ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola, the cycloid has FC, describe the arc BC. This arc connects the straight lines certain properties peculiar to itself. Suppose the circle B KD AB, CD. The same process is followed when the given straight Fig. 96) revolving along the straight line A C, to have traced out lines are at right angles to each other, as A B, G H, which are the cycloid A BC by the passage of the point B from A to connected by a curve, B G, struck from K as centre, the point of



E F.



в м.



2 Sup.

intersection of the perpendioulars BK, G , drawn, as before, at

Inf. Pres.

Latin. right angles to the extremities, B and G, of tho given straight


English. to love.
lines AB, G H.
Next, let the given straight lines A B, CD be parallel to one

1 Sup.
2 Sup.

Pres. Part. Fut. Part, Ad. another. Through B and € (Fig. 99) draw F BX, CE, perpendicular Latin. Amatum, Amåtu,

Amāns, Amatūrus,

to love. to be loved. loving. about to love. to Á B, CD respectively. Join B C, and having taken a point, k, in English. BP, so that B K shall be less than Bo, draw KL through K,


Ger. Inj, Perf. parallel to BC, and cutting C E in L; from L as centre, with the Latin. Amandi, Amando, Amanduma, Amando, Amavisse, distance LC, which is equal to B x, describe the arc cm, meeting English. of loving. to loving. loving. by loving. to have loped. BC in M. Join LM, and produce it in the same straight line

Inf. Fut.

Imp. 'towards' m, to meet Fx in N. From n as centre, with the

Latin. Amatūrum esse,

distance N B or n
English. to be about to love.

love thou.
M, describe the arc

Before I proceed, I will explain these contractions :-
The given

straight lines AB,

Ind. Pres, Indicative Mood, Present Tense.
CD are connected

Sub, Pres. Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense.
by the curvo BM C.

Ind. Imp. Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense. If, however, the

Sub. Imp. Subjunctive Mood, Imperfect Tense. given straight lines

1 Fut.

First Future Tense.

2 Fut. are not parallel,

Second Future Tense.

Ind. Perf. but would meet if

Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense.

Sub. Perf. one or both were

Subjunctive Mood, Perfect Tense.

Ind. Pluperf. Indicative Mood, Pluperfect Tense. produced, as G H

Sub. Pluperf. Subjunctive Mood, Pluperfect Tense. produced meets B A

Inf. Pres. Infinitive Mood, Preseut Tense. in A, forming the

Inf, Perf. Infinitive Mood, Perfect Teuse. small angle HA B,

Inf. Fut. Infinitive Mood, Future Tense. draw, as before, Fx Imp.

Imperative Mood. and go at right

1 Sup.

First Supine. angles to A B and

Second Supine.

Pres. Part. Present Participle.
Fig. 99.
GH respectively.

Fut. Part. Act.
Take any point, K,

Future Participle, Active Voice.

The Gerund. in BF; mako GP equal to BK, and join KP. Bisect KP in Q, and draw QB perpendicular to KP, meeting rx in R. Join Having in the above corresponding parts given the Latin as R P, and from P as centre, at the distance PG, describe the arc well as the English of several members of the verb, I need not 08, meeting RP in s. Then from the centre r, at the distance repeat them. I supply in full what remaing. As I write for RB or Rs, describe the arc B s, completing the curve B 8 G, by young men and women rather than for children, I omit adding which the given straight lines A B, G H are connected.

the English in all the details of the persons; for when you know This problem exhibits a mode of construction useful to what is the first person, you will readily supply the rest : thus, engineers in laying out the curves of a railway; to landscape if the English of amaveram, the first person, is I had loved, gardeners, in laying out walks and roads; and to carpenters, you know that the English of amaveras, the second person, is in forming curves to connect the straight edges of a piece of wood thou hadst loved; and of amaverat, the third person, he had by a curvo, when they are either parallel to one another, or in. loved; so also in the plural. clined to each other at & greater or less angle.

Instead of I might have loved, the sub. pluperf. may some. At this point we bring to a conclusion our Lessons in Geo- times be rendered (put into English) by I would, I should, or I metry, in which we have explained, as clearly and as fully as could have loved. possible, the leading principles of the science on which all the In the corresponding English words, I have given the nearest constructive arts aro based. Of the practical value of geometry approach to the several Latin parts. The student will do well to the artisan and mechanio we have already given many proofs. to adhere strictly to these meanings at first, though, as the It will not be too much to say that any ono who has studied correspondence between the several Latin and the several theso lessons carefully, and understands them thoroughly, has English parts is not entirely complete and constant, he will find not only rendered himself a scientific workman, but has ad occasions when his English will appear scarcely idiomatic, or vanced far on his way to become an architect or civil engineer, strictly proper." He cannot, however, learn too soon, that in or to enter any profession in which a knowledge of geometry is fow particulars are any two languages exactly correspondent an essential requisite. From these lessons the student will Accordingly, for amo, I have set down what may be termed find it of the greatest advantage to turn to “Euclid's Elements three meanings-namely, I love, I do love, and I am loving. of Geometry," in which he will find a conclusivo proof of almost Hero it is obvious that the English is more rich than the Latin

, overy construction that has been brought under his notice in inasmuch as it has three forms of the present tense indicative the preceding problems.

mood, while the Latin has but one form. Having but one form, the Latin cannot by a form indicate the variations of the English

present tense. Consequently, here is a want of strict correLESSONS IN LATIN.-XXIII.

spondence; and here also is a source of doubt; for we may ask, REGULAR VERBS.--THE FIRST CONJUGATION. what is the English equivalent of amo ? is it, I love, or I do

lore, or I am loving? ACTIVE VOICE.

After these remarks the student will know that it is with Example ---Amo, I love. Chief Parts : amo, amāvi, amātum, some latitude that he is to take these amāro. Characteristic letter, ā.


Ind. Pres. Sub. Pres. Ind. Imp. Sub. Imp. 1 Fut. ? Put.
Ind. Pres. Sub, Pres. Ind. Imp. Sub. Imp.

Latin. -0,



-ero, Latin. Amo, Amem, Amábam, Amirem, English.

did. might.

will, soll hare. English.

I may love.
I did love,
I might love.

Ind. Perf. Sub. Perf. Ind. Pluperf. Sub. Pluperf. Inf. Pres.
I do love, or

Latin. .i, -erim,

I am loving.)
I was loving.

English, have.

may have.


might have.
1 Fut.
2 Fut.

Inf. Perf.-Latin, .isse; English, to hare.

Inf. lut. Imp. 1 Sup.

2 Sup. Part, Pres. Fut. Part Ad, English. I shall or will love. I shall have loved.

Latin. -rum esse, ama,

English. about to. in order to.


on the point of, Ind. Perf.

Sub. Perf. Ind. Pluperf. Sub, Pluperf. Latin, Amāvi, Amaverim, Amáveram, Amavissem,

Give yourself a thorough practice in these signs. Again and English. I have loved. I may have loved. I had loved. I might have loved. I again ask antil you are perfect, what is the English sign of the

[ocr errors]



I love,



-are, to.


-u, to.

[ocr errors]

may have.

[ocr errors]



SUPONES, indicative mood present tense ? what the Latin sign? what is

Nom. Ama-ndı.

1. Ama-tum. the Latin sign of the sub, pluperf.? what the English sign of

Dat. Ama-ndo.

2. Ama-tu. the same? So go through all the parts.

Acc. Ama-ndum, I hope you understand what I mean by these signs. Your

Abl. Ama-ndo. understanding of them is the more important, because they

EXAMPLES.—Like this model, conjugate laudo, 1, I praise; pertain not merely to the verb amo, or to the first conjugation, but to all the verbs; and because, when you are perfect in your

curo, 1, I take care of; voco, 1, I call.

Compare together the 2 Fut. with the Sub. Perf. You will knowledge of them as just given, you will easily put Latin into English and English into Latin. On account of this import which in the former is ro, in the latter -rim. In other


find that the endings are the same, except in the first person, ance, I will subjoin a few explanations. These signs, then, might be called a set of equivalents, and the Latin language has no distinctive form beyond the first

person for one or the other of these tenses. A distinction is I might have indicated them after this manner :

attempted with the aid of the accent or the quantity. Thus, have,

the first person plural of the second future is pronounced long; -bo will.

as amaverimus, while the first person plural of the subjunc-erim

tive perfect is pronounceu hort, as amaverimus; and conseThese signs or equivalents are, you see, without any verb. quently you find the sign of the long vowel over tho i in the They are so given because they are applicable to all verbs. former tense, and the sign of the short vowel over the i in the Thus to .i you prefix the stem amav, and make amavi; so to latter tense, showing that, although the words are spelt alike, have you add I and loved, and make the corresponding English, they are not pronounced in the same way. that is, the English equivalent of amavi-namely, I have loved. There is a difference between the first future, amabo, and

In some instances the English sign is arbitrary, or the best the future formed with the aid of the future participle, thus, we can get; in the ind. pres. love is chosen as the E. S. (English amaturus sum. Amabo means I will or shall love, simply indisign) for the want of a better. Scarcely less arbitrary is tho cating a future act, without determining when, or the precise E. S. of the imp.-namely, did.

point in the future when the act will take place. Amaturus These departures from exact correspondence, precision, and sum signifies I am about to love, that is, I shall shortly love; uniformity are certainly drawbacks; but notwithstanding these intimating that the action signified in the verb is near at hand, drawbacks, great aid inay be derived from a careful and sys- and in the immediate future. tematic attention to the system here set forth.

Of the first future there is properly no subjunctive tense; I have said that these signs are applicable to all verbs. If the import, however, is expressed by combination, thus, amaturus 80, they need not be repeated. And in general the statement sim (sis, sit, etc.), I may be about to love ; amaturus essem, I is correct. You will, however, bear in mind what you have might be about to love. The second future also is without a previously learnt as to the tense-endings, and the mood-endings; subjunctive mood. and then you will remember that instead of -bo, -am (es, etc.) is EXERCISES.–Form according to the model now given, that . the ending, and as the ending so the sign of the first future of is, write them out in full, with all the parts in both Latin and the third and the fourth conjugations. One or two other English, these verbs-laudo, 1, I praise; vigilo, 1, I watch; deviations will occur to you.

compăro, 1, I procure. MOODS, TENSES, ETC., of amo, I love.

Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive, Partieiple,

Sirg. Amo.

Amå-re. Ama-ns. PERHAPS it is better to notice at this stage a class of animals
Ame-s. Ama or amd-to.

whose relations to other classes are difficult to express. As Ama-t. Ame-t. Amd-to.

we have before stated that it is quite impossible to place the Plu: Amd-mus. Ame-mus.

whole array of animals in a single Amd-tis. Amo-tis. Amă-te or ama

line according to their grades of Ama-nt. Ame-nt. Ama-nto. [tote.

structure, the reader will not be sur. IUPERFECT TERSE.

prised that we have to break off in Şing. Amo-bam. Amd-rem.

the midst of the description of a deAma-bas. Ama-res.

finite and well-sustained series of ani. Ama-bat. Ama-ret,

mals to treat of a class which cannot Plu, Ama-bamus. Ama-rēmus. Ama-bātis. Ama-tētis.

well be inserted into that series. The Ama-bant. Ama-rent.

class referred to is called Rotatoria.

The animals which compose it are Sing. Ama-bo.


decidedly inferior in complexity of Ama-bis.

[esse. Ama-tūrus. structure to the animals we shall have Amå-bit.

to describe as coming in the next Plu. Ama-bimus.

order to the Annelids, and in many Ama-bitis.

respects also inferior to the AnneAma-bunt.

lids themselves, and yet they lead

up to a class of animals called Crus. Sing. Ama-vi. Ama-(ve)rim.


as decidedly of a Amū-(vi)sti.*

tacea, which are


higher type than the worms.
Plu, Amă-vimas. Ama-(ve)r(mus.

many respects, these are also superior

to the Myriapoda, which directly suc-
Ama-(vē)runt. Ama(ve)rint.

coed to the worms, and of which we

shall write in the subsequent part of Shing. Ama-(06) ram. Ama-(vi)ssem.

this lesson. The difficulties under Amü.(ve)ras. Ama-(vi)secs.

which a constructor of a system of Amā (18)rat. Ama.(vi)sset.

classification labours may be best il. Plu. Ama-(ve) rāmis.Ama-(vi)ssēmus.

lustrated by the annexed diagram, in Ama-(ve)ratis. Ama-(vi)ssētis.

which the lines branching upward Ama-(ve)rant. Ama-(vi)ssent.

from the single stem marked Protozoa

represent the relations of the divisions Sing. Ama-(ve)ro.

of the animal kingdom to one another.

These relations are so complicated, and
Plu, Ama-(ve)rimus. * Ama(vi)sti, pronounced amavísti, as one

have occasioned so much diversity of
Amo-(ve)ritis. word; tho vi is put in brackets to denote that it opinion among naturalists, that it would be presumptuous to
Amd-(verint. may, by syncopation (shortening), be omitted. assume that the diagram gives the relations exactly as they
















« AnteriorContinuar »